Presentation on theme: "PSY 190: General Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1PSY 190: General Psychology Chapter 11: Motivated Behavior
2MotivationThe underlying processes that initiate, direct and sustain behavior in order to satisfy physiological and psychological needs or wants
3Theories of Motivation Evolutionary PerspectiveInstinct TheoryDrive Reduction TheoryStimulation TheoryOptimal Arousal Level HypothesisHumanistic TheoryMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
4Evolutionary Perspective: Instinct Theory Complex unlearned response triggered by a stimulus or complex stimulusDo humans have instincts?Early Darwinian Theory (1800’s) proposed the idea of instinct, arising from genetic endowmentWilliam James (1890) proposed an instinct theory in humansInstincts were goal directed predispositions to behavior
5Instinct Theory Paradox in Psychology: As others were showing that animal behavior could be modified by learning (Thorndike), James was proposing that much of human behavior was unlearnedWilliam McDougall (1908) followed…Suggested their were 18 instincts
6Instinct TheoryMcDougall (1908) theorized that motivated behaviors are instinctual:UnlearnedUniform in expression (do not change with practice)Universal (all members of a species show the same behavior)
7Too many limitations…By 1924 instinct theory was becoming obsolete as there were several criticisms:Too many instinctsResearchers came up with 5759 of themLogic was circulari.e. the only evidence that an instinct exists was the behavior it supposedly explainedHe’s an “overachiever” because he’s “hard-working”She’s “hard-working” because she’s an “overachiever”Just meaningless labels with no explanations
8Drive Reduction Theory (Hull, 1943) Supporters of this theory believe that when a need requires satisfaction, it produces drivesThese are tensions that energize behavior in order to satisfy a needThirst and hunger are, for instance, drives for satisfying the needs of eating and drinking, respectively
9Drive Reduction Theory Drives have been generally established as primary and secondary…Primary drives satisfy biological needs and must be fulfilled in order to surviveHomeostasis is the motivational phenomenon for primary drives that preserves our internal equilibrium. This is true, for example, for hunger or thirstSecondary drives satisfy needs that are not crucial to a person's life CriticismCritics felt that this theory was inadequate in explaining secondary drives
10Stimulation: Optimum Arousal Hypothesis: Hebb (1955) and Zuckerman (1984) This theory argues that we all have optimal levels of stimulation that we try to maintain…we seek an optimal level of arousaltoo little stimulation, we seek an increasetoo much, we seek to decrease
11Eysenck (1967) Extraversion-Introversion Introverts were over-aroused individuals therefore they try to keep stimulation to a minimumExtroverts were under-aroused individuals, therefore they tried to increase stimulation
12Eysenck (1967) Cortical Arousal Differences Eysenck suggests that the difference between introverts and extroverts depends on the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)Causes introverts to be “stimulus shy”Causes extroverts to be “stimulus hungry”
13Cortical Arousal Differences Geen (1984)Introverts and extraverts choose different levels of stimulation, but equivalent in arousal under chosen stimulationExtroverts chose to hear louder noises than introvertsAfter put in their chosen environment their HR’s are the sameThis seems to suggest that being at their preferred level of stimulation results in the same overall level of arousal for both groups
14Geen (1984) Performance on a learning task was also affected: Introverts did best in introvert-selected environmentExtraverts did better in extravert-selected environmentPractical implications:Roommates?Mate Selection?
15Does it explain psychopathic behaviors??? Serial killer
16Incentive TheoryViewpoint on motivation that is different than instinct, drive , and arousal theoriesSuggests that behavior is pulled rather than pushed…Emphasizes the role of environmental stimuli that can motivate behavior by pulling people toward them rather than pushing people to satisfy a need (as in the drive-reduction theory)Suggesting that people act to obtain positive incentives and avoid negative incentivesExplains secondary drives much better than drive-reduction theory
17Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1970) Abraham Maslow proposed that there are five levels of motives, or needs, arranged in a hierarchyWe must satisfy needs or motives low on the hierarchy before we are motivated to satisfy needs at the next levelAbraham Maslow ( )
18Physiological NeedsPhysiological needs are basic, instinctual needs for air, food, water, and sex, among others. These needs must be at least partially met in order to ascend the hierarchy.These needs can also be arranged in their own hierarchy.
19Safety NeedsSafety needs include things such as shelter, security, and protection from physical and emotional harm.
20Belonging NeedsThese needs are met by having meaningful relationships, such as significant others, friends and children
21Esteem Needs This level has two sub-levels Low esteem needs are the needs for the respect of others – need for recognition, etc.Higher esteem needs are the needs for self respect –to achieve, to be competent, to be independent, etc.
