Presentation on theme: "Communism vs Capitalism USSR vs US Us vs Them"— Presentation transcript:
1Communism vs Capitalism USSR vs US Us vs Them The Cold WarCommunism vs CapitalismUSSR vs USUs vs ThemChapter 22 Sec. 1
2The Cold War Chapter 22 Sec. 1 Era of confrontation & competition between the Soviet & US from 1946 to 1990.The roots of the Cold War can be found in the period just before the end of WWII.TWO Differing Goals:The United State’s Goals- Democracy, free enterprise & economic growth would lead to peaceful future in post war world.The Soviet Union’s Goals: keep Germany weak economically & militarily, communism was superior to capitalism= spread communism.
4YALTA CONFERENCE, 1945: FDR, CHURCHILL AND STALIN MET TO DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR. FROM FEBRUARY , THE FOLLOWING ISSUES WERE ADDRESSED: WORLD ORGANIZATION, DECLARATION ON LIBERATED EUROPE, DISMEMBERMENT OF GERMANY, ZONE OF OCCUPATION FOR THE FRENCH, REPARATION, POLAND, AND FINALLY YUGOSLAVIA (2). AGREEMENTS REGARDING ENTRY OF THE SOVIET UNION INTO THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN WERE ALSO OUTLINED.
5*The Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945) FDR (BEFORE HE DIED), STALIN, & CHURCHILLPLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN CAUSING THE COLD WARSoviets were setting up communist governments in Europe as they moved through.Poland- two rival governments claimed the right to govern Poland- one communist the other –non-communist.Agreement- FDR & Churchill agreed to recognize communist government set up by the Soviets; Stalin agreed to allow free elections later (never happened)Declaration of Liberated Europe- Big three agreed that people in Europe had the right to form governments & democracy.Germany- the Big Three agreed to divide Germany into 4 zones controlled by : Britain, France, US, & Soviets.Berlin also divided into 4 zonesStalin insisted that Germany pay heavy war reparationsFDR got Stalin to accept German goods instead of cash
7POTSDAM CONFERENCE, JULY 1945 CHURCHILL, TRUMAN, AND STALIN DECIDE HOW TO DEAL WITH GERMANY AND JAPANSINCE FDR DIED, TRUMAN BECAME PRESIDENT. ISSUES DECIDED WERE: ESTABLISHMENT OF A COUNCIL OF FOREIGN MINISTERS, THE PRINCIPLES TO GOVERN THE TREATMENT OF GERMANY IN THE INITIAL CONTROL PERIOD, ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES REGARDING GERMANY, REPARATIONS FROM GERMANY, DISPOSAL OF THE GERMAN NAVY AND MERCHANT MARINE, CITY 0F KOENIGSBERG AND THE ADJACENT AREA, WAR CRIMINALS, AUSTRIA, POLAND, CONCLUSION ON PEACE TREATIES AND ADMISSION TO THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION, TERRITORIAL TRUSTEESHIP, REVISED ALLIED CONTROL COMMISSION PROCEDURE IN RUMANIA, BULGARIA, AND HUNGARY, ORDERLY TRANSFER OF GERMAN POPULATIONS, OIL EQUIPMENT IN RUMANIA, IRAN, THE INTERNATIONAL ZONE OF TANGIER, THE BLACK SEA STRAITS, INTERNATIONAL INLAND WATERWAYS, EUROPEAN INLAND TRANSPORT CONFERENCE, DIRECTIVES TO MILITARY COMMANDERS ON ALLIED CONTROL COUNCIL FOR GERMANY, USE OF ALLIED PROPERTY FOR SATELLITE REPARATIONS OR WAR TROPHIES, MILITARY TALKS, THE ALLIED CONTROL COMMISSION IN HUNGARY, USE OF ALLIED PROPERTY FOR SATELLITE REPARATIONS OR WAR TROPHIES.
8* The Potsdam Conference (July 1945) FDR died; 1st meeting between President Truman, Stalin, ChurchillWar was still raging against Japan at this pointStalin wants to keep Germany weak; Truman distrustful of Stalin-won’t appease him.Agreement-Stalin agreed to accept small amount of industrial equipment from US, British, & French zones instead of cash.Soviets had to pay for part of it with food shipments from the Soviet zone to Western Germany.Truman agreed to accept new German-Polish border* Truman hinted that the US had developed a new powerful weapon (atomic bomb).
