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PSY 190: General Psychology Chapter 11: Motivated Behavior.

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1 PSY 190: General Psychology Chapter 11: Motivated Behavior

2 Motivation  The underlying processes that initiate, direct and sustain behavior in order to satisfy physiological and psychological needs or wants

3 Theories of Motivation  Evolutionary Perspective Instinct Theory  Drive Reduction Theory  Stimulation Theory Optimal Arousal Level Hypothesis  Humanistic Theory Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

4 Evolutionary Perspective: Instinct Theory  Instinct Complex unlearned response triggered by a stimulus or complex stimulus  Do humans have instincts? Early Darwinian Theory (1800’s) proposed the idea of instinct, arising from genetic endowment William James (1890) proposed an instinct theory in humans  Instincts were goal directed predispositions to behavior

5 Instinct Theory  Paradox in Psychology: As others were showing that animal behavior could be modified by learning (Thorndike), James was proposing that much of human behavior was unlearned  William McDougall (1908) followed… Suggested their were 18 instincts

6 Instinct Theory  McDougall (1908) theorized that motivated behaviors are instinctual: Unlearned Uniform in expression (do not change with practice) Universal (all members of a species show the same behavior)

7 Too many limitations…  By 1924 instinct theory was becoming obsolete as there were several criticisms: Too many instincts  Researchers came up with 5759 of them Logic was circular  i.e. the only evidence that an instinct exists was the behavior it supposedly explained  He’s an “overachiever” because he’s “hard-working”  She’s “hard-working” because she’s an “overachiever” Just meaningless labels with no explanations

8 Drive Reduction Theory (Hull, 1943)  Supporters of this theory believe that when a need requires satisfaction, it produces drives These are tensions that energize behavior in order to satisfy a need  Thirst and hunger are, for instance, drives for satisfying the needs of eating and drinking, respectively

9 Drive Reduction Theory  Drives have been generally established as primary and secondary… Primary drives satisfy biological needs and must be fulfilled in order to survive Homeostasis is the motivational phenomenon for primary drives that preserves our internal equilibrium. This is true, for example, for hunger or thirst Secondary drives satisfy needs that are not crucial to a person's life  Criticism Critics felt that this theory was inadequate in explaining secondary drives

10 Stimulation: Optimum Arousal Hypothesis: Hebb (1955) and Zuckerman (1984)  This theory argues that we all have optimal levels of stimulation that we try to maintain… we seek an optimal level of arousal too little stimulation, we seek an increase too much, we seek to decrease

11 Eysenck (1967)  Extraversion- Introversion Introverts were over- aroused individuals therefore they try to keep stimulation to a minimum Extroverts were under- aroused individuals, therefore they tried to increase stimulation

12 Eysenck (1967)  Cortical Arousal Differences Eysenck suggests that the difference between introverts and extroverts depends on the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)  Causes introverts to be “stimulus shy”  Causes extroverts to be “stimulus hungry”

13 Cortical Arousal Differences  Geen (1984) Introverts and extraverts choose different levels of stimulation, but equivalent in arousal under chosen stimulation  Extroverts chose to hear louder noises than introverts  After put in their chosen environment their HR’s are the same  This seems to suggest that being at their preferred level of stimulation results in the same overall level of arousal for both groups

14 Geen (1984)  Performance on a learning task was also affected: Introverts did best in introvert-selected environment Extraverts did better in extravert-selected environment  Practical implications:  Roommates?  Mate Selection?

15 Does it explain psychopathic behaviors???  Serial killer

16 Incentive Theory  Viewpoint on motivation that is different than instinct, drive, and arousal theories Suggests that behavior is pulled rather than pushed…  Emphasizes the role of environmental stimuli that can motivate behavior by pulling people toward them rather than pushing people to satisfy a need (as in the drive- reduction theory)  Suggesting that people act to obtain positive incentives and avoid negative incentives  Explains secondary drives much better than drive-reduction theory

17 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1970)  Abraham Maslow proposed that there are five levels of motives, or needs, arranged in a hierarchy We must satisfy needs or motives low on the hierarchy before we are motivated to satisfy needs at the next level Abraham Maslow  ( )

18 Physiological Needs  Physiological needs are basic, instinctual needs for air, food, water, and sex, among others. These needs must be at least partially met in order to ascend the hierarchy.  These needs can also be arranged in their own hierarchy.

