Presentation on theme: "Remembering Anne Frank Photos from Anne Frank in the World A Time Line of Events Yesterday and Today."— Presentation transcript:
Remembering Anne Frank Photos from Anne Frank in the World A Time Line of Events Yesterday and Today
Who was Anne Frank? Anne Frank was a German-Jewish teenager who was forced to go into hiding during the Holocaust. She and her family, along with four others, spent 25 months during World War II in an annex of rooms above her father’s office in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. After being betrayed to the Nazis, Anne, her family and the others living with them were arrested and deported to Nazi concentration camps. Nine months after she was arrested, Anne Frank died of typhus in March of 1945 at Bergen-Belsen. She was 15 years old.
1929-1933 June 12, 1929: Anne Frank was born in Frankfurt, Germany. She was the second daughter of Otto and Edith Frank, who were German Jews. January 30,1933: Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany. April 1933: The Nazis declare a boycott of Jewish businesses and medical and legal practices. A new law removes Jews from government and teaching positions. Summer 1933: Otto Frank leaves Frankfurt for Amsterdam to set up a new business, called the Dutch Opekta Company. Photo: Anne Frank Museum Anne and Margot
1933-1937 December 5, 1933 - February 1934: Edith, Margot, and Anne Frank move to Holland. 1934: Anne Frank attends the kindergarten of the Montessori School. Fall 1935: The Nuremberg Laws are passed, which define Jews as non-citizens and make mixed Aryan and Jewish marriage illegal. Summer 1937: The van Pels family flees from Osnabruck to Holland. Anne, Edith and Margot in Germany 1933 Photo: Anne Frank Museum
1938-1940 March 12, 1938: Germany annexes Austria. November 9-10, 1938: Kristallnacht. State- sponsored pogrom in Germany and Austria, looting and destroying synagogues and Jewish owned-businesses. December 8, 1938: Fritz Pfeffer fled Germany and arrived in Holland. March 15, 1939: Germany begins occupation of Czechoslovakia. March 1939: Grandmother Hollander comes to live with the Frank family. September 1, 1939: Hitler invades Poland and starts World War II. April and May 1940: Germany invades Denmark, Norway, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg.
1940-1942 1940: Germany invades the Netherlands and the Franks are again forced to live under Nazi rule. 1940-1941: All Jews must register their businesses and, later, surrender them to non-Jews. Fortunately, Otto Frank, in anticipation of this decree, has already turned his business over to his non- Jewish colleagues, Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman. 1942: Jews are arrested simply because they are Jews. Many Jews are forced to go to German labor camps. Fearful for their lives, the Frank family begins to prepare to go into hiding. Margot, Otto, Anne and Edith Photo: Anne Frank Museum
Anne’s Mother and Father The marriage of Otto Frank and Edith Holländer on May 12, 1925. Otto Frank and Edith Holländer are married in Aachen on May 12, 1925. After a honeymoon in Italy, they go to live in Frankfurt am Main. Nine months later, on February 16, 1926, their first daughter is born: Margot Betti. Anne(lies) Marie follows around three years later. Photos: Anne Frank Museum Otto Frank’s family has lived in Frankfurt am Main for generations. Edith’s family originates from Aachen, close to the Dutch border.
