_____ How many Chinese figures are mentioned in the reading? (A) Two. (B) Three. (C) Four. (D) Five. B
____ In the last paragraph, the phrase “the leader is like a mirror” suggests that the leader _____. (A) knows his own limitations (B) has a weak personality (C) reflects who and what we are (D) tends to break his own promises C
If we know what we’re looking for, why is it so difficult to find? If we know what we’re looking for.... → If we know the thing that we’re looking for.... what 引導的關係子句作為 know 的受詞。
The answer lies in a very simple truth about leadership: people can only be led where they want to go....people can only be led where they want to go. →...people can only be led to the place where they want to go. 關係副詞 where 引導形容詞子句，而先行詞被 省略的用法 。 I didn’t look where I was going and fell over in the mud.
The leader follows the truth—though a step ahead in carrying it out. Americans wanted to climb out of the Depression and needed someone to tell them they could do it, and FDR did. though (adv.) 不過，然而 Kevin will contribute to our campaign; he’ll give only a few dollars though....FDR did. → Franklin Delano Roosevelt told them they could climb out of the Depression.
The British believed that they could still win the war after the defeats of 1940, and Churchill told them they were right.
A leader rides the waves, moves with the tide, and understands the deepest yearnings of his people.
He cannot make a nation that wants peace at any price go to war, or stop a nation that is determined to fight from doing so. that 引導關代子句修飾先行詞 a nation ， 為限 定用法。 Next
stop A from V-ing 阻止 A 做某事 Nobody can stop Tom from marrying Susan....stop a nation that is determined to fight from doing so. →...stop a nation which/that is determined to fight from going to war. He cannot make a nation that wants peace at any price go to war, or stop a nation that is determined to fight from doing so.
His purpose must match the national mood.
His task is to focus the people’s energies and desires, to define them in simple terms, to inspire, to make what people already want seem attainable, important, and within their grasp....to define them in simple terms.... →...to define the people’s energies and desires in simple terms....
與 terms 相關的慣用語： in terms of = in…terms 從 … 觀點來看 come to terms 達成協議；妥協 not on any terms = on no terms 無論如何 絕不 In terms of actual sales, the novel has been very successful. The two parties finally came to terms. Not on any terms will I work for the man. Next
His task is to focus the people’s energies and desires, to define them in simple terms, to inspire, to make what people already want seem attainable, important, and within their grasp. within one’s grasp 除了在此當「能力所及， 有把握」之外，另可表「某人能理解的」，相 反詞是 beyond one’s grasp 。 What you teach should be within children’s grasp. The joke you just told is beyond my grasp. Next
...to make what people already want seem attainable, important, and within their grasp. →...to make the things that people already want seem achievable, important, and possible for them to get. His task is to focus the people’s energies and desires, to define them in simple terms, to inspire, to make what people already want seem attainable, important, and within their grasp.
Above all, he must dignify our desires, convince us that we are taking part in the making of great history, and give us a sense of glory about ourselves. take part in = participate in 參與 We are going to take part in the debate. a sense of + 抽象名詞 … 感 a sense of glory/achievement/balance/ beauty/direction/humor/responsibility 光榮感 / 成就感 / 平衡感 / 美感 / 方向感 / 幽默感 / 責任感
