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INSTRUCTOR: SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB, PhD. OFFICE:TINGKAT 1 BLOK A, FEM CONTACT NO: 03-89467088/012-2841844 ADDRESS:Jab. Pembangunan.

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Presentation on theme: "INSTRUCTOR: SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB, PhD. OFFICE:TINGKAT 1 BLOK A, FEM CONTACT NO: 03-89467088/012-2841844 ADDRESS:Jab. Pembangunan."— Presentation transcript:

1 INSTRUCTOR: SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB, PhD. OFFICE:TINGKAT 1 BLOK A, FEM CONTACT NO: / ADDRESS:Jab. Pembangunan Manusia & Pengajian Keluarga, Fakulti Ekologi Manusia, UPM Serdang, Selangor. SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA

2 2 SINOPSIS KURSUS: Perbincangan tentang isu semasa berkaitan pembangunan manusia dalam pelbagai konteks. Pelajar menganalisis dan membentang seminar tentang isu terpilih ke arah peningkatan kualiti kehidupan.

3 TAJUK KULIAH Pengenalan kepada isu semasa dalam pembangunan manusia Overview pelbagai konteks pembangunan manusia Panduan pengumpulan maklumat tentang isu terpilih Kaedah menganalisis isu pembangunan manusia Teknik menyediakan kertas kerja Teknik pembentangan kertas kerja Penggunaan teknologi dalam pembentangan kertas kerja 3

4 AMALI Pelajar memilih tajuk, menjalankan kajian perpustakaan atau lapangan, menulis laporan dan seterusnya membentangkan kertas kerja 4

5 Pelajar dapat: Mengenalpasti isu semasa dan utama dalam pembangunan manusia Menganalisis pelbagai isu pembangunan manusia mengikut konteks Membincangkan isu tertentu ke arah peningkatan kualiti hidup manusia 5 HASIL PEMBELAJARAN

6 PENILAIAN KURSUS ItemPenilaianNilai (%)Tarikh Akhir 1Penulisan Kertas Kerja 130%2 minggu sebelum peperiksaan akhir 2Pembentangan Kertas Kerja Seminar 40%Perjumpaan Bersemuka Kedua 3Penulisan Kertas Kerja 230%2 minggu sbelum peperiksaan akhir JUMLAH100% 6

7 RUJUKAN Darcey, J. (1991). Human Development Across Lifespan. Dubuque: Brown Publishers. Kamarudin Ngah (1990). Kaedah Penyelidikan. Petaling Jaya: Penerbit Fajar Bakti. Pearsell, T. E. (2001). The Elements of Technical Writing. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Penslar, R. L. (1995). Research Ethnics: Case Materials. Bloomington: Indiana University. Roze, M. & Maxwell, S. (2002). Technical Communication in the Age of Internet. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Veit, R., Gould, C., & Clifford, J. (1990). Writing, Reading, and Research. New York: MacMillan. Watson, W., Pardo, L., & Tomovic, V. (1989). How to Give an Effective Seminar. Toronto: Stoddart. 7

8  Bagi tugasan 1 dan 2, pelajar perlu menulis kertas kerja dan membentangkannya dalam seminar pada Perjumpaan Bersemuka Kedua.  Tema bagi seminar ini ialah “Pembangunan Manusia dalam Era Globalisasi: Isu dan Cabaran”. SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA

9 Subtema seminar adalah seperti berikut: (i) Sosial dan Kekeluargaan (ii) Ekonomi dan Kewangan (iii) Teknologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi (ICT) (iv) Kesihatan (v) Alam Sekitar. SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA

10  Tulis kertas kerja dalam Bahasa Malaysia atau Bahasa Inggeris antara muka surat (langkau dua).  Bentang kertas kerja yang ditulis semasa Perjumpaan Bersemuka Kedua.  Anggaran masa pembentangan adalah 30 minit bagi setiap pelajar.  Selepas bentang, baiki kertas kerja dan hantar 2 minggu sebelum peperiksaan akhir.  Setiap pelajar boleh memilih isu-isu ini sebagai tajuk atau beri tajuk lain yang berkaitan bagi tugasan 1 dan tugasan 2. SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA

11 10. Rompak 11. Curi 12. Culik 13. Simbahan Asid 14. Lari dari Rumah 15. Transexual 16. Penderaan 17. Keganasan Rumahtangga 18. Kepincangan Institusi Keluarga 19. Sumbang Mahram SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA Ibu Bapa bawah Umur 2. Bunuh Diri 3. Rogol 4. Buang Bayi 5. Pemerdagangan Manusia 6. Mat Rempit/Lumba Haram 7. Dadah 8. Pelacur 9. Gangsterism

12 1. Kenaikan Harga Barang 2. Inflasi 3. Ketidaksamaan Ekonomi antara Bandar dan Luar Bandar 4. Kemiskinan 5. Pengangguran 6. Pinjaman (rumah, kereta) 7. PTPTN 8. Ceti Haram-Along SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA

13 1. Social Network 2. Pembangunan ICT 3. Pengalahgunaan Internet 4. Ketagihan Internet 5. Trend SMS SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA

14 1. HIV 2. Penuaan 3. Merokok 4. Obesiti 5. Denggi 6. Makanan Kesihatan 7. Kos Perubatan Meningkat 8. Kekurangan Doktor SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA

15 1. Global Warming 2. Kitar Semula 3. Bencana Alam 4. Pencemaran Alam Sekitar 5. Kehausan Petroleum 6. Kebersihan Bandar SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA

16 1. Bagi tugasan 3, pelajar perlu menulis kertas kerja berdasarkan topik yang dipilih masing-masing. 2. Topik yang dipilih mestilah merupakan isu semasa berkaitan pembangunan manusia global. 3. Tulis kertas kerja dalam Bahasa Malaysia atau Bahasa Inggeris antara muka surat (langkau dua). 4. Serah tugasan 3 dua minggu sebelum peperiksaan akhir. SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA

17 FEM 4000 TOPIK 1 PENGENALAN KEPADA ISU SEMASA DALAM PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA

18 ECOLOGY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT URIE BRONFENBRENNER  study individual’s development within the context of the system of relationships that form his/her environment.  define complex layers of environment, each having an effect on an individual’s development.  changes in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers.  to understand individual development – must look not only at his/her immediate environment, but also at the interaction of the larger environment.

19  Urie Bronfenbrenner specified four types of nested environmental systems, with bi- directional influences within and between the systems.  The four systems are: –Microsystem –Mesosystem –Exosystem –Macrosystem –Later a fifth system was added: Chronosystem

20 Microsystem: –Immediate environments (family, school, peer group, neighbourhood and childcare environments) Mesosystem: –A system comprised of connections between immediate environments (i.e., a child’s home and school) Exosystem: –External environmental settings which only indirectly affect development (such as parent's workplace)

21 Macrosystem: - The larger culturalcontext (Eastern vs. Western culture,national economy, political culture, subculture) Chronosystem: - The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the course of life.

22  Each system contains: – roles, norms and rules that can powerfully shape development.

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25 WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT?  Human development is the process of growing to maturity. In biological terms, this entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being.  In the scope of humanity, human development is an international and economic development paradigm  Human development can refer to anthropological, sociological, and psychological approaches to examining human development in context  Human development can be viewed as the process of achieving an optimum level of health and well-being. It includes physical, biological, mental, emotional, social, educational, economic, and cultural components.

26  Human Development: Paul Streeten describes human development as the process of enlarging people’s choices, the choices that are created by expanding human capabilities and functioning – what people do and can do in their lives.  (UNDP, 1999)  Individuals do not develop their capabilities in vacuum.  A person’s individual attributes are influenced by the family, community and society into which the individual is born, grows up, and lives as an adult.

27 WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? "The basic purpose of development is to enlarge people's choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and can change over time. People often value achievements that do not show up at all, or not immediately, in income or growth figures: greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health services, more secure livelihoods, security against crime and physical violence, satisfying leisure hours, political and cultural freedoms and sense of participation in community activities. The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives." Mahbub ul Haq Founder of the Human Development Report

28 WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? Human Development is a development paradigm that is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes. Human Development is a development paradigm that is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes. It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests.It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. People are the real wealth of nations.People are the real wealth of nations. Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead lives that they value.Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead lives that they value. And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means —if a very important one —of enlarging people’s choices.And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means —if a very important one —of enlarging people’s choices.