Anne’s Father Otto Frank is born on May 12, 1889 in Frankfurt am Main. His father Michael heads the family bank, which specializes in currency trading. The Franks are liberal Jews. Otto does not attend a Jewish school, he goes to a public high school called the Lessing Gymnasium. Otto leaves for the United states in 1909 returns home upon the death of his father and returns again to the states in 1911. Otto works for Macy’s Department Store and then a bank in New York City. Otto returned to Germany, fought in WWI for the German army. After the war Otto Frank reluctantly takes over the family bank from his mother and brother Herbert. Otto Frank fought for Germany in WWI Photo: Anne Frank Museum
Anne’s Mother What we know of Anne’s mother is what is written in Anne’s diary and is mostly one dimensional as her and Anne seem to quarrel under the dire circumstances they faced in the small living quarters. We do know from other sources that as a young woman Edith was athletic, and liked to attend parties. She came from a more religious family and did keep Judaism close to her heart. Edith Holländer was born in Aachen on January 16, 1900. She married Otto Frank in 1925. Edith was with Anne and Margot at Auschwitz but they were sent to Bergen –Belsen without her, she soon became ill and died there in 1945. Edith in the 1920’s Photo: Anne Frank Museum
1940-1942 December 1, 1940: Otto Frank’s company moves into the premises at Number 263 Prinsengracht. May 8, 1941: Opekta-Werke changes its name to Messrs. Gies & Company. Summer 1941: Anne and Margot attend the Jewish School in Amsterdam. December 11, 1941: Germany declares war on the United States. January 1942: Anne’s grandmother Hollander dies. March 1942: Sobibor, Belzec, and Auschwitz-Birkenau all become fully operational death camps, followed by Treblinka in July. Anne Frank and her grandmother Hollander
1942 June 12, 1942: Anne receives a diary for her thirteenth birthday. July 5, 1942: Margot receives a call-up notice to report for deportation to a labor camp. The family goes into hiding the next day. July 6, 1942: The Frank family moves into the "Secret Annex.” July 13, 1942: The van Pels family, another Jewish family originally from Germany, joins the Frank family in hiding. November 16, 1942: Fritz Pfeffer, the eighth and final resident of the “Secret Annex,” joins the Frank and van Pels families. Otto Frank Edith Frank Margot Frank Anne Frank
The House where Anne Frank Hides In 1942, the first Dutch Jews receive call-up notices to report for the work camps. 1942: Otto Frank and his family go into hiding inside the building he uses for his own business. Otto Frank’s business is located in a house at 263 Prinsengracht. Like so many Amsterdam canal houses, the building is comprised of a front part and a back part. The office and storage areas occupy the front part of the house. The back part of the house, also called the annex, is partially empty. Otto Frank, with the help of two of his employees, furnishes four of the rooms of the annex to provide a hiding place for his own family and the van Pels family.
Hermann van PelsMr. van Daanb. March 31, 1890 (Auschwitz) Auguste van Pels-RöttgenMrs. van Daanb. September 29, 1900 (Theresienstadt) Peter van PelsPeter van Daanb. November 8, 1926 (Mauthausen) Fritz PfefferAlfred Dusselb. April 30, 1889 (Neuengamme) Name in the DiaryReal NameDate of Birth (Place of Death) The Inhabitants of the “Secret Annex” Source: Anne Frank Museum
The helpers, from left to right: Mr. Kleiman, Miep Gies, Bep Voskuijl, and Mr. Kugler. Real NameName in the Diary Miep Gies- Santrouschitz Miep van Santen Jan GiesHenk van Santen Johannes Kleiman Koophuis Victor KuglerKraler Elizabeth (Bep) van Wijk-Voskuijl Elli Vossen The Helpers
Willing to Make Sacrifices Miep Gies, Victor Kugler, Johannes Kleiman and Bep Voskuijl are all employees of Otto Frank and willingly put their lives on the line to help the families in hiding. Photo taken in October 1945 when Otto Returned to Amsterdam. Photo: Anne Frank Museum
While in hiding, Anne Frank kept a diary. In more than two years she filled several notebooks. Anne rewrote her diary notebooks with the intention of making a book from them that could be published after the war. In 1947, Otto Frank had the diaries of his deceased daughter published. The Diary of Anne Frank is one of the most widely read books in the world. "When I write, I can shake off all my cares." - April 5, 1944 Anne Frank’s Diary Photos: Anne Frank Museum
1944 June 6, 1944: D-Day. Allies invade Western Europe. August 4, 1944: The residents of the “Secret Annex” are betrayed and arrested. They are taken to a police station in Amsterdam. August 8, 1944: The residents of the “Secret Annex” are all taken to the camp at Westerbork.
