# Hitchhiker’s Guide to exploration of Mathematics Universe Guide: Dr. Josip Derado Kennesaw State University.

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Hitchhiker’s Guide to exploration of Mathematics Universe Guide: Dr. Josip Derado Kennesaw State University

Thinking Out of the Box Magic Trick: Move only one cup to arrange them so they are alternately full and empty

Thinking Out of the Box Magic Trick: Move only one cup to get

We need a … proof! A very old theorem: There are infinitely many primes. Euklid’s Proof Assume there finitely many primes. Denote them p 1, p 2, …, p n. Consider the number N= p 1 p 2 … p n + 1 This N can not be divisible by any of p j. Hence N is a prime which is not in the list. This is a contradiction. Q.E.D.

Goldbach Conjecture Every even number larger than 2 can be represented as a sum of two primes 4 = 2 + 2 6 = 3 + 3 8 = 3 + 5 100 = ? + ? Known to be true for all numbers less than 1200000000000000000, that is 12 with 17 zeros following it.

Twin-Primes ConjectureTwin-Primes Conjecture Twin-primes are two prime numbers which difference is 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Conjecture: There are infinitely many twin-primes. Arenstorf (2004) published a purported proof of the conjecture (Weisstein 2004). Unfortunately, a serious error was found in the proof. As a result, the paper was retracted and the twin prime conjecture remains fully open.

3 x + 1 Puzzle Start with any integer X. If X is even divide it by 2 If X is odd then compute 3 X + 1 Continue till you reach 1. 3 → 10 → 5 → 16 → 8 → 4 → 2 → 1 Try to start with 27. Question: Do you always reach 1 no matter what is your starting number?

3 x + 1 Puzzle Known to be true up to 5 764 000 000 000 000 000 Hey that should be enough! Nope. Polya Conjecture counterexample: 906150257 Mertens Conjecture counterexample > 100 000 000 000 000

Swiss Clockmaker’s Arithmetic Achille Brocot (1817-1878) Moritz Stern (1807- 1894)

Packaging Problems Sausages or no sausages Which formation of 6 circles needs lets space?

Sausages or …? 2D sausages better up to 6 than hexagonals 3D sausages better up to 56 than others 4D sausages better up to x than others x is unknown but 50,000 5D – 41D x is unknown but it is bigger then 50 billion 42D and on – sausages always the best

Topology A Ring Trick Can you do it without braking the ring?

Moebius Strip Magic Trick

Cut the Moebius strip along the middle line as shown on the picture. What do you get? Then cut it not along the middle but closer to one side (1:2). What do you get now?

Klein Bottle – like Moebius in 3D

Poincare Conjecture In topology

Poincare Conjecture Also But,

Poincare Conjecture Poincare Conjecture says: Every 3D object with no holes is spherelike.

Poincare Conjecture Proven by Grigori Perelman in 2003. Quiz: On the pictures below who is Poincare and who is Perelman?

Who wants to be a milionare? Poincare Conjecture was one of the 7 problems on the Clay Institute \$1,000,000 list. The others are Millennium Prize Problems P versus NP The Hodge conjecture The Poincaré conjecture The Riemann hypothesis Yang–Mills existence and mass gap Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness The Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture

Who wants to be a milionare? Dr. Grigori Perelman rejected \$1,000,000 award. Dr. Perelman also declined to accept Fields Medal.

So what did we learn? That a mug is a mug is a mug.

Tangles – Knot Theory A tangle Twist Turn T T T T + 1 1T1T

What do we do with this John? We start with the zero tangle Audience! Help! Need 4 voluntaries!!

Let ‘s try! Instructions: TWist will be W TuRn will be R W W W W W W W W R W This tangle correspond to the number 7/8 Now forget how we came to this number. Using only arithmetic try to get back to the zero tangle R W W R W W R W W R W W

What Happens when you twist the zero tangle? What is it? ∞ - tangle Turn the ∞ - tangle. What do you get now?

The most famous knot DNA

Can we see infinity? Stereographic Projection

Groups and Rings and other Gangs Niels Henrik Abel (1802-1827) Evariste Galois (1811 -1832)

Is there a formula for …? equation algebraic solution

Is there a formula for …? equation algebraic solution a looong one!!!

Is there a formula for …? equation algebraic solution a looong one!!! Galois(19), Abel(23): There is no formula for general quintic equation.

Rubick’s Cube A puzzle which gives you a true insight into the world of Groups. How do mathematician solve a Rubick’s cube?

Rubick’s Cube We want to solve not only But also this and this That is why we start with Oops Not that one actually this one ….

Symmetry Monster and Classification Theorem Classification Theorem of all simple groups is proven or … maybe not? The list of all simple groups is quite long and start with Z/2Z which has only 2 elements Ends up with the Monster Group which has 808,017,424,794,512,875,886,459,904,961,710,757,00 5,754,368,000,000,000 elements However the proof is even longer over 10,000 pages in 500 articles. Is the proof valid?

Random Walk

Benford Law Benford's law, also called the first- digit law, states that in lists of numbers from many real-life sources of data, the leading digit is distributed in a specific, non-uniform way. According to this law, the first digit is 1 almost one third of the time, and larger digits occur as the leading digit with lower and lower frequency, to the point where 9 as a first digit occurs less than one time in twenty. Law has been proven 1996, By Ted Hill from Georgia Tech

Langton’s Ant Walk http://www.math.ubc.ca/~cass/www/ant/ant.html Langton's Ant Langton's ant travels around in a grid of black or white squares. If she exits a square, its colour inverts. If she enters a black square, she turns right, and if she enters a white square, she turns left. If she starts out moving right on a blank grid, for example, here is how things go:

Langton’s Ant Behavior of Langton’s ant is still a mystery

The truth is impossible This sentence is false.

This is an ancient puzzle. It dates back to times of Charlesmagne: Three jealous husbands with their wives must cross river in a boat with no boatman. The boat can carry only two of them at once. How can they all cross the river so that no wife is left in the company of other men without her husband being present? Both men and women may row. All husbands are jealous in extreme. They do not trust their unaccompanied wives to be with another man, even if the other man's wife is also present.