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Interrelativity.com A Special Theory & Practice of Interrelativity Joe McCarthy Connector in Chief Interrelativity, Inc 16 May 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Interrelativity.com A Special Theory & Practice of Interrelativity Joe McCarthy Connector in Chief Interrelativity, Inc 16 May 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 interrelativity.com A Special Theory & Practice of Interrelativity Joe McCarthy Connector in Chief Interrelativity, Inc 16 May 2006

2 interrelativity.com 2 Outline  Motivation  2 problems, 3 observations, a solution  Proactive Displays  UbiComp experience  Other deployments  Related Work  Research projects and commercial systems  Future Prospects

3 interrelativity.com 3 Our Mission Interrelativity designs, develops & deploys technology that helps people relate in shared physical spaces, by integrating: sensing technologies display technologies online personal content Bridging the gaps between people by bridging the gaps between their online and offline worlds

4 interrelativity.com 4 Shyness: a Connection Deficit  We are social:  fundamental need to belong  We are shy:  48% of US population is chronically shy  We want to relate to and connect with others, but often feel unable or unwilling to do so  Even at times and places specifically designed to encourage connections

5 interrelativity.com 5 The Attention Economy  Consumers are tuning out traditional sponsor channels  Need to find new contexts and new content to attract viewers "We want to be part of our customers' lives every day … We want to connect with them where their passions are.“ -- Katie Bayne, Coca-Cola's head of integrated marketing

6 interrelativity.com 6 Observations (1)  Explosive growth in  Sensing technologies (RFID)  Display technologies  Online revelation The Catalogue (Chris Oakley)

7 interrelativity.com 7 RFID Market  Today: $2.7B, 1.8B tags (500M passive, 1.3B active)  2010: $12B; 2016: $27B, 1 trillion tags  RFID vs. barcodes  5-10B barcodes / year  To reach 10B tags / year, need < $0.01 / tag (2020)  Requires new technology Source: IDTechEx Hitachi mu-Chip (0.15x0.15x0.0075) Philips (plastic) Etc.

8 interrelativity.com 8 Access Control Buildings Ski resorts Countries Containers

9 interrelativity.com 9 Healthcare Equipment Medications Patients Blood Surgical sites

10 interrelativity.com 10 Transactions ExxonMobil SpeedPass Illinois Tollway I-Pass SST PowerPay Olympics AmEx ExpressPay MasterCard PayPass

11 interrelativity.com 11 Asset Tracking Livestock Salmon Pets At school On the bus At the park Airline luggage Documents & Folders Beer & Wine

12 interrelativity.com 12 RFID + Children  Sutter, CA, school district  InCom Corporation  Name badges + RFID  Notification vs. consent  6 complaints, 6000 news reports

13 interrelativity.com 13 RFID + Mobile Phones  KDDI  RFID readers  Active & Passive  NTT DoCoMo n901iC FOMA®  Sony FeliCa chip (+ surround sound, card scanner…)

14 interrelativity.com 14 RFID + Sensors  TempSens  Up to 64 temp. readings  Three modes  Interval (2 sec – 18 hrs)  Out-of-range events  Out-of-range + max/min  Shelf life: up to 18 months  Applications: perishable food, drugs 

15 interrelativity.com 15 RFID + Robots Kobe, Japan Mobility Support Project Utah State University Center for People with Disabilities Fukuoka, Japan NTT + Tmsuk

16 interrelativity.com 16 RFID in People  VeriChip (Applied Digital Solutions) Mexico Attorney General Spain Beach Club Cincinnati, OH Tommy Thompson Gov WI, Sec HHS, Applied Digital John Halamka, M.D., CIO Harvard Medical School ?