19 Safety Needs  Safety needs include things such as shelter, security, and protection from physical and emotional harm.

20 Belonging Needs  These needs are met by having meaningful relationships, such as significant others, friends and children

21 Esteem Needs  This level has two sub- levels  Low esteem needs are the needs for the respect of others – need for recognition, etc.  Higher esteem needs are the needs for self respect – to achieve, to be competent, to be independent, etc.

22 Self Actualization  Self actualization involves becoming the most complete person that you can be – your full potential

23 Criticisms  Some critics felt that it is possible to skip levels  Others felt that they could not be applied universally

24 Hunger Motivation What triggers our motivation to eat?  Internal Factors Body Chemistry Hypothalamus Set Point Theory  External Factors External Incentives Externality Hypothesis Social Factor  Other Factors Emotion Habit Attention

25 Body Chemistry  Blood Glucose This is a simple sugar used by most cells in the body for energy - most food ultimately gets converted to blood glucose  Decreasing blood glucose levels  sense of hunger  Insulin This is a hormone that increases the flow of glucose into body cells, diminishing the amount of glucose in the blood by converting it into stored fat  Decreasing blood glucose levels  sense of hunger

26 Body Chemistry  Glucagon This hormone helps convert stored energy supplies (stored fat) back into blood glucose Increasing blood glucose levels  hunger decreases

27 Lesions of Hypothalamus  The destruction of the lateral area of the hypothalamus causes animals to ravenously decrease their weight  The destruction of the ventromedial area of the hypothalamus causes animals to ravenously increase their weight Also see picture on page 364 for example of increase ventromedial area lesioned rat 

28 Set Point Theory: Adaptive Thermogenesis  Set point is the weight that your body wants to be… It is a self-regulatory system that maintains your body weight If you starve yourself the hypothalamus activates compensatory mechanisms, your metabolism slows so that energy stores are used more sparingly and the amount of insulin that is produced increases so that more of the food that you take in remains as fat

29 External Factors  Schacter (1978) Externality Hypothesis  This researcher argues that the difference between obese and normal weight participants is that the obese are overly responsive to external stimuli (cues for eating)  Obese humans are more likely to eat more when they are misled into thinking it's lunchtime than are control humans - evidence of the influence of external cues

30 External Factors  Social Factor is another external cue Eating around others often increases food intake

31 Other Factors  Emotion Depressed or anxious people may eat too much or too little  Habit Meal time - ancient Romans only ate two meals a day. We eat three - if we miss a meal, we feel hungry at that meal time  Attention Awareness vs. non-awareness

32 Eating Disorders  Obesity  Anorexia Nervosa  Bulimia Nervosa

33 Obesity  Weight which is 20-40% above the normal standard for a person’s height (BMI over 30 kg/m2) Rates of obesity are climbing and have risen from 12 to 20 percent of the population since An ominous statistic which indicates that the epidemic of obesity may get even worse is that the percentage of children and adolescents who are obese has doubled in the last 20 years

34 Obesity  Why do some people become seriously overweight? Emotional problems  Depression  Anxiety Sedentary lifestyle  Too much TV and not enough exercise Genetics  Higher set point

35 Anorexia Nervosa There are physiological abnormalities that are correlated with the disorder but are these abnormalities causes or effects?  Search for causes: Homeostatic theory encourages the search for physical deficits in homeostatic mechanisms Non-homeostatic theory encourages the study of non- regulatory mechanisms such as learning and social influences