29 WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? Fundamental to enlarging these choices is building human capabilities —the range of things that people can do or be in life.Fundamental to enlarging these choices is building human capabilities —the range of things that people can do or be in life. The most basic capabilities for human development are to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community.The most basic capabilities for human development are to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community. Without these, many choices are simply not available, and many opportunities in life remain inaccessible.Without these, many choices are simply not available, and many opportunities in life remain inaccessible.

30 CENTRAL ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT  Issues in Human Development may draw upon many different disciplines: – the natural, social and behavioral sciences. – humanistic and cultural studies.  helps in the illustrations and understanding of human experience and behavior.

31 CENTRAL ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT  Some critical topics in Human Development: –the nature of human development and changes across the life span –the social and environmental contexts in which human development takes place –the determinants of human development and behavior –the domains and dimensions of thought, emotion and action

32 EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT  Health issues  Educational issues – information and knowledge  Income/ economy/ poverty – levels of living  Environmental issues  Technological innovations  Globalization  Ageing population  Human capital development/ socialization  Human rights  Civil society – values, moral, ethics, integrity  migration/ foreign workers  balancing work and family  Social ills

33 FEM 4000 TOPIK 2 KONTEKS PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA

34  The Theory of Human Development: A Cross- Cultural Analysis – Welzel et al. (2002) 3 trajectories of societal change:  socioeconomic development  value change  society’s political institutions

35  The Theory of Human Development: A cross- cultural analysis 3 trajectories of societal change:  socioeconomic development  Set of closely linked changes including technological innovation, productivity growth, improving health and life expectancy, increasing incomes, rising levels of education, growing access to information and increasing social complexity.

36  The Theory of Human Development: A cross- cultural analysis 3 trajectories of societal change:  value change  comes along with SED when expanding markets and social mobilization diversify and intensify human activities (e.g. – commercial transactions)

37  The Theory of Human Development: A cross- cultural analysis 3 trajectories of societal change:  value change  it weaken vertical authority relations, strengthen horizontal bargaining relations  emergence of civic cultural values; individual modernity; postmaterialistic values; liberal values; self-expression values

38  The Theory of Human Development: A cross- cultural analysis 3 trajectories of societal change:  society’s political institutions  massive trends towards more democracy outcomes of change???  Irreversible linear trend or cyclical patterns?  Global or culture specific?  Desirable?

39  The Theory of Human Development: A cross- cultural analysis 3 trajectories of societal change:  SED, value change & democratization – tend to go together

40  The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC DIMENSION CULTURAL DIMENSION INSTITUTIONAL DIMENSION COMPONENTSINDIVIDUAL RESOURCES EMANCIPATIVE VALUES FREEDOM RIGHTS GENERATING PROCESS SEDEmancipative cultural change Democratization; extension of rights SOCIETAL SPHERESSphere of means (social structure) Sphere of motives (political culture) Sphere of rules (regime institutions) PREVAILING CAUSAL DIRECTION Means-motive linkage Motives-rules linkage UNDERLYING THEMEHuman choice on a mass level

41  Human Development: Paul Streeten describes human development as the process of enlarging people’s choices, the choices that are created by expanding human capabilities and functioning – what people do and can do in their lives. (UNDP, 1999)  Individuals do not develop their capabilities in vacuum.  A person’s individual attributes are influenced by the family, community and society into which the individual is born, grows up, and lives as an adult.

42  Social contexts of human development:  Population  Poverty and equality  Social infrastructure  Families and household  Education, health and social security.

43 FEM 4000 TOPIK 3 PENGUMPULAN MAKLUMAT TENTANG ISU TERPILIH

44  Determine your information needs Define your topic Increase familiarity with your topic Map your ideas Types of assignment Amount of information Types of sources Types of publications  Identify and obtain information

45  Define your topic Before you begin looking for information, you should identify: the exact problem you wish to solve the concepts and terms that describe the problem the amount of information required to solve the problem the type of information required to solve the problem.