17 interrelativity.com 17 Amal Graafstra Two implants: EM4102, Philips HITAG 2048 S

18 interrelativity.com 18  Internet: aggregate electronic data  RFID + Internet: aggregate physical world data (!)  Tracking & tracing: people, places & things  Item-level vs. supply chain Risks BoycottBenetton.com BoycottGillette.com BoycottTesco.com

19 interrelativity.com 19 Hacks RFID Chips in Car Keys and Gas Pump Pay Tags Carry Security Risks Avi Rubin, et al., Johns Hopkins University, 29 January How to Kill RFID Tags with a Cell Phone Scientific American Blog, 14 February 2006 Adi Shamir Weizmann Institute

20 interrelativity.com 20 Real ID Act  Passed May 10, 2005  Effective 2008  National ID Card  name, address, DOB, sex, digital photo, ID number  "common machine-readable technology“  not necessarily RFID  WA House Bill 2521  More info:    

21 interrelativity.com 21 Observations (2)  Explosive growth in  Sensing technologies  Display technologies (FPD, digital signage)  Online revelation

22 interrelativity.com 22 Display Market  FPD Public Display Strategy Report: out-of-home, indoor direct-view flat panel display [FPD] market is forecast to grow by 59% from $1.4B to almost $2.2B worldwide by 2008  400K non-TV FPD units shipped in 2005  Expected to reach 1.8M units by 2009 ($3B)

23 interrelativity.com 23 Digital Signage Market United States Narrowcasting Revenues, 2004 – 2009 ($Millions) Commercial Digital Display Systems: The Worldwide Market Outlook for Narrowcasting January 20, 2005

24 interrelativity.com 24 Digital Signage  Walkways Bristol, UK Glasgow, Scotland Times Square, NYC NYC Subways

25 interrelativity.com 25 Digital Signage  Malls Mall at Millenia, Orlando Las Vegas Sandton City, South Africa DestiNY USA, Syracuse The Plaza London Reactrix Korea, Inc.

26 interrelativity.com 26 Digital Signage  Transportation Elevators Bus stops (Mequon, WI) Buses (Milwaukee, WI) Train cars, Kiev Chicago O’Hare Basel Airport (CH)

27 interrelativity.com 27 Observations (3)  Explosive growth in  Sensing technologies  Display technologies  Online (& offline) revelation

28 interrelativity.com 28 Revelation in the Physical World

29 interrelativity.com 29 Revelation in the Digital World  Instant Messaging  Weblogs  Social Network Systems  Newsgroups  eCommerce  Online Dating

30 interrelativity.com 30 Online Profiles 54 million users (+ 1M / week) 5+ million users 40+ million users 16 million users (all online dating services) 25 million Internet sellers 10 million users 2 million users (100 M photos) 5+ million users 80

31 interrelativity.com 31 Online Profiles   According to Pew Internet surveys:   34% Use internet to get photos developed/display photos (9/2005)   30% Look for religious/spiritual info (11/2004)   30% Search for info about someone you know or might meet (9/2005)   27% Read someone else’s web log or “blog” (9/2005)   22% Use online classified ads or sites like Craig’s list (9/2005)   19% Create content for the internet (11/2004)   12% Send or receive an invitation to a meeting or party using an online invitation service (11/2004)   10% Use online social or professional networking sites like Friendster or LinkedIn (9/2005)   9% Create a web log or “blog” (9/2005)

32 interrelativity.com 32 Teen Online Profiles   Some 57% of online teens create content for the internet. That amounts to half of all teens ages 12-17, or about 12 million youth.   The most popular Content Creating activities are sharing self-authored content and working on webpages for others.   33% of online teens share their own creations online, such as artwork, photos, stories, or videos.   32% say that they have created or worked on webpages or blogs for others, including those for groups they belong to, friends or school assignments.   22% report keeping their own personal webpage.   19% have created their own online journal or blog.   About one in five internet-using teens (19%) says they remix content they find online into their own artistic creations.  Pew / Internet, November 2005

33 interrelativity.com 33 Blogging Geyser  April 2005 survey & report by Perseus  number of hosted blogs on 20 services expected to exceed 53.3M by the end of 2005  doesn’t include MySpace

34 interrelativity.com 34 Technorati  As of January 2006:  75,000 new blogs are created every day = 1 / minute  Blogosphere is doubling every 6 months  1.2 M postings / day = 50 K postings / hour

35 interrelativity.com 35 Putting it all together How do we address the problems of connection deficits for individuals and organizations in a way that takes advantage of the proliferation of sensing technologies, display technologies and online revelation?

