Presentation on theme: "ISU SEMASA DALAM PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA (FEM 4000) KREDIT: 3(1+2), PERJUMPAAN BERSEMUKA 1 - PROGRAM PJJ SEMESTER PERTAMA 2011-2012 INSTRUCTOR: SITI NOR BINTI."— Presentation transcript:
1 ISU SEMASA DALAM PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA (FEM 4000) KREDIT: 3(1+2), PERJUMPAAN BERSEMUKA 1 - PROGRAM PJJ SEMESTER PERTAMAINSTRUCTOR: SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB, PhD.OFFICE: TINGKAT 1 BLOK A, FEMCONTACT NO: /ADDRESS: Jab. Pembangunan Manusia & Pengajian Keluarga, Fakulti Ekologi Manusia, UPM Serdang, Selangor.SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA
2 SINOPSIS KURSUS:Perbincangan tentang isu semasa berkaitan pembangunan manusia dalam pelbagai konteks. Pelajar menganalisis dan membentang seminar tentang isu terpilih ke arah peningkatan kualiti kehidupan.
3 TAJUK KULIAH Pengenalan kepada isu semasa dalam pembangunan manusia Overview pelbagai konteks pembangunan manusiaPanduan pengumpulan maklumat tentang isu terpilihKaedah menganalisis isu pembangunan manusiaTeknik menyediakan kertas kerjaTeknik pembentangan kertas kerjaPenggunaan teknologi dalam pembentangan kertas kerja
4 AMALIPelajar memilih tajuk, menjalankan kajian perpustakaan atau lapangan, menulis laporan dan seterusnya membentangkan kertas kerja
5 Mengenalpasti isu semasa dan utama dalam pembangunan manusia HASIL PEMBELAJARANPelajar dapat:Mengenalpasti isu semasa dan utama dalam pembangunan manusiaMenganalisis pelbagai isu pembangunan manusia mengikut konteksMembincangkan isu tertentu ke arah peningkatan kualiti hidup manusia
6 PENILAIAN KURSUS Item Penilaian Nilai (%) Tarikh Akhir 1 Penulisan Kertas Kerja 130%2 minggu sebelum peperiksaanakhir2Pembentangan Kertas Kerja Seminar40%Perjumpaan Bersemuka Kedua3Penulisan Kertas Kerja 22 minggu sbelum peperiksaanJUMLAH100%
7 RUJUKANDarcey, J. (1991). Human Development Across Lifespan. Dubuque: Brown Publishers.Kamarudin Ngah (1990). Kaedah Penyelidikan. Petaling Jaya: Penerbit Fajar Bakti.Pearsell, T. E. (2001). The Elements of Technical Writing. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Penslar, R. L. (1995). Research Ethnics: Case Materials. Bloomington: Indiana University.Roze, M. & Maxwell, S. (2002). Technical Communication in the Age of Internet. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Veit, R., Gould, C., & Clifford, J. (1990). Writing, Reading, and Research. New York: MacMillan.Watson, W., Pardo, L., & Tomovic, V. (1989). How to Give an Effective Seminar. Toronto: Stoddart.
