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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Introduction to the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) Yueqiang Liu UKAEA Culham Science Centre Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB, UK

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Outline 1.What is RWM? 2.Why important? 3.Approaches/tools to study RWM Analytical Numerical Experimental 4.Status-quo in RWM research What is known? Partially understood? Not understood? 5.Plans for following lectures

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 External ideal kink instability (time scale = microseconds) Normally pressure-driven (above no-wall beta limit) Resistive wall slows down kink instability to time scale of wall eddy current decay time RWM (typically milliseconds) At high pressure, mode located towards low-field side (kink-ballooning) Low toroidal mode number n=1,2,3 Similar to vertical instability (RWM with n=0) Three consequences of slowed down Still unstable eventually causes disruption Time scale feasible for feedback control Kinetic effects become important What is RWM ?

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Important for advanced tokamaks, aiming at steady state, high bootstrap current, high pressure operation Good microscopic property (internal transport barrier), rather bad macroscopic MHD (low pressure limit due to RWM) Stabilization of RWM essential for increasing fusion power production of advanced tokamaks MHD modes in ITER Causing disruptions RWM (advanced scenario) NTM (conventional scenario, mode locking) Degrading performance ELM (H-mode) AE/TAE (alpha-particle destabilized), sawteeth, etc Possibly stable or not so important TM, Interchange mode, etc Why important ?

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 The key for success of AT is to increase normalised plasma pressure by stabilising RWM Example: for ITER advanced scenario (Scenario-4), successful stabilization of n=1 RWM can increase from 2.5 to 3.5 e.g. fraction of plasma self-generated current In more detail...

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 The other way to look at it …

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Outline 1.What is RWM? 2.Why important? 3.Approaches/tools to study RWM Analytical Numerical Experimental 4.Status-quo in RWM research What is known? Partially understood? Not understood? 5.Plans for following lectures

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Analytic approaches According to ideal MHD description, RWM is ideal kink mode, whose free energy largely dissipated by eddy currents in the wall. In cylindrical theory, growth rate determined by combining andand vacuum solution Let’s go through a simple analytic example: cylindrical Shafranov equilibrium

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Analytic approaches Consider single fluid, ideal, incompressible plasma, no flow Perturbed momentum equation With perturbed quantities Faraday’s law gives The z-component of curl of momentum equation (toroidal torque balance) gives …

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Analytic approaches Assuming a step density function, we have vacuum-like field everywhere … and a jump condition across Vacuum solution + jump condition result in the dispersion relation for ideal (current-driven) external kink

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Analytic approaches Adding a jump condition across a (thin) wall … together with the plasma & vacuum solution, we arrive at the dispersion relation for the RWM Neglecting plasma inertia

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Analytic approaches There are enormous literatures covering various analytical aspects of RWM Probably one of the finest is offered by [Betti PoP (1998)] (as far as analytics can go) A very useful dispersion relation, valid in toroidal geometry, has been derived by several authors [Haney PF B1 1637(1989), Chu PoP (1995)] … representing also the energy principle inertia plasmavacuum+wallkinetic

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Basic is system of ideal MHD equations Additional terms/equations for RWM modeling: Vacuum equations Equation for resistive wall Equation for feedback coils Flow terms Kinetic terms Full toroidal codes that are used for RWM study MARS-F [Liu PoP (2000)], CarMa [Albanese COMPUMAG 2007] VALEN [Bialek PoP (2003)] NMA [Chu NF (2003)] KINX [Medvedev PPR (2004)] CASTOR_FLOW, STARWALL [Strumberger NF (2005)] AEGIS [Zheng JCP (2006)] MARG2D [Tokuda IAEA FEC08] MARS-F is so far the only code including both feedback and advanced rotational damping physics Modelling tools

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Not always easy from experiments. However, several possibilities do exist: Check beta limit – unstable only if beta exceeds no-wall limit Use ideal stability code to compute beta limit Use experimental li-scaling Resonant field amplification (RFA routinely used on DIII-D and JET) If possible, measure mode growth rate and frequency Both proportional to inverse wall time RWM frequency normally between 0-100Hz, unlocked island a few KHz RWM growth rate sensitive to plasma-wall separation [JT60-U], unlike internal modes Mode structure Global field perturbation and displacement within plasma (ELM, TM) Ballooning structure at plasma surface MHD spectroscopy [DIII-D, JET] Measure resonant field amplification by (marginally) stable RWM Using either a dc-pulse excited error field Or traveling/standing waves field perturbation Experimental approaches: identify RWM