Winston Churchill managed to turn the British defeat and the evacuation of Dunkirk in 1940 into a major victory. The Introduction of The Evacuation of Dunkirt
The Introduction of The Evacuation of Dunkirt 1940 年 5 月，二次世界大戰戰況激烈，英法聯軍在 歐陸戰場慘敗，盧森堡、荷蘭、比利時先後投降， 後來德軍攻入法國境內。這時，約 40 萬的大批英 法部隊被圍困在敦克爾克 (Dunkirk) 附近。如果 這批部隊被殲滅的話，對於英國將是致命的打擊， 於是邱吉爾決定發動一個「發電機作戰計劃」 (Operation Dynamo) ，動員所有的船隻和飛機將 這些部隊撤回英國。從 5 月 26 日晚上開始，一直到 6 月 4 日，英法聯軍一方面抵禦德軍的陸、空侵襲，
The Introduction of The Evacuation of Dunkirt 一方面進行緊急撤退，結果成功地撤走了將近 34 萬人雖然，這些部隊的所有重裝備都丟在法國，而 且「撤退」實際上並不光彩，但邱吉爾仍藉著這個 撤退計畫的成功，在國會中發表了慷慨激昂的演說， 重申英國會奮戰到底，絕不屈服，直到光榮的勝利 到來。後來事實也證明了，這些搶救回來的精銳部 隊，對於日後的對德作戰，的確貢獻良多。 Next
FDR’s words turned the sinking of the American fleet at Pearl Harbor into a national rallying cry instead of a humiliating national scandal. 當第二次世界大戰在歐陸打得如火如荼時，美 國隔岸觀火，彷彿不干己事。直到 1941 年 12 月 7 日星期日上午 7 點 53 分，日本以航空母艦搭載 戰鬥機及攻擊機，偷襲位於夏威夷的美國海軍 基地珍珠港，將美國太平洋艦隊幾乎完全摧毀， 其中包括一艘載有千餘人的亞利桑那號戰艦。 這次事件總共造成 21 艘美國軍艦及 321 架飛機 嚴重損壞， 2000 多人罹難， 1000 多人受傷，美 國因此憤而宣布參戰，太平洋戰爭就此爆發。 FRD’s Speech on September 8, 1941
“Mr. Vice President, Mr. Speaker, members of the Senate and the House of Representatives: Yesterday, December 7, 1941 － a date which will live in infamy － the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.... The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian Islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. I regret FRD’s Speech on September 8, 1941
to tell you that very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.... As Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense, that always will our whole nation remember the character of the onslaught against us. No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the FRD’s Speech on September 8, 1941
American people, in their righteous might, will win through to absolute victory. I believe that I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make it very certain that this form of treachery shall never again endanger us. Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger. FRD’s Speech on September 8, 1941
With confidence in our armed forces, with the unbounding determination of our people, we will gain the inevitable triumph. So help us God. I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.” FRD’s Speech on September 8, 1941 Next
A leader must stir our blood, not appeal to our reason. When times get tough, people don’t want to be told what went wrong, or lectured, or given a lot of complicated statistics and plans they don’t understand. appeal to 除了當「訴諸，訴求」之外，尚 「吸引」之意。 That idea of camping doesn’t appeal to me at all. Next
A leader must stir our blood, not appeal to our reason. When times get tough, people don’t want to be told what went wrong, or lectured, or given a lot of complicated statistics and plans they don’t understand....a lot of complicated statistics and plans [(that) they don’t understand]. 受格 that 引導限定用法的關代子句修飾先行詞 a lot of...plans 。
They want to be moved, excited, inspired, consoled, uplifted—in short, led!...in short, led! →...briefly, to be led! →...in simple words, to be led! →...simply, led!
A great leader must have a certain irrational quality, a stubborn refusal to face facts, and the ability to convince us that all is not lost even when we're afraid it is....to convince us that all is not lost even when we’re afraid it is (lost). →...to convince us that there’s still a chance even when we think it’s hopeless.