46  Increase familiarity with your topic Do some preliminary research of your set topic by familiarising yourself with your lecture notes, relevant chapter etc.  Map your ideas BULITEORIPUNCAINTERNAL EXTERNAL IMPAKFIZIKALPSIKOSOSIAL

47  Types of assignment Assignments can vary from a short 5 minute oral presentation, to a technical report, literature review, or thesis. The type of assignment you are asked to produce has a direct affect on: the amount of information you require the types of sources you require the types of publications you require.

48  Amount of information  Some assignments can be completed by consulting your lecture notes... ... while other assignments require more detailed and comprehensive information.  How much is enough?  The question of how much information is required is a matter of judgement.  To ensure you meet the requirements and present an appropriate depth of coverage of your topic, refer to the marking and assessment criteria set by your lecturer.  The length, weight, marks, and task should guide the amount of information required.

49  Types of sources  You may be directed to use only primary sources for your assignment......while other assignments might require use of both primary and secondary sources.  Information sources can be regarded as primary or secondary depending on their:  originality  proximity to the source or event.

50  Types of sources  Primary sources come directly from the source or person. They are original materials, which have not been filtered through interpretation.  For example: patents, statistics, interviews and surveys  Secondary sources analyse, interpret and comment on primary information.  For example: biographies, journal articles

51  Evaluate Information or Resources  Relevance  Timeliness  Reliability  Validity  Coverage  Accuracy

52  Relevance  Read the table of contents, abstract or summary. Ask yourself:  Does the information sound relevant?  Who is the intended audience?  Are they central or peripheral to your topic?  Primary or secondary source?  Comprehensive enough for your needs?  Express particular point of view?  Level of the presented information

53  Timeliness – is the information timely?  when published/ compiled?  information regularly updated? How often?  still valid for your topic?

54  Reliability – is the information reliable?  who is the author?  credentials of the author?  come from an authoritative source?  where published? Journal? Popular magazines?  been edited/ reviewed?  how stable is the information?

55  Validity  What process was used to gather and analyse the information?  When assessing the validity of the information, ensure that its collection used sound methodology based on established principles and fact or is consistent with accepted professional and industry standards.  Documentation of methods, assumptions and sources of error should be transparent.

56  Coverage – is the information complete?  does it cover the topic in terms of:  time – historical information, current information  geography – local, regional, national, international  specificity – how specific? Detailed or general?  point of view – a single point, an opposing points, or a range of view points?  is the information complete / abridged?  all the information accessible? Summary only?

57  Accuracy – is it accurate or bias?  how is it presented? fact or opinion?  is it correct? can verify?  obvious errors or omissions?  facts misquoted or misrepresented?  language use – concrete, objective, specific.  is it biased? represent particular point of view, intentionally exclude others?

58 TOPIC 4: METHODS OF ANALYZING ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

59  Many psychologist study human development. They tend to understanding what is the unique about humans. Methods and techniques are developed to study how humans learn.  Millicent Shinn of Niles, California is the first person to complete observation on a child. She observed on her niece and made records. The records was published in The Biography of a Baby.  This will help many psychologists to understand how importance of the scientific study in research area.

60  This topic surveys the methods that developmental psychologist use in studying the human beings. Contents: Cross-sectional method Longitudinal method Cross cultural studies Co-twin studes

61  Key to be remember: - Compare groups that differ in age or background.  It aims to compare developmental levels at various ages or background.  Gather data at one point in time.  It contrast with longitudinal method.

62  Example: Study the developmental level of infant from birth to 1 year-old. Different group with different age infants will be investigated to compare their developmental level. Various group of subjects participate in a study: A group of 1 month-old infants, a group of 2 months-old infants……a group of 12 months-old infant. Compare these 12 groups of subject.

63 Longitudinal Method  Key to be remember: - Observe one group at different times.  Same group of subjects will be studied in different times.  Normally used in study the stages of human development.  Strength: - Able to observe the subject’s developmental stage from beginning to end of the study.  Weakness: - Attrition/subject loss - Subject loss occurs when participants fail to complete the study.

64 Cross Cultural Studies  Key to be remember: - Compare groups from different cultures.  It focus on how culture influences on human’s development.  People differ in culture, customs, and roles are being studied and compared.  Topics which related with cross cultural studies: Individualism vs. collectivism Gender roles Intelligence

65  Key to be remember: - Differences between identical twins are not caused by heredity.  When developmental psychologist want to rule out the effects of heredity in their study.  This method aims to compare the identical twins who have been given different kinds or training or reared apart.

66 Co-twin Studies For example, Hilgard (1933) had conducted a study about memory performance. 1.Trained one twin to remember digits in the first year 2.Trained the other twin to remember digits in the second year. 3.Compare their memory performance. Result: 1.The twin trained later did better than the twin trained in the first year. 2.Both of the twins lost their achievement after training was ended.

67 Co-twin Studies  This indicates that time of training could influence twins’ memory performance.  Time of training served as an Independent variable/ environmental factor in the study.  Journal related: Borkenaua, P., Riemann, R., Angleitner, A., & Spinathc, F. M. (2002). Similarity of childhood experiences and personality resemblance in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: a test of the equal environments assumption. Personality and Individual Differences, 33:

68 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  The word “technical” is defined as having special, usually practical knowledge. - Webster  Technical – derived from Greek word “tekhnê” and “tektõn” which mean “craft” and “carpenter”.  Craft and carpentry are skills that require special knowledge.  Suggests that technical writing is writing that involves special knowledge and vocabulary. FEM 4000 TOPIK 5: TEKNIK MENYEDIAKAN KERTAS KERJA

69 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI Technical writing is chiefly writing and secondly technical. 2. The basic function of technical writing is to inform. 1. Descriptions – specific details 2. Explanations – logical analysis PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING

70 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI The form and tone depend on its purpose and audience. 1. Purpose: to inform, instruct, persuade, to obtain something – or a combination of purpose.  Categories of technical writing: 1.Proposal 2.Feasibility report 3.Survey report 4.Progress report 5.Complaint report 6.Trip report 7.Conference report 8.Laboratory report. 9.Technical paper. 10.Instruction manual PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING

71 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI The form and tone depend on its purpose and audience. 2. Audience: i. Who are they? ii. What do they know about the subject? iii. What do they want? iv. What do they want it for? i & ii – set the tone for technical writing iii & iv – what to cover and to emphasize PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING

72 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI Accuracy. Information is correct and complete. Fulfills special purpose and directed to its specific audience. Foundation of accuracy :  solid research  Careful transcription of notes  Thorough checking of figures  Careful reading of draft PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING

73 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI The essential qualities – clarity, coherence and conciseness. Clarity:  writing is clear when the reader can grasp its meaning in the first reading.  The writer bears this responsibility  Clarity begins where obstruction ends. PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING

74 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI Contoh: PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING Acoustical problems are realized due to the lack of proper insulation. The lack of proper insulation causes acoustical problems. Our competitors have adopted this procedure, but unfortunately we have not. Unfortunately, our competitors have adopted this procedure, but we have not.

75 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI The essential qualities – clarity, coherence and conciseness. Coherence:  Smooth and logical flow.  All the parts hang together to form a whole. PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING

76 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI Contoh: PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING All calls appear to be handled simultaneously, but the two memory devices make it possible for the system to operate so quickly. The data on how to connect call is contained in the program store, which exchanges information with the call store. Central control processes the information of both stores. All the call in progress are recorded in the call store, but the system executes only instruction at a time. Stored program control uses these two memory devices. Stored program control uses these two memory devices. A program store and a call store. The program store contains the data required to instruct central control how to connect calls and the call store keeps track of all the calls in progress. The two memory stores exchange information and feed instruction to central control, which processes them. Although the system executes only one instruction at a time, it operates so quickly and appears to handle all calls simultaneously.

77 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI The essential qualities – clarity, coherence and conciseness. Conciseness:  The expression of much in few words (relevance and necessity).  Contoh: PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING The reason that quality control over the past several years has gone down is that management has not taken the trouble to train inspectors enough to do the job. Quality control has suffered in recent years because management has not trained inspectors adequately.