9Behind the ‘Iron Curtain” Soviets established communist government in Romania & did not allow non-communist to serve in government in Poland.*“Satellite nations”- communist countries of Eastern Europe controlled by USSR.1946- Winston Churchill gave a speech in Fulton, Missouri– “an iron curtain has fallen across Eastern Europe”.*“Iron Curtain”- area separating free Europe from communist area of Eastern Europe & Soviet Union.
10Churchill giving his “iron curtain” speech in March of 1946 at Fulton Missouri "A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victories From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”Iron curtainChurchill’s main points were that there should be a US/UK agreement within the framework of the U.N. to resist and deter any disturbances to world peace and that Stalin wants "not war but the fruits of war”, and if the allies stay strong and united they can counter any Soviet threat
12The Long Telegram *George Kennan Chapter 22 Sec. 2*George KennanAmerican Ambassador to USSR*Long Telegram: 5,540 word explanation of what he believed were Soviet goalsProposed long term *CONTAINMENT of Communism*Containment – keeping Communism within its present territory*Containment will be US policy during the Cold War for 40 years!!The allies pushed to have the Soviets allow free elections in Poland of which they refusedSoviet Goals: 1. he believed they were due to Soviet’s insecurity and fear of the West. Also due to the competition of Communism & Capitalism2. He believed containment would result in the Soviet Union collapsing in on itself
13IRAN WAS THE SITE OF THE FIRST DISPUTE OF THE COLD WAR IN 1945-46 Iran: America and Great Britain withdraw their troops from Iran; the Soviet Union does not. Mar Truman demanded Russia get out of Iran no oil concessions, no annexation of Azerbaijan :Mar Stalin began to remove all troops from Iran by May 6, leaving his puppet Azerbaijan Democratic Party without supportBritish and Soviet troops had jointly occupied Iran since 1941 to protect oil reserves from falling into German hands. The Soviets refused to withdraw their forces and the case came up before the newly formed Security Council in March When the Soviet ambassador, Andrei Gromyko, failed to get a postponement of the debate, the Soviets walked out. Nevertheless, the security council stood its ground and six weeks later Stalin withdrew his troops from Iran.
14Iran Crisis After WWII- US & USSR jointly occupied Iran US withdrew– USSR refused to withdraw & supported a communist government in North Iran (wanted access to oil).Truman’s Actions:Sent strong message to Soviets to withdrawSent USS Missouri to eastern MediterraneanResult- Soviet’s withdrew with promise of a Iranian-Soviet oil company.
15FIGHTING AGAINST COMMUNISTS IN GREECE BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY FACED COMMUNIST REVOLTS IN 1947 AND ASKED THE U.S. FOR AID TO DEFEND THEMSELVES FROM COMMUNIST TAKEOVERSDon’t write downFIGHTING AGAINST COMMUNISTS IN GREECE
16What plan said the US would be the only influence in the Western Hemisphere? The Roosevelt CorollaryThe Quadruple AllianceThe Monroe DoctrineThe Platt Amendment
17The Truman DoctrineTruman’s policy on fighting Soviet aggression around the worldAsked Congress for $400 million to fight communists in Turkey & Greece.Truman pledged to help people fighting against communism with money & supplies.“To aid free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.”
18The Marshall Plan 1947 George Marshall – Secretary of State European recovery planAmerican aid to rebuild Europe after WWII- US sent billions of dollars to help western Europe recover.Necessary to fight Communism
19Propaganda posters and a stamp advertising the plan.