22Self ActualizationSelf actualization involves becoming the most complete person that you can be – your full potential
23Criticisms Some critics felt that it is possible to skip levels Others felt that they could not be applied universally
24Hunger Motivation What triggers our motivation to eat? Internal FactorsBody ChemistryHypothalamusSet Point TheoryExternal FactorsExternal IncentivesExternality HypothesisSocial FactorOther FactorsEmotionHabitAttention
25Body Chemistry Blood Glucose Insulin This is a simple sugar used by most cells in the body for energy - most food ultimately gets converted to blood glucoseDecreasing blood glucose levels sense of hungerInsulinThis is a hormone that increases the flow of glucose into body cells, diminishing the amount of glucose in the blood by converting it into stored fat
26Body Chemistry Glucagon This hormone helps convert stored energy supplies (stored fat) back into blood glucoseIncreasing blood glucose levels hunger decreases
27Lesions of Hypothalamus The destruction of the lateral area of the hypothalamus causes animals to ravenously decrease their weightThe destruction of the ventromedial area of the hypothalamus causes animals to ravenously increase their weightAlso see picture on page 364 for example of increaseventromedial area lesioned rat
28Set Point Theory: Adaptive Thermogenesis Set point is the weight that your body wants to be…It is a self-regulatory system that maintains your body weightIf you starve yourself the hypothalamus activates compensatory mechanisms, your metabolism slows so that energy stores are used more sparingly and the amount of insulin that is produced increases so that more of the food that you take in remains as fat
29External Factors Schacter (1978) Externality Hypothesis This researcher argues that the difference between obese and normal weight participants is that the obese are overly responsive to external stimuli (cues for eating)Obese humans are more likely to eat more when they are misled into thinking it's lunchtime than are control humans - evidence of the influence of external cues
30External Factors Social Factor is another external cue Eating around others often increases food intake
31Other Factors Emotion Habit Attention Depressed or anxious people may eat too much or too littleHabitMeal time - ancient Romans only ate two meals a day. We eat three - if we miss a meal, we feel hungry at that meal timeAttentionAwareness vs. non-awareness
33ObesityWeight which is 20-40% above the normal standard for a person’s height (BMI over 30 kg/m2)Rates of obesity are climbing and have risen from 12 to 20 percent of the population since 1991.An ominous statistic which indicates that the epidemic of obesity may get even worse is that the percentage of children and adolescents who are obese has doubled in the last 20 years
34Obesity Depression Anxiety Too much TV and not enough exercise Why do some people become seriously overweight?Emotional problemsDepressionAnxietySedentary lifestyleToo much TV and not enough exerciseGeneticsHigher set point
35Anorexia NervosaThere are physiological abnormalities that are correlated with the disorder but are these abnormalities causes or effects?Search for causes:Homeostatic theory encourages the search for physical deficits in homeostatic mechanismsNon-homeostatic theory encourages the study of non-regulatory mechanisms such as learning and social influences
36Anorexia Nervosa Self-starvation and severe weight loss Usually starts as an innocent diet that went out of controlAt first, self-esteem was raised – “you look great”They eat less and exercise moreOften they come from high-achieving or over-protective familiesRestricting TypeBinge/Purging Type
37Case Study: Karen Carpenter Famous singer died of complications to anorexia (cardiac arrest) in 1983 at the age of 32
38Anorexia: Facts and Statistics According to the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) on anorexia statistics, the lifetime prevalence of Anorexia Nervosa in U.S. adults is 0.6%.Higher in year old females (around 2%)Majority of patients are female (>90%) and white (> 90%), from middle-to-upper middle class familiesRecent studies indicate onset is in childhood (maybe as young as 9 years-old)
39Anorexia: Symptoms Body dissatisfaction; body distortion Lethargy IrritabilityDepressionSocial withdrawalObsessiveness (food)
40Anorexia NervosaComplicationsHypothermia may resultResults when the body’s natural isolation fat stores become non-existent and the victim becomes cold all the timeSome must be tube-fed to prevent deathSome will die from heart failure
41Case Study: French Model Isabelle Caro Her naked, emaciated frame appeared in anti-anorexia ad in 2007
42Anorexia Nervosa Treatment Hospitalization or outpatient care may be a necessary first stepClinical: Individual, group, and family therapy are then appliedAnti-depressants are often combined with these therapiesNutrition Therapy can be introduced after patients have recovered enough so that non-compliance is not a major obstacleSelf-help group therapy is an option for those without the financial means or insurance to utilize the above optionsPrognosisThere is a good chance for improvement and hopefully recoveryHowever, it is a life-long process
43Bulimia Nervosa Associated Features Most are within 10% of target body weightMost are over concerned with body shape, fear gaining weightMost are comorbid for other psychological disordersPurging methods can result in severe medical problems
44Bulimia NervosaDisorder characterized by repeated binge-purge episodes of overeating followed by vomiting or using a laxativeAgain, mostly women in their early teensHigh rates of college women (maybe 10%)These individuals can be thin, average in weight or even overweightSo this one is more likely to go unnoticed by family or friends
45Bulimia Nervosa Complications of Bulimia Sore throat Mouth and throat ulcersSwollen salivary glandsDestruction of tooth enamelDepression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms
46Bulimia Nervosa Treatment Similar treatment as given for anorexia patients with exception of initial hospitalization/outpatient treatmentPrognosisThere is a good chance for improvement and hopefully recoveryHowever, it is a life-long process
47Sexual Behavior Studies Pre-1960’s – considered a very conservative time as far as sexual behavior is concernedKinsey (1948, 1953)Interviewed about 5000 men and 6000 womenAlmost all subjects were well-educated, white, middle-class people primarily from Indiana and IllinoisResults were very surprising at the time
48Kinsey is credited with starting the sexual revolution...