36 interrelativity.com 36 The Solution: Proactive Displays + Online Profiles Physical Tokens + Large Displays Better Real-world Interactions “Bringing the best of online communities to physical spaces” =

37 interrelativity.com 37 Connections via Proactive Displays  Displays + sensors (+ algorithms + policies + …)  Large displays that can sense & respond appropriately to the people & activities taking place nearby  Implicit, ambient, background (periphery)  Issues:  Context(s)  Where should they go?  Content  What should they show?  Control  How will they know?

38 interrelativity.com 38 Experience UbiComp Project  Desire for mutual revelation  show & tell about you & your work  learn about others & their work  Restricted contexts  Paper / panel sessions  Demo / poster sessions  Reception / breaks  Available content  Explicit: registration info  Implicit: homepage data mining  Control  Register, activate and wear tags during the conference  Opt out at any time (delete profile, discard tag)

39 interrelativity.com 39 Registration

40 interrelativity.com 40 Activation

41 interrelativity.com 41 Experience! AutoSpeakerID Ticket2Talk Neighborhood Window

42 interrelativity.com 42 Neighborhood Window Ticket2Talk Kiosk AutoSpeakerID

43 interrelativity.com 43 AutoSpeakerID  Keynote/Paper/Panel Q&A “augmentation”  RFID: antenna (microphone), tag (badge)  Display photo, name, affiliation  Visual augmentation of common [oral] practice

44 interrelativity.com 44 AutoSpeakerID

45 interrelativity.com 45 Ticket2Talk  Coffee Break  Explicitly provided content  Single person (at a time)

46 interrelativity.com 46 Ticket2Talk

47 interrelativity.com 47 Ticket2Talk  Queue Management: balancing freshness & fairness  Tag recency: +  Ticket recency: -  Minimize thrashing  “5 seconds of fame”

48 interrelativity.com 48 Neighborhood Window  Demonstrations & Poster Session  Implicit content (mined from homepages)  Groups of people (& their words / phrases)

49 interrelativity.com 49

50 interrelativity.com 50 Neighborhood Window  TouchGraph™ visualization tool  People (picture, name)  Words from homepages (and/or interests)  N “unique” words (TFIDF)  2(N–1) “shared” words  Crawling  Only within domain  Issues: frames, size, language  Phrases  NP = [adjective]* noun+ [PP]*  PP = preposition NP

51 interrelativity.com 51 Evaluation

52 interrelativity.com 52 Caveats  Existing communities at conferences  Variations in stature, approachability  Newcomers vs. veterans  Sociotechnical interventions  Complete invisibility is undesirable  Augmentation vs. interference  Privacy  Human subjects issues

53 interrelativity.com 53 Setting & Data Collection  Conference deployment: UbiComp 2003  Medium-sized, single-track, conference  500 attendees (50% from USA)  Two proactive displays:  AutoSpeakerID (ASID)  Ticket2Talk (T2T)  Systematic Observation  Observations + opportunistic interviews  Post-conference Survey  Mix of multiple choice and open-ended response  94 respondents (19% response rate)

54 interrelativity.com 54 Analysis  Simple descriptive statistics  Open-ended survey responses  Grounded approach  Open coding (multiple rounds) Proactive Display ApplicationPositiveImpactNegativeImpact AutoSpeakerID 71 (77%) 10 (11%) Ticket2Talk 39 (41%) 3 (3%)

55 interrelativity.com 55 Design Goals  Proactive displays at UbiComp 2003 were designed to:  Enhance the sense of community among attendees  Mesh with existing practices (calm technology)  Protect the privacy of participants … & non-participants  Mixed successes  Potential goal conflicts