8 TUGASAN INDIVIDU 1 & 2: PENULISAN KERTAS KERJA 1 (30%) DAN PEMBENTANGAN SEMINAR (40%) Bagi tugasan 1 dan 2, pelajar perlu menulis kertas kerja dan membentangkannya dalam seminar pada Perjumpaan Bersemuka Kedua.Tema bagi seminar ini ialah “Pembangunan Manusia dalam Era Globalisasi: Isu dan Cabaran”.SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA
9 Subtema seminar adalah seperti berikut: (i) Sosial dan Kekeluargaan (ii) Ekonomi dan Kewangan(iii) Teknologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi (ICT)(iv) Kesihatan(v) Alam Sekitar.SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA
10 Bentang kertas kerja yang ditulis semasa Perjumpaan Bersemuka Kedua. Tulis kertas kerja dalam Bahasa Malaysia atau Bahasa Inggeris antara muka surat (langkau dua).Bentang kertas kerja yang ditulis semasa Perjumpaan Bersemuka Kedua.Anggaran masa pembentangan adalah 30 minit bagi setiap pelajar.Selepas bentang, baiki kertas kerja dan hantar 2 minggu sebelum peperiksaan akhir.Setiap pelajar boleh memilih isu-isu ini sebagai tajuk atau beri tajuk lain yang berkaitan bagi tugasan 1 dan tugasan 2.SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA
12 Subtema (ii): Ekonomi dan Kewangan Kenaikan Harga BarangInflasiKetidaksamaan Ekonomi antara Bandar dan Luar BandarKemiskinanPengangguranPinjaman (rumah, kereta)PTPTNCeti Haram-AlongSITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA
13 Subtema (iii): ICT Social Network Pembangunan ICT Pengalahgunaan InternetKetagihan InternetTrend SMSSITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA
15 Subtema (v): Alam Sekitar Global WarmingKitar SemulaBencana AlamPencemaran Alam SekitarKehausan PetroleumKebersihan BandarSITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA
16 TUGASAN INDIVIDU 3: PENULISAN KERTAS KERJA 2 (30%) Bagi tugasan 3, pelajar perlu menulis kertas kerja berdasarkan topik yang dipilih masing-masing.Topik yang dipilih mestilah merupakan isu semasa berkaitan pembangunan manusia global.Tulis kertas kerja dalam Bahasa Malaysia atau Bahasa Inggeris antara muka surat (langkau dua).Serah tugasan 3 dua minggu sebelum peperiksaan akhir.SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA
17 TOPIK 1 PENGENALAN KEPADA ISU SEMASA DALAM PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA FEM 4000TOPIK 1PENGENALAN KEPADA ISU SEMASA DALAM PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA
18 ECOLOGY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT URIE BRONFENBRENNER study individual’s development within the context of the system of relationships that form his/her environment.define complex layers of environment, each having an effect on an individual’s development.changes in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers.to understand individual development – must look not only at his/her immediate environment, but also at the interaction of the larger environment.
19 Urie Bronfenbrenner specified four types of nested environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.The four systems are:MicrosystemMesosystemExosystemMacrosystemLater a fifth system was added: Chronosystem
20 Microsystem:Immediate environments (family, school, peer group, neighbourhood and childcare environments)Mesosystem:A system comprised of connections between immediate environments (i.e., a child’s home and school)Exosystem:External environmental settings which only indirectly affect development (such as parent's workplace)
21 Macrosystem:- The larger culturalcontext (Eastern vs. Western culture,national economy, political culture, subculture)Chronosystem:- The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the course of life.
22 Each system contains:roles, norms and rules that can powerfully shape development.
25 WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? Human development is the process of growing to maturity. In biological terms, this entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being.In the scope of humanity, human development is an international and economic development paradigmHuman development can refer to anthropological, sociological, and psychological approaches to examining human development in contextHuman development can be viewed as the process of achieving an optimum level of health and well-being. It includes physical, biological, mental, emotional, social, educational, economic, and cultural components.
26 Human Development:Paul Streeten describes human development as the process of enlarging people’s choices, the choices that are created by expanding human capabilities and functioning – what people do and can do in their lives.(UNDP, 1999)Individuals do not develop their capabilities in vacuum.A person’s individual attributes are influenced by the family, community and society into which the individual is born, grows up, and lives as an adult.
27 WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? "The basic purpose of development is to enlarge people's choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and can change over time. People often value achievements that do not show up at all, or not immediately, in income or growth figures: greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health services, more secure livelihoods, security against crime and physical violence, satisfying leisure hours, political and cultural freedoms and sense of participation in community activities. The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives."Mahbub ul Haq Founder of the Human Development Report
28 WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? Human Development is a development paradigm that is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes.It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests.People are the real wealth of nations.Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead lives that they value.And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means —if a very important one —of enlarging people’s choices.
29 WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? Fundamental to enlarging these choices is building human capabilities —the range of things that people can do or be in life.The most basic capabilities for human development are to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community.Without these, many choices are simply not available, and many opportunities in life remain inaccessible.
30 CENTRAL ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Issues in Human Development may draw upon many different disciplines:the natural, social and behavioral sciences.humanistic and cultural studies.helps in the illustrations and understanding of human experience and behavior.
31 CENTRAL ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Some critical topics in Human Development:the nature of human development and changes across the life spanthe social and environmental contexts in which human development takes placethe determinants of human development and behaviorthe domains and dimensions of thought, emotion and action
32 EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Health issuesEducational issues – information and knowledgeIncome/ economy/ poverty – levels of livingEnvironmental issuesTechnological innovationsGlobalizationAgeing populationHuman capital development/ socializationHuman rightsCivil society – values, moral, ethics, integritymigration/ foreign workersbalancing work and familySocial ills
33 TOPIK 2 KONTEKS PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA FEM 4000TOPIK 2KONTEKS PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA
34 socioeconomic development value change The Theory of Human Development: A Cross-Cultural Analysis – Welzel et al. (2002)3 trajectories of societal change:socioeconomic developmentvalue changesociety’s political institutions
35 socioeconomic development The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis3 trajectories of societal change:socioeconomic developmentSet of closely linked changes including technological innovation, productivity growth, improving health and life expectancy, increasing incomes, rising levels of education, growing access to information and increasing social complexity.
36 The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis 3 trajectories of societal change:value changecomes along with SED when expanding markets and social mobilization diversify and intensify human activities (e.g. – commercial transactions)
37 The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis 3 trajectories of societal change:value changeit weaken vertical authority relations, strengthen horizontal bargaining relationsemergence of civic cultural values; individual modernity; postmaterialistic values; liberal values; self-expression values
38 3 trajectories of societal change: society’s political institutions The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis3 trajectories of societal change:society’s political institutionsmassive trends towards more democracyoutcomes of change???Irreversible linear trend or cyclical patterns?Global or culture specific?Desirable?
39 SED, value change & democratization – tend to go together The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis3 trajectories of societal change:SED, value change & democratization – tend to go together
40 The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis ECONOMIC DIMENSIONCULTURAL DIMENSIONINSTITUTIONAL DIMENSIONCOMPONENTSINDIVIDUAL RESOURCESEMANCIPATIVE VALUESFREEDOM RIGHTSGENERATING PROCESSSEDEmancipative cultural changeDemocratization; extension of rightsSOCIETAL SPHERESSphere of means (social structure)Sphere of motives (political culture)Sphere of rules (regime institutions)PREVAILING CAUSAL DIRECTIONMeans-motive linkage Motives-rules linkageUNDERLYING THEMEHuman choice on a mass level
41 Human Development:Paul Streeten describes human development as the process of enlarging people’s choices, the choices that are created by expanding human capabilities and functioning – what people do and can do in their lives.(UNDP, 1999)Individuals do not develop their capabilities in vacuum.A person’s individual attributes are influenced by the family, community and society into which the individual is born, grows up, and lives as an adult.
42 Social contexts of human development: PopulationPoverty and equalitySocial infrastructureFamilies and householdEducation, health and social security.
43 TOPIK 3 PENGUMPULAN MAKLUMAT TENTANG ISU TERPILIH FEM 4000TOPIK 3PENGUMPULAN MAKLUMAT TENTANG ISU TERPILIH
44 Determine your information needs Define your topicIncrease familiarity with your topicMap your ideasTypes of assignmentAmount of informationTypes of sourcesTypes of publicationsIdentify and obtain information
45 the exact problem you wish to solve Define your topicBefore you begin looking for information, you should identify:the exact problem you wish to solvethe concepts and terms that describe the problemthe amount of information required to solve the problemthe type of information required to solve the problem.
46 Increase familiarity with your topic Do some preliminary research of your set topic by familiarising yourself with your lecture notes, relevant chapter etc.Map your ideasBULITEORIPUNCAINTERNALEXTERNALIMPAKFIZIKALPSIKOSOSIAL
47 Types of assignmentAssignments can vary from a short 5 minute oral presentation, to a technical report, literature review, or thesis.The type of assignment you are asked to produce has a direct affect on:the amount of information you requirethe types of sources you requirethe types of publications you require.
48 Some assignments can be completed by consulting your lecture notes... Amount of informationSome assignments can be completed by consulting your lecture notes...... while other assignments require more detailed and comprehensive information.How much is enough?The question of how much information is required is a matter of judgement.To ensure you meet the requirements and present an appropriate depth of coverage of your topic, refer to the marking and assessment criteria set by your lecturer.The length, weight, marks, and task should guide the amount of information required.
49 Types of sourcesYou may be directed to use only primary sources for your assignment......while other assignments might require use of both primary and secondary sources.Information sources can be regarded as primary or secondary depending on their:originalityproximity to the source or event.
50 Types of sourcesPrimary sources come directly from the source or person. They are original materials, which have not been filtered through interpretation.For example: patents, statistics, interviews and surveysSecondary sources analyse, interpret and comment on primary information.For example: biographies, journal articles
51 Evaluate Information or Resources RelevanceTimelinessReliabilityValidityCoverageAccuracy
52 RelevanceRead the table of contents, abstract or summary. Ask yourself:Does the information sound relevant?Who is the intended audience?Are they central or peripheral to your topic?Primary or secondary source?Comprehensive enough for your needs?Express particular point of view?Level of the presented information
53 Timeliness – is the information timely? when published/ compiled?information regularly updated? How often?still valid for your topic?
54 Reliability – is the information reliable? who is the author?credentials of the author?come from an authoritative source?where published? Journal? Popular magazines?been edited/ reviewed?how stable is the information?
55 What process was used to gather and analyse the information? ValidityWhat process was used to gather and analyse the information?When assessing the validity of the information, ensure that its collection used sound methodology based on established principles and fact or is consistent with accepted professional and industry standards.Documentation of methods, assumptions and sources of error should be transparent.
56 Coverage – is the information complete? does it cover the topic in terms of:time – historical information, current informationgeography – local, regional, national, internationalspecificity – how specific? Detailed or general?point of view – a single point, an opposing points, or a range of view points?is the information complete / abridged?all the information accessible? Summary only?
57 Accuracy – is it accurate or bias? how is it presented? fact or opinion?is it correct? can verify?obvious errors or omissions?facts misquoted or misrepresented?language use – concrete, objective, specific.is it biased? represent particular point of view, intentionally exclude others?
58 TOPIC 4: METHODS OF ANALYZING ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT FEM 4000TOPIC 4:METHODS OF ANALYZING ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
59 INTRODUCTION Many psychologist study human development. They tend to understanding what is the unique about humans.Methods and techniques are developed to study how humans learn.Millicent Shinn of Niles, California is the first person to complete observation on a child. She observed on her niece and made records. The records was published in The Biography of a Baby.This will help many psychologists to understand how importance of the scientific study in research area.
60 This topic surveys the methods that developmental psychologist use in studying the human beings. Contents:Cross-sectional methodLongitudinal methodCross cultural studiesCo-twin studes
61 Cross Sectional Method Key to be remember:Compare groups that differ in age or background.It aims to compare developmental levels at various ages or background.Gather data at one point in time.It contrast with longitudinal method.
62 Cross Sectional Method Example:Study the developmental level of infant from birth to 1 year-old.Different group with different age infants will be investigated to compare their developmental level.Various group of subjects participate in a study:A group of 1 month-old infants, a group of 2 months-old infants……a group of 12 months-old infant.Compare these 12 groups of subject.
63 Longitudinal Method Key to be remember: Observe one group at different times.Same group of subjects will be studied in different times.Normally used in study the stages of human development.Strength:- Able to observe the subject’s developmental stage from beginning to end of the study.Weakness:- Attrition/subject loss- Subject loss occurs when participants fail to complete the study.
64 Cross Cultural Studies Key to be remember:Compare groups from different cultures.It focus on how culture influences on human’s development.People differ in culture, customs, and roles are being studied and compared.Topics which related with cross cultural studies:Individualism vs. collectivismGender rolesIntelligence
65 Co-twin Studies Key to be remember: - Differences between identical twins are not caused by heredity.When developmental psychologist want to rule out the effects of heredity in their study.This method aims to compare the identical twins who have been given different kinds or training or reared apart.
66 Co-twin Studies For example, Hilgard (1933) had conducted a study about memory performance.Trained one twin to remember digits in the first yearTrained the other twin to remember digits in the second year.Compare their memory performance.Result:The twin trained later did better than the twin trained in the first year.Both of the twins lost their achievement after training was ended.
67 Co-twin StudiesThis indicates that time of training could influence twins’ memory performance.Time of training served as an Independent variable/ environmental factor in the study.Journal related:Borkenaua, P., Riemann, R., Angleitner, A., & Spinathc, F. M. (2002). Similarity of childhood experiences and personality resemblance in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: a test of the equal environments assumption. Personality and Individual Differences, 33:
68 FEM 4000 TOPIK 5: TEKNIK MENYEDIAKAN KERTAS KERJA The word “technical” is defined as having special, usually practical knowledge.- WebsterTechnical – derived from Greek word “tekhnê” and “tektõn” which mean “craft” and “carpenter”.Craft and carpentry are skills that require special knowledge.Suggests that technical writing is writing that involves special knowledge and vocabulary.FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
69 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING Technical writing is chiefly writing and secondly technical.The basic function of technical writing is to inform.Descriptions – specific detailsExplanations – logical analysisFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
70 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING The form and tone depend on its purpose and audience.Purpose: to inform, instruct, persuade, to obtain something – or a combination of purpose.Categories of technical writing:ProposalFeasibility reportSurvey reportProgress reportComplaint reportTrip reportConference reportLaboratory report.Technical paper.Instruction manualFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
71 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING The form and tone depend on its purpose and audience.Audience:Who are they?What do they know about the subject?What do they want?What do they want it for?i & ii – set the tone for technical writingiii & iv – what to cover and to emphasizeFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
72 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING Accuracy.Information is correct and complete.Fulfills special purpose and directed to its specific audience.Foundation of accuracy :solid researchCareful transcription of notesThorough checking of figuresCareful reading of draftFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
73 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING The essential qualities – clarity, coherence and conciseness.Clarity:writing is clear when the reader can grasp its meaning in the first reading.The writer bears this responsibilityClarity begins where obstruction ends.FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
74 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING Contoh:Acoustical problems are realized due to the lack of proper insulation.The lack of proper insulation causes acoustical problems.Unfortunately, our competitors have adopted this procedure, but we have not.Our competitors have adopted this procedure, but unfortunately we have not.FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
75 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING The essential qualities – clarity, coherence and conciseness.Coherence:Smooth and logical flow.All the parts hang together to form a whole.FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
76 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING Contoh:Stored program control uses these two memory devices. A program store and a call store. The program store contains the data required to instruct central control how to connect calls and the call store keeps track of all the calls in progress. The two memory stores exchange information and feed instruction to central control, which processes them. Although the system executes only one instruction at a time, it operates so quickly and appears to handle all calls simultaneously.All calls appear to be handled simultaneously, but the two memory devices make it possible for the system to operate so quickly. The data on how to connect call is contained in the program store, which exchanges information with the call store. Central control processes the information of both stores. All the call in progress are recorded in the call store, but the system executes only instruction at a time. Stored program control uses these two memory devices.FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