49Sexual Behavior Studies Early 1960’s – early 1980’sVery liberal (free) time as far as sex is concerned“sex, drugs, and rock and roll”Percentage who engaged in premarital sex surgesAttitudes become permissive
50Sexual Behavior Studies Era of Aids (1980’s – late 1990’s)Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)A deadly disease which is primarily sexually transmitted and will gradually destroy a body’s immune systemUntil, around 1985 it appeared it was limited to homosexual men – soon after that it became a heterosexual concern as well but still much more common among homosexualsLots of commercialsBack to a conservative time as far as sexual motivations were concerned
51Patient Zero 1980 “Patient Zero” 55 young men diagnosed with cluster of similar symptoms of unknown origin“Patient Zero”Bragged about having sexual partners250 per yearGaetan Dugas( )
52Sexual Behavior Studies What were the psychological implications of all this?Winklestein (1987)800 subjects from San Francisco (homosexual and heterosexual)Number of sexual partners cut in halfFineberg (1988)5000 homosexual menThose that were either celibate (no sex) or monogomous (one partner) rose 25% from
53Today: Changing views of Sexual Behavior Back to the free time?New questions for a new generation’s behaviors…Is Cybersex cheating?How do we keep kids safe from the internet?
54Masters & Johnson (1966): Sexual Response Cycle William Howell Masters was a gynecologist, and Virginia Johnson was a psychology researcherThey teamed up in 1957 to study human sexualityInstead of asking people about their sexual activities, as Kinsey did, Masters and Johnson observed sexual activity in a laboratory settingThey developed tools and techniques for accurately measuring the physical responses of 700 men and women during masturbation and intercourse
55Sexual Response Cycle EXCITEMENT PHASE Genital areas become engorged HR, BP, breathing rates increasePLATEAU PHASEHR, BP, breathing rates increase furtherORGASMIC PHASEMuscle contractions all over the bodyHR, BP, breathing rates increase even furtherFeelings of pleasure apparently the same for both sexesRESOLUTION PHASEBody gradually returns to unaroused stateMales enter a refractory period in which he is incapable of another orgasm (this varies in time depending on the individual from a few minutes to over a day)Females refractory period is not long (if at all) as often they can reach orgasm again if restimulated
56Sexual Arousal Internal Stimuli External Stimuli Imagined Stimuli HormonesExternal StimuliWhat we read, hear, and seeImagined StimuliFantasies
58Internal Stimuli Overall Analysis of Hormonal Influence… It is an influence but probably not the major oneMore research needed in this area
59External StimuliHeiman (1975) provides some insight into responses of both men and womenParticipants were sexually experienced men and women undergraduates who listened to tape recording of erotic storiesObtained both self-report and physiological measures of arousal
60Heiman (1975) Participants listened to one of four kinds of tapes… EroticRomanticErotic-romanticControlWhat was most arousing for men and women?Physiological data?Self-reports?
61Heiman (1975) Researcher also varied the plots of the tapes… Whether female or male initiated sexual activityWhether the plot centered on the female’s or the male‘s physiological and psychological responseResults???
62Imagined Stimuli Wilson & Barber (1983) Study of 26 women with “fantasy-prone” personalities…Some had experienced orgasms solely by sexual fantasies
63Motives for Having Sex Stereotype MaleInterested in physical aspects and a "love 'em and leave 'em" philosophyFemaleInterested in love and romance and concerned with the interpersonal aspects of a relationship
64Why have sex???Hyde and her colleagues (1984) asked college students "What would be your motives for having sexual intercourse?"Typical Female answersemotional feelings that we sharedwonderful way to express lovewanting to share myself with someone I loveneeding to be neededTypical Male answersneed itto gratify myselffor the pleasure or the loveto satisfy my needswhen I'm tired of masturbation
65Sexual Orientation Random Telephone Surveys in North America: About 2.5% of the adult population acknowledges that they are homosexual or bisexualMany feel that this is an underestimateVery rare to be “actively bisexual”
66Mosher (2005) 3-4% self-labeled as "gay“ Males:3-4% self-labeled as "gay“Women:1-2% self-labeled as "lesbian"
67Why is someone gay or straight? Psychologists really don’t fully understand the causes of sexual orientationBiological explanation:Concordance rates: MZ > DZBirth-order effectsBlanchard (2008)
68Concordance rates Eysenck (1964) Bailey & Pallard (1991) Reported a higher incidence of homosexuality among men whose MZ twin was gay than among men whose DZ twin was gayBailey & Pallard (1991)Twin studyHomosexual menCo-twin was more than twice as likely to be homosexual if the twins were MZBailey, Pallard, Neale, & Agyei (1993)Replicated earlier study using homosexual womenSame results
69Birth-Order Effects Blanchard (2008) Slight link to gay men having older brothersFirst son: 2%Second son: 3%Third son: 4%
70Sexual MotivationMore research is needed in this area
71Credits Some slides prepared with the help of the following websites: