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16.317: Microprocessor System Design I

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1 16.317: Microprocessor System Design I
4/14/2017 16.317: Microprocessor System Design I Instructor: Dr. Michael Geiger Spring 2012 Lecture 22: Virtual memory Chapter 2

2 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22
Lecture outline Announcements/reminders Lab 2 due 3/28 HW 3 due 3/26 Lecture outline Review Local memory accesses Interrupt descriptor table Task switching Virtual memory Benefits VM and segmentation Paging 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

3 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22
Review Local memory access Selector indicates access is global (TI == 1) LDTR points to LDT descriptor in GDT Actual base, limit of LDT stored in LDTR cache Index field in selector chooses descriptor from LDT Descriptor addr = (LDT base) + (selector index * 8) Descriptor provides starting address of segment Interrupt descriptors Provide starting address, length of interrupt service routines Limited to 256 descriptors Stored in IDT; IDTR holds base/limit of IDT Task switching Task register (TR): selector for current task state segment (TSS) TSS stores all state (register values) for current task Task switch: jump/call that changes TR; old TSS saved and new one loaded 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

4 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22
Problems with memory DRAM may be too expensive to buy enough to cover whole address space We need our programs to work even if they require more memory than we have A program that works with 512 MB RAM should still work with 256 MB RAM Most systems run multiple programs Most processors don’t have hardware multitasking support (like the 386) 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

5 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22
Solutions Leave the problem up to the programmer Assume programmer knows exact memory configuration Overlays Compiler identifies mutually exclusive regions Virtual memory Use hardware and software to automatically translate references from virtual address (what the programmer sees) to physical address (index to DRAM or disk) Most virtual addresses not present in physical memory! 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

6 Virtual Address and VA Space
4/14/2017 Virtual Address and VA Space 80386 virtual addresses: 48-bit Used by Memory Management Unit (MMU) Consists of Selector (16bit): can be one of the segment selector register Offset (32bit): can be EIP or other 32-bit registers Segment can be as large as 4GB Virtual address space can be 246 bytes (64 Terabytes) 2 bits used for privilege level in selector 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22 Chapter 8

7 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22
Address translation Virtual address  physical address Need address translation mechanism May take multiple steps On 80386, two (main) levels Virtual address (VA)  linear address (LA) Uses selectors, descriptors discussed so far Linear address  physical address (PA) If using segmented memory model, PA == LA If using paged memory model, translate LA to PA 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

8 Segmented Partition of Virtual Address Space
80386 virtual memory space is divided into global and local memory address space 32 Terabytes global address space 32 Terabytes local address space Up to 8192 segments may exist in either global or local address space Because maximum size of GDT is 64KBytes, each descriptor is 8bytes, 64KB/8B = 8192 Not all descriptors are normally in use Task has both global and local memory space 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

9 Physical Memory Space and Virtual-to-Physical Address Translation
4GB physical memory vs 64TB virtual memory space Just a small amount of the information in virtual memory can reside in physical memory Segments not in use is stored on secondary storage device Address translation: 48bit VA -> 32bit PA Segment translation Page translation 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

10 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22
Memory Swap MMU determines whether or not a segment or page resides in physical memory If not present, “swap” memory management software initiates loading of the segment or page from external storage device to physical memory A segment or page in physical memory will be swapped out and stored in external storage device 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

11 Segmentation Virtual to Physical Address Translation
48-bit virtual address (selector + offset) translated to 32-bit physical address “Selector” used to find segment descriptor in LDT 64-bit segment descriptor cache register in contains: access rights (12b), base address(32b), limit(20b) Segment descriptor cache defines the location and size of code/data segment Code/data segments in physical memory Offset is the address of the data to be accessed in the segment Segment base address + offset = 32b linear address 32b linear address is physical address, if paging is disabled 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

12 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22
Example Segment selector = 0100H offset = H segment base address = H Q:What is the virtual address? Physical address? A: VA = 0100: H linear address = base address + offset = H H = H if paging disabled, PA = linear addr = H 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

13 Paged partition of Virtual Address Space
Physical memory is organized in 4KB pages 4GB/4KB = 1,048,496 pages Simplifies the implementation of the memory management software Fixed 4K pages make space allocation and deallocation easier than segmentation Space in a page might not be fully utilized Linear address is not direct physical address Undergo a second translation - page translation Format: 12-b offset, 10-b page, 10-b directory field 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

14 Managing virtual memory
Effectively treat main memory as a cache Blocks are called pages Misses are called page faults Virtual address consists of virtual page number and page offset Virtual page number Page offset 31 11 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

15 Virtual address spaces
Page Table OS manages the page table for each ASID Physical Memory Space A valid page table entry codes physical memory “frame” address for the page A virtual address space is divided into blocks of memory called pages frame frame frame A machine usually supports pages of a few sizes (MIPS R4000): frame A page table is indexed by a virtual address 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

16 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22
Details of Page Table Page Table Physical Memory Space Virtual Address Page Table index into page table Base Reg V Access Rights PA V page no. offset 12 table located in physical memory P page no. Physical Address frame frame frame frame virtual address Page table maps virtual page numbers to physical frames (“PTE” = Page Table Entry) Virtual memory => treat memory  cache for disk 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

17 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22
Paging on 80386 Two-level page table First level: “page directory” Starting address stored in CR3 (page directory base register (PDBR)) Indexed by upper 10 bits of linear address Second level: “page table” Starting address of each “page table” stored in page directory Indexed by middle 10 bits of linear address Provides starting address of physical page frame Physical address = (page frame base) (offset) Offset = lowest 12 bits of linear address 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

18 Virtual memory performance
Address translation accesses memory to get PTE  every memory access twice as long Solution: store recently used translations Translation lookaside buffer (TLB): a cache for page table entries “Tag” is the virtual page # TLB small  often fully associative TLB entry also contains valid bit (for that translation); reference & dirty bits (for the page itself!) 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

19 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22
Next time Virtual memory examples 4/14/2017 Microprocessors I: Lecture 22

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