23The Berlin Crisis1948- US, Britain, France announce that they will merge their 3 zones & allow Germany to set up a government.Make West Berlin part of new GermanyJune USSR cut all rail, road traffic to West BerlinThe US believed the Soviet Union was deliberately trying to undermine the German economy so the US, France & Britain merged their zones in Germany becoming known as West GermanyWest Berlin was deep inside East GermanyEast Germany was ruled by USSR & West Germany was independentOn June 23, 1948 the USSR imposed a complete blockade on railway, road and canal traffic leading to West Berlin from the allied German zone. No supplies of any type, including food, fuel and consumer goods, were allowed to enter West Berlin. Stalin wanted to starve the city into submission. This was done for two main reasons:Stalin's desire to control all of BerlinThe allies London program of 1948 that called for a separate West Germany and currency reform
24The Berlin AirliftTruman ordered an airlift of supplies to West Berliners11 months (2 million tons of supplies)Also sent bombers with atomic weapons to Britain just in caseSupplies included food, medicine and coalBlockade convinced Americans the Soviets were bent on ConquestName given “Operation Vittles”
25IN MAY OF 1949 THE RUSSIANS ENDED THE BERLIN BLOCKADE
26Alliances are Made **NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization Mutual defense alliance*Warsaw PactSoviet Union’s response to West Germany joining NATOAn organized military alliance in Eastern EuropeWest Germany allowed to rearm itself & became a member of NATO
27RED FLAGS DENOTE NATIONS CONTROLLED BY THE USSR. EASTERN EUROPEAN NATIONS TAKEN OVER BY THE USSR AFTER WW II YUGOSLAVIA, WHILE COMMUNIST, REMAINED INDEPENDENT
28MUFTI AND HITLER DURING THE WW II IN OCTOBER 1947 THE UN AUTHORIZED THE CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL WITH BOTH THE US AND USSR VOTING IN FAVOR.ON MAY 14TH 1948 ISRAEL DECLARED ITS INDEPENDENCE AND FIVE ARAB STATES IMMEDIATELY INVADED WITH THE GOAL OF DESTROYING THE NEWLY CREATED JEWISH STATE. THEY WERE DEFEATED BY ISRAELMUFTI AND HITLER DURING THE WW IITHE CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL AND THE SUBSEQUENT WARS WITH THE ARABS WOULD BE AN ONGOING CAUSE OF TENSIONS BETWEEN THE US AND USSR.The Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Al Husseini stated, “I declare a holy war, my Moslem brothers! Murder the Jews! Murder them all!"
29THE CONFLICT BETWEEN ARABS AND ISRAELIS IS AN ONGOING THEME IN THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE US DURING THE COLD WAR AND BEYOND.BECAUSE OF THE 1948 ARAB ISRAELI WAR SOME 500,000 ARABS FLED ISRAEL AND MANY REMAIN REFUGEES TODAY HOPING TO RETURN TO THEIR FORMER HOMES. IT IS ESTIMATED THAT AS MANY AS 800,000 JEWS WERE FORCED TO LEAVE ARAB COUNTRIES DURING THE 1940’S AND 50’S. MOST OF THESE REFUGEES WERE ABSORBED INTO ISRAEL.
30Cold War in East Asia Chinese Revolution 1949 CommunistsMao ZedongUS sent aid to Nationalist government who were defeated & fled to TaiwanShocked America1949 – Soviets test their first Atomic BombSino-Soviet Pact1950China & USSRChanged US policy towards JapanEncouraged more rapid recoveryTaiwan still today has tried to free itself from ChinaNow there are only 2 nuclear powers
31President Truman approves the development of the hydrogen bomb President Truman approves the development of the hydrogen bomb. This new type of nuclear weapon is at least 100 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in 1945.THIS WEB SITE ALLOWS YOU TO INPUT BOMB STRENGTH AND SHOWS THE DAMAGE THAT WOULD HAPPEN GOING OUT FROM THE CENTER OF THE BLAST.THE FIRST US HYDROGEN BOMB WAS EXPLODED IN NOVEMBER OF THE USSR EXPLODED ONE IN 1953.
32The Korean War 1950-1953 38th parallel Communist in the North Democracy in the SouthJune 25, North Korea invaded South KoreaTest of ContainmentUS got UN to send multinational force led by USAfter WWII, Soviets & Americans both entered Korea to disarm Japanese troops thereThey divided the country up at the 38th parallel
33Pusan PerimeterNorth Koreans pushed the South Korean and U.N. armies all the way to Pusan in the southRED LINES AND ARROWS SHOW THE COMMUNIST ADVANCE DOWN THE KOREAN PENINSULA
34China then invaded & pushed the UN army back to the 38th parallel GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR WAS PUT IN OVERALL COMMAND OF UNITED NATIONS FORCESMacArthur went way past the 38th parallel & China warned Americans not to come that far and in response Chinese troops were sent into KoreaMacArthur demanded the bombing of Chinese cities with Atomic Bombs but Truman refused b/c he didn’t want to go to war with China & didn’t want to use the bombs againMacArthur began to publicly criticize the President so Truman fired MacArthur for insubordinationMacArthur returned home to parades & hero’s welcomeDuring the war – 33,600 American soldiers died in combat while another 20,600 died in accidents or of diseaseMacarthur made a brilliant Invasion at Inchon which pushed the North Koreans back over the borderChina then invaded & pushed the UN army back to the 38th parallel
35THE WAR IN KOREA TURNED INTO A STALEMATE RESEMBLING WORLD WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.