36 Anorexia Nervosa  Self-starvation and severe weight loss Usually starts as an innocent diet that went out of control At first, self-esteem was raised – “you look great” They eat less and exercise more Often they come from high-achieving or over- protective families  Restricting Type  Binge/Purging Type

37 Case Study: Karen Carpenter  Famous singer died of complications to anorexia (cardiac arrest) in 1983 at the age of 32

38 Anorexia: Facts and Statistics  According to the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) on anorexia statistics, the lifetime prevalence of Anorexia Nervosa in U.S. adults is 0.6%.  Higher in year old females (around 2%)  Majority of patients are female (>90%) and white (> 90%), from middle-to-upper middle class families  Recent studies indicate onset is in childhood (maybe as young as 9 years- old)

39 Anorexia: Symptoms  Body dissatisfaction; body distortion  Lethargy  Irritability  Depression  Social withdrawal  Obsessiveness (food)

40 Anorexia Nervosa  Complications Hypothermia may result  Results when the body’s natural isolation fat stores become non- existent and the victim becomes cold all the time Some must be tube-fed to prevent death Some will die from heart failure

41 Case Study: French Model Isabelle Caro  Her naked, emaciated frame appeared in anti-anorexia ad in 2007 

42 Anorexia Nervosa  Treatment Hospitalization or outpatient care may be a necessary first step Clinical: Individual, group, and family therapy are then applied Anti-depressants are often combined with these therapies Nutrition Therapy can be introduced after patients have recovered enough so that non-compliance is not a major obstacle Self-help group therapy is an option for those without the financial means or insurance to utilize the above options  Prognosis There is a good chance for improvement and hopefully recovery However, it is a life-long process

43 Bulimia Nervosa  Associated Features Most are within 10% of target body weight Most are over concerned with body shape, fear gaining weight Most are comorbid for other psychological disorders Purging methods can result in severe medical problems

44 Bulimia Nervosa  Disorder characterized by repeated binge- purge episodes of overeating followed by vomiting or using a laxative  Again, mostly women in their early teens  High rates of college women (maybe 10%)  These individuals can be thin, average in weight or even overweight So this one is more likely to go unnoticed by family or friends

45 Bulimia Nervosa  Complications of Bulimia  Sore throat  Mouth and throat ulcers  Swollen salivary glands  Destruction of tooth enamel  Depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms

46 Bulimia Nervosa  Treatment Similar treatment as given for anorexia patients with exception of initial hospitalization/outpatient treatment  Prognosis There is a good chance for improvement and hopefully recovery However, it is a life-long process

47 Sexual Behavior Studies  Pre-1960’s – considered a very conservative time as far as sexual behavior is concerned Kinsey (1948, 1953)  Interviewed about 5000 men and 6000 women  Almost all subjects were well-educated, white, middle-class people primarily from Indiana and Illinois  Results were very surprising at the time

48 Kinsey is credited with starting the sexual revolution...

49 Sexual Behavior Studies  Early 1960’s – early 1980’s Very liberal (free) time as far as sex is concerned “sex, drugs, and rock and roll” Percentage who engaged in premarital sex surges Attitudes become permissive

50 Sexual Behavior Studies  Era of Aids (1980’s – late 1990’s) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)  A deadly disease which is primarily sexually transmitted and will gradually destroy a body’s immune system  Until, around 1985 it appeared it was limited to homosexual men – soon after that it became a heterosexual concern as well but still much more common among homosexuals  Lots of commercials Back to a conservative time as far as sexual motivations were concerned

51 Patient Zero  young men diagnosed with cluster of similar symptoms of unknown origin  “Patient Zero” Bragged about having sexual partners 250 per year Gaetan Dugas ( )

52 Sexual Behavior Studies  What were the psychological implications of all this? Winklestein (1987)  800 subjects from San Francisco (homosexual and heterosexual)  Number of sexual partners cut in half Fineberg (1988)  5000 homosexual men  Those that were either celibate (no sex) or monogomous (one partner) rose 25% from

53 Today: Changing views of Sexual Behavior  Back to the free time? New questions for a new generation’s behaviors…  Is Cybersex cheating?  How do we keep kids safe from the internet?