77 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING The essential qualities – clarity, coherence and conciseness.Conciseness:The expression of much in few words (relevance and necessity).Contoh:The reason that quality control over the past several years has gone down is that management has not taken the trouble to train inspectors enough to do the job.Quality control has suffered in recent years because management has not trained inspectors adequately.FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
78 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING Describe objects, explains processes, theories and policies – usually in combination.Object.A die is a solid cube that is cast on a flat surface, usually in pairs in a games of chance. Carved in bone, or molded in plastic, it ranges in size from 1.27 to 1.58 cm squares, and is usually white, green or red. Each face of the die is marked with ………ProcessThe functioning of the brains depends on the flow of information through elaborate circuits consisting of networks of neurons. Information is transferred from one cell to …………FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
79 PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING Describe objects, explains processes, theories and policies – usually in combination.TheoryPolicyThe teacher, under the principles of academic freedom, has the right to discuss in his classroom all issues, however controversial, that he considers relevant to the nature of his course. This right carries with it the responsibility of considering controversial objectively. While the teacher has the right to present conclusion to which he believes the evidence points, he has responsibility of acknowledging the existence of – and showing respect for – opposing opinions.FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
80 A logical, general description. A schematic summary. DEVELOPING AN OUTLINEAN OUTLINE IS:A logical, general description.A schematic summary.An organizational pattern.A visual and conceptual design of your writing.FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
81 Determine purpose of paper Determine audience DEVELOPING AN OUTLINEPurpose:General and specific.Processes:Determine purpose of paperDetermine audienceDevelop the thesis of the paper.FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
82 DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE Structure of an outline: Principles: Parallelism Coordination.Items of equal significance are given comparable designations.A is equal to a B, a1 to a2 etc.Contoh:Word processing programsDatabase programsSpreadsheet programsWord processing programsMicrosoft wordsPage MakerFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
83 DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE Coordination. Contoh: Types of programs Word processingDesktop publishingEvaluation of programsWordWord perfectPage MakerQ expressFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
84 DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE Subordination Word processing Word Word perfectDesktop publishingPage MakerQ expressWord processing programsWordUsefulObseleteFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
85 A Word Positive features Negative features Word Perfect FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
86 Personal computers: hardware Types Cost maintenance DEVELOPING AN OUTLINEDivision.Personal computers: hardwareTypesCostmaintenancePersonal computers: softwareFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
87 DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE Division. Computers Mainframe Micro Floppy disk Hard diskComputers usesInstitutionalPersonalFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
88 DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - RESEARCH PAPER TITLE:The Influence of Ecological Factors on Teenage DepressionOUTLINE:INTRODUCTIONLITERATURE REVIEWMETHODSFINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONCONCLUSION, IMPLICATION & RECOMMENDATIONREFERENCESFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
89 DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - RESEARCH PAPER TITLE:The Influence of Ecological Factors on Teenage DepressionOUTLINE:INTRODUCTIONResearch questionsObjectivesLITERATURE REVIEWDefinitionContributing factorsFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
90 DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - RESEARCH PAPER METHODSResearch designSample and sampling techniqueData collectionInstrumentationFINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONDescriptive findingsMultivariate analysis/correlational analysis/hypothesis testingCONCLUSION, IMPLICATION & RECOMMENDATIONFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
91 DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - REVIEW/ THEORETICAL PAPER TITLE:Keadilan Sosial di Malaysia: Satu PenilaianOUTLINE:PENGENALANKEADILAN DI MALAYSIAUNSUR KETIDAKADILAN SOSIALFAKTOR YANG MENYUMBANG KEPADA KETIDAKADILAN SOSIALKESIMPULANFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
92 DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - REVIEW/ THEORETICAL PAPER TITLE:Keadilan Sosial di Malaysia: Satu PenilaianOUTLINE:PENGENALANFokusMakna keadilan sosialKEADILAN DI MALAYSIAEkonomiPolitikPerundangan dan kehakimanHubungan antara kaumFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
93 DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - REVIEW/ THEORETICAL PAPER UNSUR KETIDAKADILAN SOSIALEkonomiPolitikPerundangan dan kehakimanHubungan antara kaumFAKTOR YANG MENYUMBANG KEPADA KETIDAKADILAN SOSIALKESIMPULANRUJUKANFEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011
94 FEM 4000 – TOPIK 6 ORAL PRESENTATION Introduction Oral reports in class:Will increase ability and confidence to think on your feetLonger term – not only help in launching a career, but in career advancementBrief, focused presentations.Well prepared, but not “memorized speeches”FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
