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213 PHC. Introduction Chemicals make up everything we use or consume. The knowledge of the chemical composition of a substance is important in our daily.

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Presentation on theme: "213 PHC. Introduction Chemicals make up everything we use or consume. The knowledge of the chemical composition of a substance is important in our daily."— Presentation transcript:

1 213 PHC

2 Introduction

3 Chemicals make up everything we use or consume. The knowledge of the chemical composition of a substance is important in our daily lives. Analytical chemistry plays an important role in all aspects (agricultural, clinical, environmental, forensic, manufacturing, and pharmaceutical). Analytical chemistry consists of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis tells us what chemicals are present. Quantitative analysis tells us how much

4 Acid-Base Equilibria

5 By the end of this lecture the student should be able to: Describe the common acid-base theories. Classify substances as acids and bases. Understand acid-base equilibria in water.

6 Acid-Base Theories Arrhenius Theory: Acid HA + H 2 O  H 3 O + + A - Weak Base B + H 2 O  BH + + OH - Strong Base M(OH) n  M n+ + nOH -

7 Bronsted-Lowry Theory: acid = H + + base Acid  donate a proton Base  accept a proton

8 Lewis Theory: Electronic theory of acids and bases. Acid  accept electron pair Base  donate electron pair AlCl 3 + :OR 2  Cl 3 Al:OR 2

9 Acid-Base Equilibria in Water When an asid or base is dissolved in water, it will dissociate, or ionize. A strong acid or base is completely dissociated. A weak acid or base is partially dissociated.

10 e.g. HOAc  H + + OAc - Ka = [H + ] [OAc - ] / [HOAc]

11 H 2 O  H + + OH - K w = [H + ] [OH - ] K w = 1 x

12 Questions?

13 Summary Acid-Base Theories. Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry Lewis Acid-Base Equilibria in water.

14 Homework Common names of chemical compounds: FormulaChemical name Common name Baking soda Freon Vitamin C Laughing gas Banana oil Quartz Chalk Blue stone Gypsum Diamond

15


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