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Not easy by local modification of plasma equilibrium profiles, largely determined by transport requirements and properties of AT: Reversed or flat central q profile broad current profile low li Strong pressure peaking Stabilization by plasma flow (passive way) Various damping mechanisms (MHD, kinetic) Still active research area Feedback stabilization of RWM (active way) Using magnetic coils to suppress the magnetic field produced by RWM Very similar to vertical stability control of elongated plasmas Difference is helical field perturbation Also possible to apply feedback + plasma flow Experimental approaches: stabilise RWM

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Active control: one more point … The fundamental reason that a magnetic feedback system, by suppressing the field perturbation, can stabilise the plasma instability, is that … for an ideal plasma, the field lines are frozen into the plasma This is the underlying assumption of many magnetic control of plasmas (vertical instability control, RWM control, etc.) For this to be successful, plasma must generate external field perturbations to interact with coil fields can be treated as ideal (field line frozing) For the above reasons, tearing mode (TM or NTM) or internal kink (sawteeth) cannot be stabilised by magnetic feedback (fortunately there are other means to stabilise them) How about ELMs ?

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Outline 1.What is RWM? 2.Why important? 3.Approaches/tools to study RWM Analytical Numerical Experimental 4.Status-quo in RWM research What is known? Partially understood? Not understood? 5.Plans for following lectures

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Understanding damping physics of the mode Requires comparison of experiments with theory and simulations Alfven continuum damping [Zheng PRL (2005)] Sound wave continuum damping [Bondeson PRL (1994), Betti PRL (2005)] Parallel sound wave damping [Chu PoP (1995)] Damping from plasma inertial and/or dissipation layers [Finn PoP (1995), Gimblett PoP 7 258(2000), Fitzpatrick NF 36 11(1996)] Particle bouncing resonance damping [Bondeson PoP (1996), Liu NF (2005)] Particle precession drift resonance damping [Hu PRL (2004)] Effect of error field – experiments show mode stability very sensitive to error field Nonlinear coupling of mode stability, error field, and plasma momentum damping A metastable RWM amplifies external error field, causing toroidal torque which damps plasma flow Plasma flow below threshold results in unstable RWM Status-quo: critical issues in mode physics

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Two essential components in feedback 1)Plasma dynamics (P) 2)Controller (K) Constructing plasma response models (PRM) describing the mode dynamics [Liu PPCF (2006), Liu CPC (2007)] Realistic control design 3D conducting structures (walls, coils) Noise (v,w,n), ac losses for superconducting coils (ITER) Power supply constraints (voltages, currents, time delays, etc.) Controller design = normally solving nonlinear optimization problem with constraints [Fransson PoP (2000)] Choice of active coils (u): high priority topic in ongoing ITER design review Ideally coils should be placed as close as possible to plasma Physical constraints on space Choice of sensor signals (pick-up coils) (y) [Liu NF (2007)] Status-quo: critical issues in mode control

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Status-quo: mode physics MHD physics Ideal kink + resistive wall (well understood) Fluid continuum resonance damping (understood) Resistive-viscous damping (understood) Kinetic physics Parallel sound wave damping (understood) Particle bounce resonance (part. understood) Particle precession drift resonance (part. understood) Resonant field amplification (RFA) (part. understood) Coupling to momentum confinement (poor understood) Coupling to other MHD modes (not understood)

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Status-quo: mode control Resembles vertical stability control of elongated plasmas (n=0 RWM) Magnetic feedback works because of: External mode magnetic structure Slow growth rate to allow feedback system to react Important aspects: Plasma (RWM) dynamics (part. understood) Controller design and optimisation (PID, H-infinity, SISO, MIMO, …) (part. understood) Choice of active coils (understood) Sensor signal optimisation (well understood) 3D conductors for modelling (part. understood) Practical issues: noise, power saturation, ac-losses (for SC), … (not well understood)

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Summary: issues to be resolved

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Plans for following lectures: topics 1.Active control of RWM 2.Damping physics of RWM 3.Resonant field amplification (RFA) 4.3D conductor effects on RWM

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YQ Liu, Peking University, Feb 16-20, 2009 Plans for following lectures: structure On each topic, try to show three aspects of research: Analytic theory Toroidal modelling experiments Basic analytic theory (not a comprehensive coverage) Systematic modelling results Brief description of some experimental results (to compare with modelling)

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