56 interrelativity.com 56 Enhance Feeling of Community  AutoSpeakerID It was nice to be able to see who was speaking to put their question in context if I didn't hear or forgot the person's introduction. It was nice to be able to see who was speaking to put their question in context if I didn't hear or forgot the person's introduction.  Ticket2Talk I was chatting with someone I didn't know personally (small talk) about a recent presentation when I noticed his profile on the Ticket 2 Talk display and realized he was affiliated with an organization I really admire and would like to collaborate with... Noticing this allowed me to redirect the conversation to that topic! I was chatting with someone I didn't know personally (small talk) about a recent presentation when I noticed his profile on the Ticket 2 Talk display and realized he was affiliated with an organization I really admire and would like to collaborate with... Noticing this allowed me to redirect the conversation to that topic!

57 interrelativity.com 57 Mesh with Established Practices  AutoSpeakerID It seemed distracting - in the sessions I was in it seemed that virtually every person who approached the microphone began by commenting on the speaker ID (e.g. "oh it's working, yes that's me" or "it's not working for some reason"). It seemed distracting - in the sessions I was in it seemed that virtually every person who approached the microphone began by commenting on the speaker ID (e.g. "oh it's working, yes that's me" or "it's not working for some reason").  Ticket2Talk People walk up with a big smile. Look at the person standing next to them and again at the display. Is that you?!? One is waving RFID tag in front of reader. Pick me up! People walk up with a big smile. Look at the person standing next to them and again at the display. Is that you?!? One is waving RFID tag in front of reader. Pick me up!

58 interrelativity.com 58 Manage Privacy Concerns  Display agnostic (across both applications)  Unconcerned... it might had been nice that [the research] community directory information was downloaded automatically.... it might had been nice that [the research] community directory information was downloaded automatically.  Concerned I didn't want all this information to be available to everyone - would rather have more control over who gets to see what... and might want to highlight interests differently to different people. I didn't want all this information to be available to everyone - would rather have more control over who gets to see what... and might want to highlight interests differently to different people.

59 interrelativity.com 59 Discussion  AutoSpeakerID  50% of questioners’ tags detected  Introductions: oral only, visual only, visual + oral  Spelling, intelligibility  “Gaming”  3 people, 7 questions  24 comments in survey (18+, 6-)

60 interrelativity.com 60 Discussion  Ticket2Talk  Conversations, awareness among old & new friends  Amarone, kitesurfing  Scuba diving, when Jane met Peter  Provocative content

61 interrelativity.com 61 Sample Tickets

62 interrelativity.com 62 Sample Tickets

63 interrelativity.com 63 Lessons Learned  Prepare for failure  Networking issues  Prepare for success  No kiosks like more kiosks (5% vs. 50% vs. 95%)  Don’t be overprotective  Expect unanticipated uses … within limits  Design for noise  Expect noise, leverage it in the design  Limits of “informed consent”  Conflict between statistical paradigm and UI paradigm

64 interrelativity.com 64 Subsequent Deployments  Sandia National Labs (Jul 2005, 50 people, 3 days)  Washburn party (Dec 2005, 40 people, 3 hours)  Seattle Games Conference (Feb 2006, 200 people, 1 day)  Zino Society Roundtable (Feb 2006, 60 people, 3 hours)  Dorkbot Seattle (Mar 2006, 75 people, 3 hours)  Biznik BalMar (Mar 2006, 40 people, 3 hours)  Zino Society Roundtable (Apr 2006, 60 people, 3 hours)

65 interrelativity.com 65 Profile Photo Name Organization Title “ticket to talk” image “ticket to talk” caption Queue (people detected nearby) Sponsor (banner) Three screen segments

66 interrelativity.com 66 Sample Profiles (& Banners)

67 interrelativity.com 67 Sample Sponsors Event Organizer (other events) Event Sponsor (“Subscribe today!”) Local Business (restaurant)