54 Masters & Johnson (1966): Sexual Response Cycle  William Howell Masters was a gynecologist, and Virginia Johnson was a psychology researcher  They teamed up in 1957 to study human sexuality  Instead of asking people about their sexual activities, as Kinsey did, Masters and Johnson observed sexual activity in a laboratory setting  They developed tools and techniques for accurately measuring the physical responses of 700 men and women during masturbation and intercourse

55 Sexual Response Cycle  EXCITEMENT PHASE Genital areas become engorged HR, BP, breathing rates increase  PLATEAU PHASE HR, BP, breathing rates increase further  ORGASMIC PHASE Muscle contractions all over the body HR, BP, breathing rates increase even further Feelings of pleasure apparently the same for both sexes  RESOLUTION PHASE Body gradually returns to unaroused state Males enter a refractory period in which he is incapable of another orgasm (this varies in time depending on the individual from a few minutes to over a day) Females refractory period is not long (if at all) as often they can reach orgasm again if restimulated

56 Sexual Arousal  Internal Stimuli Hormones  External Stimuli What we read, hear, and see  Imagined Stimuli Fantasies

57 Internal Stimuli  Sex Hormones Testosterone (males) Estrogen (females)

58 Internal Stimuli  Overall Analysis of Hormonal Influence… It is an influence but probably not the major one More research needed in this area

59 External Stimuli  Heiman (1975) provides some insight into responses of both men and women Participants were sexually experienced men and women undergraduates who listened to tape recording of erotic stories  Obtained both self-report and physiological measures of arousal

60 Heiman (1975)  Participants listened to one of four kinds of tapes… Erotic Romantic Erotic-romantic Control  What was most arousing for men and women? Physiological data? Self-reports?

61 Heiman (1975)  Researcher also varied the plots of the tapes… Whether female or male initiated sexual activity Whether the plot centered on the female’s or the male‘s physiological and psychological response  Results???

62 Imagined Stimuli  Wilson & Barber (1983) Study of 26 women with “fantasy- prone” personalities…  Some had experienced orgasms solely by sexual fantasies

63 Motives for Having Sex  Stereotype Male  Interested in physical aspects and a "love 'em and leave 'em" philosophy Female  Interested in love and romance and concerned with the interpersonal aspects of a relationship

64 Why have sex???  Hyde and her colleagues (1984) asked college students "What would be your motives for having sexual intercourse?" Typical Female answers  emotional feelings that we shared  wonderful way to express love  wanting to share myself with someone I love  needing to be needed Typical Male answers  need it  to gratify myself  for the pleasure or the love  to satisfy my needs  when I'm tired of masturbation

65 Sexual Orientation  Random Telephone Surveys in North America: About 2.5% of the adult population acknowledges that they are homosexual or bisexual  Many feel that this is an underestimate Very rare to be “actively bisexual”

66 Mosher (2005)  Males: 3-4% self-labeled as "gay“  Women: 1-2% self-labeled as "lesbian"

67 Why is someone gay or straight?  Psychologists really don’t fully understand the causes of sexual orientation Biological explanation:  Concordance rates: MZ > DZ Birth-order effects  Blanchard (2008)

68 Concordance rates  Eysenck (1964) Reported a higher incidence of homosexuality among men whose MZ twin was gay than among men whose DZ twin was gay  Bailey & Pallard (1991) Twin study Homosexual men Co-twin was more than twice as likely to be homosexual if the twins were MZ  Bailey, Pallard, Neale, & Agyei (1993) Replicated earlier study using homosexual women Same results

69 Birth-Order Effects  Blanchard (2008) Slight link to gay men having older brothers  First son: 2%  Second son: 3%  Third son: 4%

70 Sexual Motivation  More research is needed in this area

71 Credits  Some slides prepared with the help of the following websites:


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