Confucius suggested that while the advisers of a great leader should be as cold as ice, the leader himself should have fire, a spark of divine madness. while 表示 (conj.) 相對於 … While Ted is a scientist, his wife is an artist. Next
Confucius suggested that while the advisers of a great leader should be as cold as ice, the leader himself should have fire, a spark of divine madness. 有關性格或心情的比喻說法有： as cold as ice as firm as a rock as stubborn as a mule as innocent as a dove as proud as a peacock as sly as a fox, as wise as an owl as happy as a lark
He won’t come until we’re ready for him, for the leader is like a mirror, reflecting back to us our own sense of purpose, putting into words our own dreams and hopes, transforming our needs and fears into coherent policies and programs. He won’t come until we’re ready for him.... → Not until we’re ready for him will he come.... → It is not until we’re ready for him that he will come... Next
He won’t come until we’re ready for him, for the leader is like a mirror, reflecting back to us our own sense of purpose, putting into words our own dreams and hopes, transforming our needs and fears into coherent policies and programs. for 在此表「因為」，用於連接表原因的子句。 The child must be ill, for he looks so pale. 原句 =...the leader is like a mirror, and he reflects...., puts...and transforms.... 此為現在分詞構句的用法
Our strength makes him strong; our determination makes him determined; our courage makes him a hero; he is, in the final analysis, the symbol of the best in us, shaped by our own spirit and will. He is, after all, the sum of us. 由 and he is shaped by our own spirit and will 所省略而來的分詞構句 Back
I. Reading for the Main Idea and Details ____ 1. This article _____. (A)offers us hands-on tips on how to become a political leader (B) reveals the truth that leaders, like us, are just common people (C) defines what a leader should be like from a broad point of view (D) applauds Roosevelt and Churchill as the two greatest leaders of modern times C
I. Reading for the Main Idea and Details ____2. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? (A) A leader should be able to cut through problems and offer solutions. (B) A leader should be able to do what most people can’t. (C) A leader should be special and very different from ordinary people. (D) A leader should move with the tide and understand people’s needs. C
II. Reading Strategy: Referents Some words in a reading refer back to ideas or concepts that were mentioned earlier. These words are generally called “referents.” When you read, you must figure out which words or concepts these referents are referring to. Some, but not all, words that generally serve as referents include:
1. auxiliary e.g.: “A leader must appear on the scene at a moment when people are looking for leadership, as Churchill did in ”
2. it/they e.g.: “A great leader must have a certain irrational quality...to convince us that all is not lost even when we’re afraid it is.”
3. this/that e.g.: “They appear to see it as an irritating little habit, like sneezing or yawning. I have never understood this.”
4. that/those/these e.g.: “Churchill warned the British to expect ‘blood, toil, tears, and sweat’; FDR told Americans that ‘the only thing we have to fear is fear itself’; Lenin promised the war-weary Russians ‘peace, land, and bread.’ All of these are straightforward and potent messages.”
5. so e.g.: “Opponents of genetic engineering say it should be stopped; however, proponents of genetic engineering do not think so.”
Exercise: 1.A Chinese philosopher once remarked that a leader must have the grace of a good dancer, and there is a great deal of wisdom to this. “This” refers to “a leader must have the grace of a good dancer.”
Exercise: 2. Americans wanted to climb out of the Depression and needed someone to tell them they could do it, and FDR did. ______________________________ “It” refers to “to climb out of the Depression” “did” refers to “tell them/Americans they could do it.
Exercise: 3. He cannot make a nation that wants peace at any price go to war, or stop a nation that is determined to fight from doing so. ______________________________ “Doing so” refers to “go to war.”
Exercise: 4. A leader must know how to use power (that’s what leadership is about), but he also has to have a way of showing that he knows this. _____________________________ The “that” in “that’s” refers to “a leader must know how to use power” “this” refers to “how to use power.”
Exercise: 5. Today, these online connections are, for the most part, text-based exchanges. Soon, all of that will change as technology develops new and more sophisticated ways to communicate. ______________________________ “That” refers to “Today, these online connections are, for the most part, text-based exchanges.”
1.Who do you think is the greatest leader in history?
Reference answer : I think the greatest leader in history should be Sir Winston Churchill. He led the British people through the tough times of World War II, winning the hard-won victory against Hitler and the Nazi Germany. How did he achieve this? I think his stimulating style of speech and unequalled determination are two important factors. Through words and action, Churchill instilled in his people
Reference answer : faith and courage, and inspired them to fight for what they believed. That is exactly what a great leader should be like. Even today, his words and character still have a great influence on people all over the world including me.
2. In your opinion, what qualities should a good class leader have?
Reference answer : As I see it, first, a good class leader should always be fair with all his/her classmates, treating everybody in the class equally. That's how a class leader can win the trust of the whole class. And then, of course, a good class leader should be eloquent, or be good at communicating and negotiating, because sometimes he/she has to serve as spokesperson of the class. Last but not least, I think a good
Reference answer : class leader should know how to resolve a conflict quickly and peacefully whenever it is found in class, which is very important for bringing the class into unity. Back