68 interrelativity.com 68 Sample Tickets

69 interrelativity.com 69 Sample Tickets

70 interrelativity.com 70 Sample Tickets

71 interrelativity.com 71 Sample Tickets

72 interrelativity.com 72 Surveys: Impact

73 interrelativity.com 73 Subsequent Lessons  Space  Location, location, location: go with the flow  Time  Cost (registration) / Benefit (semi-serendipitous connections)  Object re-use  Repurposing profiles  Technical literacy  Lower than anticipated  It takes a village  Everyone’s a customer  Vendors, employees, partners, media, investors, people who purchase your product or service  You’re always selling

74 interrelativity.com 74 Related Work

75 interrelativity.com 75 Related Work: Commercial (1) Clear Channel + Urban Display Network + Lighthouse Technologies + Webpavement Networking / Tracking at Events Digital Signage

76 interrelativity.com 76 Related Work: Commercial (2) Co-promotional Opportunities: The Brand “Us”

77 interrelativity.com 77 Related Work: Research (1)  Intellibadge (UIUC)  Active RF tags + signposts + readers  Aggregate data, visualizations  Meme Tags (MIT)  Interpersonal display: display for other people  RF + LEDs + programming  Sotto Voce (PARC)  Electronic guidebook for museum visits  Enhance pairwise social interactions

78 interrelativity.com 78 Related Work: Research (2)  PlasmaPoster (FXPAL)  Interactive community bulletin board  Corporate, conference, café contexts  Opinionizer (Sussex)  Shared display at social events  Interaction through typed input  Dynamo (Sussex)  High school setting  Interaction via USB disk  AgentSalon (ATR)  Interaction via PalmGuides (PDAs)  Conversations mediated by animated agents Public and Situated Displays O’Hara, Perry, Churchill, Russell

79 interrelativity.com 79 Related Work: Alone Together Two Hours of Joint Solitude Alone Together

80 interrelativity.com 80 Related Work: Personal  MusicFX  Adaptive music in fitness center  Preference profiles, employee badges  Daily use, hundreds of users, 3+ years  ActiveMap, EventManager  Visual real-time & asynchronous awareness  Infrared (IR) badges, webcams  Daily use, hundreds of users, 7+ years  UniCast, OutCast, GroupCast  Ubiquitous peripheral displays  IR badges, interest profiles  Daily use, dozens of users, 1+ years

81 interrelativity.com 81 Looking forward  Three key issues for Proactive Displays  Context  Where should they go? –Trust, desire to relate to others –Macro & micro  Content  What should they show? –Type: images, text, video, audio, … –Storage: local vs. remote  Control  How will they know? –Implicit vs. explicit revelation –Anonymity vs. accountability

82 interrelativity.com 82 New Sources of Content  Repositories  Devices  Infrastructure Higgins Obje™

83 interrelativity.com 83 New Contexts  Digital Homes  Implicit sharing of digital media  Family / visitors’ photos  Digital Workplaces  Knowledge management through serendipity  Nameless faces / faceless names  Acquaintanceships  relationships  New channel for employee recognition

84 interrelativity.com 84 New Contexts  The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons, & Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community  Ray Oldenburg

85 interrelativity.com 85 Collaborators  Experience UbiComp Project (Intel Research Seattle)  Interns  David Nguyen (Nokia Research), Al Rashid (Univ. Minnesota), Suzi Soroczak (UW Information School)  Evaluation  David McDonald (UW Information School)  Interrelativity, Inc.  Khai Truong, former CTO  Immersion Arts  Scott Axworthy, CEO

86 interrelativity.com 86 For more information     Thanks!

87 interrelativity.com 87 Backup

88 interrelativity.com 88 Registration

89 interrelativity.com 89 Plasma Display & Cart Computer & Network Router Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Reader Antenna Tag

90 interrelativity.com 90 Entrepreneurial Lessons  Nice to have vs. got to have  Pain point, pay point  Complex sales cycles  Who is the customer? Who pays?  It takes a village  Everyone’s a customer  Vendors, employees, partners, media, investors, people who purchase your product or service  You’re always selling  Proverbs  “The biggest challenge faced by an entrepreneur is convincing your spouse that it's a good idea.”  “Entrepreneurship is like getting into a car, driving 200 mph at a wall, and hoping it opens at the last minute, just like the bat cave.”


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