Westerbork Concentration Camp Westerbork is a transit camp in northeastern Holland for almost 100,000 Jews who are deported between 1942 and 1944 to Auschwitz-Birkenau, Sobibor, Theresienstadt, and Bergen-Belsen. September 3, 1944: The eight prisoners are transported in a sealed cattle car to Auschwitz. This is the last transport ever to leave Westerbork. Hermann van Pels is gassed on September 6, 1944. Photos: USHMM
Official German Transport List includes the names of the Frank family October 6, 1944: Anne and Margot Frank are sent to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany. Transport list, dated September 3, 1944
The Journey of Anne Frank 1929 -1945 Map: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Auschwitz Concentration Camp Complex The Auschwitz concentration camp complex was the largest of its kind established by the Nazi regime near the Polish city of Oswiecim. It included three main camps, Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II (Birkenau) and Auschwitz III (also called Auschwitz-Monowitz). Auschwitz II (Birkenau) contained the facilities for a killing center and played a central role in the German plan to kill the Jews of Europe. January 6, 1945: Edith Frank dies at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Photo: USHMM
Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp February or March 1945: Anne and Margot Frank die at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp within days of each other. Located in northern Germany, Bergen-Belsen was transformed from a prisoner exchange camp into a concentration camp in March 1944. Poor sanitary conditions, epidemics, and starvation led to deaths of thousands. Female prisoners at Bergen-Belsen Photo: Anne Frank Museum Bergen-Belsen, Today
The End of the War January 27, 1945: Otto Frank is liberated from Auschwitz by the Russian Army. He is taken first to Odessa and then to France before he is allowed to make his way back to Amsterdam. May 1945: Peter van Pels dies in Mauthausen. May 7, 1945: Germany surrenders, and the war ends in Europe. Peter van Pels
1945 Spring 1945: Mrs. van Pels dies in Theresienstadt concentration camp in Czechoslovakia. June 3, 1945: Otto Frank arrives in Amsterdam, where he is reunited with Miep and Jan Gies. He concentrates on finding the whereabouts of Anne and Margot. July 18, 1945, he meets the Brilleslijper sisters who witnessed Anne and Margot’s deaths in Bergen-Belsen. Otto Frank revisiting the hiding place
Anne’s Writings “I didn’t hand [Otto] Anne’s writings immediately on his arrival, as I still hoped, even though there was only a slight chance, that Anne would come back…When we heard in July 1945, that Anne, like Margot, had died in Bergen-Belsen, I gave what pieces of Anne’s writing I had back to Mr. Frank. I gave him everything I had stored in the desk drawer in my office.” -Miep Gies Photo: Anne Frank Museum
1946-1951 Otto Frank reads and puts together Anne’s diary, though he feels the diary is perhaps “too private” he does agree to have it published. April 3, 1946: An article in Het Parool discusses Anne’s diary. Summer 1947: Fifteen thousand copies of Anne’s diary are published by Contact Publishers in Amsterdam. 1951 the diary is translated into English.
1952 1952 Anne’s diary is published in the United States under the title; Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl. It does not become a best seller until after the stage adaptation is produced around the world. Photo: Anne Frank Museum
The Diary is Adapted for Stage and Screen. The stage adaptation, The Diary of Anne Frank, opens on Broadway, October 5, 1955 and wins the Pulitzer Prize and a Tony award. A film adaptation of the play was released in 1959 and won three Academy Awards. Photo: movieposter.com Original poster from the 1959 film.
Anne Frank House In January of 1956 the house Anne and her family hid in was scheduled for demolition. May 3,1957 The house at 263 Prinsengracht officially becomes the Anne Frank House. Preserving it for future generations. In 1960 it opened its doors as a museum and welcomed over 9,000 visitors in its first year. Opening The Anne Frank Museum 1960 Photo: Anne Frank Museum