78 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI Describe objects, explains processes, theories and policies – usually in combination. Object.  A die is a solid cube that is cast on a flat surface, usually in pairs in a games of chance. Carved in bone, or molded in plastic, it ranges in size from 1.27 to 1.58 cm squares, and is usually white, green or red. Each face of the die is marked with ……… Process  The functioning of the brains depends on the flow of information through elaborate circuits consisting of networks of neurons. Information is transferred from one cell to ………… PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING

79 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI Describe objects, explains processes, theories and policies – usually in combination. Theory Policy  The teacher, under the principles of academic freedom, has the right to discuss in his classroom all issues, however controversial, that he considers relevant to the nature of his course. This right carries with it the responsibility of considering controversial objectively. While the teacher has the right to present conclusion to which he believes the evidence points, he has responsibility of acknowledging the existence of – and showing respect for – opposing opinions. PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING

80 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  AN OUTLINE IS: A logical, general description. A schematic summary. An organizational pattern. A visual and conceptual design of your writing. DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE

81 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  Purpose: General and specific.  Processes: Determine purpose of paper Determine audience Develop the thesis of the paper. DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE

82 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  Structure of an outline: Principles:  Parallelism  Coordination.  Items of equal significance are given comparable designations.  A is equal to a B, a1 to a2 etc.  Contoh: DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE A.Word processing programs B.Database programs C.Spreadsheet programs A.Word processing programs B.Microsoft words C.Page Maker

83 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  Coordination.  Contoh: DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE A.Types of programs 1.Word processing 2.Desktop publishing B.Evaluation of programs 1.Word processing a.Word b.Word perfect 2.Desktop publishing a.Page Maker b.Q express

84 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI Subordination DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE 1.Word processing a.Word b.Word perfect 2.Desktop publishing a.Page Maker b.Q express 1.Word processing programs a.Word b.Useful c.Obselete

85 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI A. A Word 1. Positive features 2. Negative features B. Word Perfect 1. Positive features 2. Negative features

86 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  Division. A. Personal computers: hardware 1. Types 2. Cost 3. maintenance B. Personal computers: software DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE

87 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  Division. A. Computers 1. Mainframe 2. Micro 3. Floppy disk 4. Hard disk B. Computers uses 1. Institutional 2. Personal DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE

88 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  TITLE: The Influence of Ecological Factors on Teenage Depression  OUTLINE: INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW METHODS FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION & RECOMMENDATION REFERENCES DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - RESEARCH PAPER

89 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  TITLE: The Influence of Ecological Factors on Teenage Depression  OUTLINE: INTRODUCTION  Research questions  Objectives LITERATURE REVIEW  Definition  Contributing factors DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - RESEARCH PAPER

90 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI METHODS  Research design  Sample and sampling technique  Data collection  Instrumentation FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION  Descriptive findings  Multivariate analysis/correlational analysis/hypothesis testing CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION & RECOMMENDATION DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - RESEARCH PAPER

91 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  TITLE: Keadilan Sosial di Malaysia: Satu Penilaian  OUTLINE: PENGENALAN KEADILAN DI MALAYSIA UNSUR KETIDAKADILAN SOSIAL FAKTOR YANG MENYUMBANG KEPADA KETIDAKADILAN SOSIAL KESIMPULAN DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - REVIEW/ THEORETICAL PAPER

92 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI  TITLE: Keadilan Sosial di Malaysia: Satu Penilaian  OUTLINE: PENGENALAN  Fokus  Makna keadilan sosial KEADILAN DI MALAYSIA  Ekonomi  Politik  Perundangan dan kehakiman  Hubungan antara kaum DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - REVIEW/ THEORETICAL PAPER

93 FEM 4000 FEBRUARI UNSUR KETIDAKADILAN SOSIAL  Ekonomi  Politik  Perundangan dan kehakiman  Hubungan antara kaum FAKTOR YANG MENYUMBANG KEPADA KETIDAKADILAN SOSIAL  Ekonomi  Politik  Perundangan dan kehakiman  Hubungan antara kaum KESIMPULAN RUJUKAN DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - REVIEW/ THEORETICAL PAPER

94 94  Oral reports in class: Will increase ability and confidence to think on your feet Longer term – not only help in launching a career, but in career advancement  Brief, focused presentations.  Well prepared, but not “memorized speeches” FEM 4000 – TOPIK 6 ORAL PRESENTATION Introduction FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY

95 95  In content & structure – similar to written report Both need introduction, a body and an ending But additional factors must be considered in each section when a report is presented orally. FEM ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report

96 FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY96  Introduction should announce your subject, purpose & scope Gain the audience attention  Thought provoking question  Make a dramatic statement  Present an interesting fact Shouldn’t be too gimmicky FEM ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report

97 FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY97  Body Limit the number of points you cover  Normal limitations of the attention span  Orient the audience more – e.g., a third factor that may hinder the progress ….. Rule of thumb for structuring the body of presentation is to build as many signposts as you can.  Tell the audience what you’re going to tell them  Tell them  Tell them you’ve told them FEM ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report

98 FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY98  Ending Audience interest is highest at the beginning and end of presentation Thus, use ending to summarize/ highlight the main points Use the method of ending that is most suitable to your subject and purpose:  A summary  A conclusion  A recommendation  An appeal to action  An appropriate generalization FEM ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report

99 FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY99  Presentation Use note cards that contain key word or phrases instead of complete sentences. Reduce anxiety:  Prepare  Practice  Visit the site  Take a few deep breaths  Concentrate on friendly faces in the audience at first to build confidence.  Move your arms, feet or point to something to release nervous energy. FEM ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report

100 FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY100  Presentation as a whole – some strategies to get the most out of your planning/preparation: Look at your audience and talk directly to them  If faces make you nervous, Look at forehead instead – appear to the audience that you are looking right into their eyes Stand on both feet – stop nervous shifting Let your arms move to accompany your words Speak loud enough so everyone can hear you Speak clearly Speak slow enough to give the audience time to absorb what you say. Talk naturally Let your voice show that you are interested in your subject. FEM ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report

101 FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY101  Handling Visuals during the Speech Position visuals so they are visible from all parts of the room Introduce any visual you show Explain the visuals or talk about the key ideas they suggest Stand next to the visual not in front of it. Point the visual with the arm closest to it. Don’t reach across your body 9blocks view and interferes with eye contact) Show the visual long enough for the audience for the audience to grasp its details FEM ORAL PRESENTATION How to Prepare & Present Oral Report

102 Topic 7: Penggunaan Teknologi dalam Pembentangan Kertas Kerja Creating an Effective PowerPoint Presentation 1. Effective PowerPoint slides 2. Text guidelines 3. Clip Art and Graphics 4. Audience 5. Prepare your presentation 6. What happens if the computer does not work but your audience still expects a presentation? 7. Rehearse, test presentation on colleagues. 8. Don’t read off the screen! FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY 102

103 1. Effective PowerPoint slides  Use design templates  Standardize position, colors and styles  Include only necessary information  Limit the information to essentials  Content should be self-evident  Use colors that contrast  Be consistent with effects, transitions and animation  Too many slides can lose your audience FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY 103

104 2. Text guidelines o Generally no more than 6 words a line o Generally no more than 6 lines a slide o Avoid long sentences o Larger font indicates more important information o Font size generally ranges from 18 to 48 point o Be sure text contrasts with background o Fancy fonts can be hard to read o Words in all capital letters are hard to read o Limit punctuation marks o Avoid abbreviations and acronyms FEM 4000/KEDUA /SNY 104

105 3. Clip Art and Graphics  Should balance the slide  Should enhance and complement the text, not overwhelm  No more than two graphics per slide

106 4. Audience Who is your audience? What is their background? What do they expect to get from the presentation? What is the age of your audience? Your message may be great but you will irritate your audience if they can not read your slides.

107 5. Prepare your presentation  What is your message and what do you want to accomplish with your presentation?  What is your time constraint?  How do you wish to handle questions, during or after the presentation?  Your audience may determine that for you.

108 6. What happens if the computer does not work but your audience still expects a presentation?  Handouts of your slides may be useful even if the computer does work.  You may print small versions of your slides or the outline version.

109 7. Rehearse, test presentation on colleagues. 8. Don’t read off the screen!  Use slides as prompts, outlines, or conversation points, not cue cards.  It is very boring for the audience to see every word you say or have you read from note cards.


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