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Principal Components Analysis Vida Movahedi December 2006

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Outline What is PCA? PCA for images Eigenfaces Recognition Training Set Test Set Summary

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Principal Component Analysis Eigen Vectors show the direction of axes of a fitted ellipsoid Eigen Values show the significance of the corresponding axis The larger the Eigen value, the more separation between mapped data For high dimensional data, only few of Eigen values are significant

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What is PCA? Finding Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors Deciding on which are significant Forming a new coordinate system defined by the significant Eigen vectors ( lower dimensions for new coordinates) Mapping data to the new space Compressed Data

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How is PCA used in Recognition? A training set is used for LEARNING phase Applying PCA to training data to form a new coordinate system defined by significant Eigen vectors Representing each data in PCA coordinate system (weights of Eigen vectors) A test set is used for TESTING phase Same PCA coordinate system is used Each new data is represented in PCA coordinates New data is recognized as the closest training data (Euclidean distance)

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PCA for images Each image is represented as a 1-D data i Finding Eigen values/vectors is expensive Turk/Pentland Trick:

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What are Eigenfaces? Turk and Pentland used PCA method for face images All faces are about the same size Each face image is a data vector. Each Eigen vector is actually an image called an Eigenface.

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Average image Eigenfaces

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Training set- before preprocessing

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Training Set

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Eigen Pictures

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Significant Components

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Recognition of Training set L: No of eigenvectors Recognition Rate 1010 of 10 9 8 79 of 10 68 of 10 5

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Test set: Noisy images P n =0.1 P n =0.2 P n =0.3

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Recognition of Noisy images P n : Probability of NoiseRecognition Rate 0.1010 of 10 0.209 of 10 0.303 of 10

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Summary PCA gives a high compression rate Performance is good when noise is present Performance is very bad if scale of image is changed

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References 1) Smith, L.I. (2002), “A tutorial on Principal Components Analysis”, http://csnet.otago.ac.nz/cosc453/student_tutorials/principal_compon ents.pdf. 2) Zhao, W., Chellappa, R., Rosenfeld, A., Phillips, P.J. (2000), “Face Recognition: A literature survey”, UMD CfAR Technical Report CAR- TR-948, http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/zhao00face.html. 3) Turk, M. and Pentland, A. (1991), “Eigenfaces for recognition”, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 3, no. 1, p.71-86. 4) ‘Principal components analysis’, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principal_ component_analysis. 5) “Eigenface”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eigenface 6) Dailey, M. (2005), “Matt’s Matlab Tutorial Source Code Page”, http://ai.ucsd.edu/ Tutorial/matlab.html.

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