1980 August 19, 1980: Otto Frank dies in Switzerland.
Anne with Her Girlfriends From left to right: Hanneli Goslar, Anne Frank, Dolly Citroen, Hannah Toby, Barbara Ledermann and Sanne Ledermann. The Friends Thursday, November 19, 1942 “I get frightened myself when I think of my closest friends who are now at the mercy of the cruelest monsters ever to stalk the earth.” “And all because they’re Jews.” -Anne Frank Photo: Anne Frank Museum
Hannah (Hanneli) Goslar Saturday, November 27, 1943 “Yesterday evening, before I fell asleep, who should suddenly appear before my eyes but Lies! I saw her in front of me, clothed in rags, her face thin and worn. Her eyes were very big and she looked so sadly and reproachfully at me that I could read in her eyes: ‘Oh, Anne, why have you deserted me? Help, oh, help me, rescue me from this hell!’ And I cannot help her, I can only look on, how others suffer and die, and can only pray to God to send her back to us.” –Anne Frank Photo: From the book, Memories of Anne Frank, Alison Gold 1999 Hannah Goslar with Anne in 1939 Lies is Hanneli Goslar
A Friend to the End Hannah Goslar had known Anne since the age of four. It was Hannah who spoke to Anne at Bergen Belsen through the barbed wire fence separating the sides of the camp. Anne had told Hannah that she feared that her parents were dead and that Margot was very ill. Hannah tried to get Anne food by throwing packages over the fence. Hannah was shipped out of Bergen Belsen and never saw Anne again. Hannah’s story was published in 1997 and she appeared in the documentary Anne Frank Remembered. Photo: From the book, Memories of Anne Frank, Alison Gold 1999
Jacqueline Sanders-van Maarsen June 14, 1942 “ I only met Jacqueline van Maarsen when I started school at the Jewish Lyceum, and now she is my best friend.” -Anne Frank “I often think back to that little girl who became the famous Anne Frank, to the times I am stopped on the street and asked where the Anne Frank House is, and to how it feels when I see her name in the newspaper or on television. It often strikes me as ironic to hear heads of state and other important people quoting Anne in their speeches, because Anne had such a desire to be famous.” Jacqueline van Maarsen, Anne Frank Magazine - 2001 Jacqueline today and in 1943.
Anne Wins an Academy Award In 1996 Director Jon Blair and Miep Gies accept the Oscar for Best documentary film, Anne Frank Remembered. "In this city of celluloid heroes, Miep Gies is a true hero.“ –Jon Blair The audience gives them a standing ovation. The International Movie Database
New Pages Discovered In 1998 five more pages of Anne’s diary are discovered and cause controversy due to the nature of Anne’s comments about her parents’ marriage. The pages are included in new versions of the diary. Photos: Anne Frank Museum
Who Betrayed the Frank Family? On August 4, 1944, S.S. official Karl Joseph Silberbauer and three Dutch collaborators came to the Prinsengracht 263, where the Frank family was in hiding. The police arrived and demanded to be taken to the Jews in hiding and were taken straight to the “Secret Annex.” Silberbauer told investigators after the war that he could not say who alerted the Nazis to the Frank family. Karl Joseph Silberbauer Photo: Anne Frank Museum
The Suspects Over the years three main suspects for the betrayal of Anne Frank emerged: Wim van Maaren, an employee of Otto Frank; Lena Hartog-Van Bladeren, a cleaning lady in the office and Anthon “Tonny” Ahlers, a committed Nazi who was also a petty thief who once blackmailed Otto Frank. After extensive research in 2003, historians of the Dutch War Documentation Institute (NIOD) concluded that we will probably never know who betrayed Anne Frank. “The conclusion of our inquiry is that we do not consider any of the three suspects to be a likely candidate for the role of betrayer,” the historians wrote. Anne and her sister Margot at the beach
2004 2004: Anne is one of 200 people nominated for the title “Greatest Dutch Person’.” She died a stateless citizen in 1945 in the German concentration camp Bergen-Belsen. 2004: The makers of the TV program “The Greatest Dutch Person” want to have Anne Frank posthumously naturalized. 2004: The Ministry of Justice makes it known that the law does not allow posthumous Dutch nationality. Postage Stamp: Israel
A Beloved Chestnut Tree Anne Frank often looked from the attic window at the chestnut tree behind the secret annex. She wrote about it in her diary. Photo: Anne Frank Museum In 2006 the chestnut tree was attacked by a fungus and was scheduled to be cut down. It’s a tribute to the power of her writing that many have tried to save the 150-year-old tree. As of January 2009 the tree still stands, while conservationists try to save it. In the Diary of Anne Frank, young Anne rhapsodized about looking out of the house where she was in hiding and seeing, “the blue sky and the chestnut tree, on whose branches little raindrops shine.”