95 FEM 4000 - ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report In content & structure – similar to written reportBoth need introduction, a body and an endingBut additional factors must be considered in each section when a report is presented orally.FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
96 FEM 4000 - ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report Introductionshould announce your subject, purpose & scopeGain the audience attentionThought provoking questionMake a dramatic statementPresent an interesting factShouldn’t be too gimmickyFEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
97 FEM 4000 - ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report BodyLimit the number of points you coverNormal limitations of the attention spanOrient the audience more – e.g., a third factor that may hinder the progress …..Rule of thumb for structuring the body of presentation is to build as many signposts as you can.Tell the audience what you’re going to tell themTell themTell them you’ve told themFEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
98 FEM 4000 - ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report EndingAudience interest is highest at the beginning and end of presentationThus, use ending to summarize/ highlight the main pointsUse the method of ending that is most suitable to your subject and purpose:A summaryA conclusionA recommendationAn appeal to actionAn appropriate generalizationFEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
99 FEM 4000 - ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report Use note cards that contain key word or phrases instead of complete sentences.Reduce anxiety:PreparePracticeVisit the siteTake a few deep breathsConcentrate on friendly faces in the audience at first to build confidence.Move your arms, feet or point to something to release nervous energy.FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
100 FEM 4000 - ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report Presentation as a whole – some strategies to get the most out of your planning/preparation:Look at your audience and talk directly to themIf faces make you nervous, Look at forehead instead – appear to the audience that you are looking right into their eyesStand on both feet – stop nervous shiftingLet your arms move to accompany your wordsSpeak loud enough so everyone can hear youSpeak clearlySpeak slow enough to give the audience time to absorb what you say.Talk naturallyLet your voice show that you are interested in your subject.FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
101 FEM 4000 - ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report Handling Visuals during the SpeechPosition visuals so they are visible from all parts of the roomIntroduce any visual you showExplain the visuals or talk about the key ideas they suggestStand next to the visual not in front of it.Point the visual with the arm closest to it. Don’t reach across your body 9blocks view and interferes with eye contact)Show the visual long enough for the audience for the audience to grasp its detailsFEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
102 Topic 7: Penggunaan Teknologi dalam Pembentangan Kertas Kerja Creating an Effective PowerPoint PresentationEffective PowerPoint slidesText guidelinesClip Art and GraphicsAudiencePrepare your presentationWhat happens if the computer does not work but your audience still expects a presentation?Rehearse, test presentation on colleagues.Don’t read off the screen!FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
103 Effective PowerPoint slides Use design templatesStandardize position, colors and styles Include only necessary information Limit the information to essentialsContent should be self-evidentUse colors that contrast Be consistent with effects, transitions and animation Too many slides can lose your audienceFEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
104 2. Text guidelines Generally no more than 6 words a line Generally no more than 6 lines a slideAvoid long sentencesLarger font indicates more important information Font size generally ranges from 18 to 48 pointBe sure text contrasts with backgroundFancy fonts can be hard to readWords in all capital letters are hard to readLimit punctuation marksAvoid abbreviations and acronymsFEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY
105 3. Clip Art and GraphicsShould balance the slideShould enhance and complement the text, not overwhelm No more than two graphics per slide
106 4. AudienceWho is your audience? What is their background? What do they expect to get from the presentation? What is the age of your audience?Your message may be great but you will irritate your audience if they can not read your slides.
107 5. Prepare your presentation What is your message and what do you want to accomplish with your presentation?What is your time constraint?How do you wish to handle questions, during or after the presentation?Your audience may determine that for you.
108 6. What happens if the computer does not work but your audience still expects a presentation? Handouts of your slides may be useful even if the computer does work. You may print small versions of your slides or the outline version.
109 7. Rehearse, test presentation on colleagues. 8. Don’t read off the screen!Use slides as prompts, outlines, or conversation points, not cue cards. It is very boring for the audience to see every word you say or have you read from note cards.