The Hatred Continues March 2007: A court in Eastern Germany sentenced five men to fines and nine months probation for burning a copy of the diary of Holocaust victim Anne Frank during a solstice ceremony that glorified Nazi rule. Five convicted of burning Anne Frank's diary
US Citizenship 2007, New York congressman, Christopher Bodkin sponsored a bill to grant, posthumously, honorary U.S. citizenship to Anne Frank. It would be a fitting way to acknowledge the failure of the United States and almost all democracies to grant refuge to her and more than 6 million other victims of Hitler’s persecutions.
New Letters Come to Light In 2007 letters, along with documents and records from various agencies that helped people emigrate from Europe, were released by the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, a New York City-based institution that focuses on the history and culture of Eastern European Jews. The group discovered the Anne Frank file among 100,000 other Holocaust related documents. The documents show that Anne Frank's father tried to arrange U.S. visas for his family before they went into hiding but his efforts were hampered when Allied and Axis countries tightened immigration policies. Photo: Anne Frank Museum
The Letter Otto Frank asks Nathan Straus for help getting out of Europe in 1941. Photo BBC Otto Frank also sent desperate letters to friends and family in the United States pleading for help with immigration costs as the family tried to escape the Nazi-occupied Netherlands. "I would not ask if conditions here would not force me to do all I can in time to be able to avoid worse," Otto Frank wrote to his college friend Nathan Straus in April 1941. "It is for the sake of the children mainly that we have to care for. Our own fate is of less importance." Document Otto Frank trying to get visas to Spain AFP/Getty Images
“Holocaust Archive Revealed through the Lens of Richard Ehrlich” an exhibition, opens in 2008 and includes photos of Anne Frank’s transfer papers to Bergen-Belsen. A series of 52 photographs taken by Richard Ehrlich at the Holocaust Archives at the International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen, Germany, illustrating the staggering bureaucracy of the Nazi regime. The archives were closed to the public for over 60 years and hold over 50 million pages of documents about individuals persecuted during the Holocaust. More Documents Found MSNBC Photo Bad Arolsen Archives
Restoring the Walls In August of 2008, 59 photos including pictures of film stars, children and artworks cut from the pages of Libelle women’s magazine that Anne Frank stuck up on the walls of her room in the ‘Secret Annex’ have been restored in Amsterdam and are now on display. Also restored are the lines that Otto Frank drew on the wall to mark the growth of his daughters Anne and Margot, and the map of Normandy on which he followed the allied invasion. From left to right: Otto Frank, Albert Hackett and Frances Goodrich (the creators of the stage adaptation), and Garson Kanin, its director (1954).
I was able to save Anne’s diary and thus make her greatest wish come true. “I want to be useful or give pleasure to the people around me yet who don’t really know me,” she wrote in her diary on March 25, 1944, about a year before her death. And on May 11 she noted; “You’ve known for a long time that my greatest wish is to become a journalist someday and later on a famous writer.” Through her diary, Anne lives on. She stands for the triumph of the spirit over evil and death.” -Miep Gies, Amsterdam 1998 The Legacy of Anne Frank
Meip Gies Nears 100 On February 15, 2009 Miep Gies will turn 100 years old. Without Miep the world would never have known Anne Frank. She still works to keep Anne's memory alive by speaking and answering thousands of letters she receives from students all over the world. A new website has been dedicated in her honor at http://www.miepgies.nl/ the English version will be activated on her birthday.http://www.miepgies.nl/ Miep Gies,2001. Photo: Bettina Flitner.
Remembering Anne Frank Anne Frank died at age 15 in a concentration camp, but her diary survived to tell the story that has shaped the world's image of the Holocaust. Anne Frank would be celebrating her 80 th birthday on June 12, 2009 if she had lived. Anne will forever live on in the memories of millions of people around the world through literature, art and film and the diary that made her famous.