36Korean WarTruman fired Gen. McArthur- MacArthur wanted to attack China (criticized president openly)*Limited WarTruman remained committed to a limited objective of containing communism**Important turning point in Cold WarCreated the need for the US to begin a massive military build up
37End of the Korean War 1951- peace negotiations began Armistice signed July 1953 (President Eisenhower)-hinted use of bomb against China33,600 US soldiers diedChanges:Led to US military buildup
38The Red ScareChapter 22 Section 3Fear that Communists were secretly working to subvert the American governmentSept Soviet Igor Gouzenko defected to Canada; carried documents that Soviet spies were trying to infiltrate US & CanadaSubversionThe effort to secretly weaken a society & overthrow its governmentJ. Edgar HooverFBI DirectorLoyalty Review Program ( )US Government screened all federal employees for Communist leanings.6 million US federal employees screened14,000 investigated by FBI2,000 quit their jobs212 were fired for “questionable" loyaltyLoyalty Review Program – seemed to confirm fears that communists had infiltrated the governmentHoover urged HUAC to hold public hearings on Communist subversion
39The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) Formed in1938 to investigate Communists & Fascists in the US.The Committee investigated communists & those who “sympathized” with them.Richard Nixon - member of the committee ( )Hollywood on Trial- HUAC questioned people in the movie industry about communist activities.“The Hollywood Ten”- used 5th Amendment to refuse to testify.Blacklists- people who refused to cooperate were denied jobs.Alger Hiss (former member of FDR’s staff)- accused of being a communist by (Whittaker Chambers).Hiss denied being a communistPumpkin Papers- seemed to prove that Hiss had liedHiss was found guilty of perjury
40Subverts Whittaker Chambers Alger Hiss Admitted he was a Communist & claimed there were other government officialsAlger HissGovernment official named by ChambersPumpkin PapersConvicted of perjuryChambers – Time magazine editorHiss – denied he was a Communist – to convict Hiss, Chambers produced documents he had hidden in a hollow pumpkin on his farm which became known as the pumpkin papers
41Julius & Ethel Rosenberg 1950- Government charged them with spyingNY couple-members of Communist PartyConvicted & put to death (1953)Divided the countryA sensational spy caseGovernmetn believed the secrets to making the Atomic bomb were leaked to the Soviets. Government looked for the leak & it led them to the Rosenberg who denied it – the were given the electric chair.
42Project VenonaCryptographers cracked the Soviet spy code (1946)Found many spies in the USAmerican public didn’t know until 1995Proved Rosenberg's were guiltyColleges, Universities, businesses & unions were heavily examined for communistsMost of the code breakers were young women
43Joseph McCarthyClaimed to have the names of 205 Communists in the government (State Department)Charged Secretary of State Dean Acheson & Army Chief of Staff George Marshall*McCarthyism-tactic of damaging reputations using vague unfounded chargesSenator from West VirginiaHe introduced this list at a women’s club meetingHe never produced the list but made charges and drew attention to the red scareHe accused the Democrat party for protecting communistsMcCarthyism – his search for disloyalty based on flimsy evidence & fear by damaging reputations with vague charges – people were afraid of challenging McCarthy for fear of becoming a target
44McCarthyism 1954-Army-McCarthy Hearings Televised hearingsMcCarthy seen bullying witnesses in the Army*Caused his support to fadeSenate voted censure of McCarthy(1950)McCarran Internal Security ActMade it illegal to conspire or perform any act with a person contributing to a totalitarian governmentRequired all Communist organizations & party members to register with the Attorney GeneralCommunists could then not get passports to travel overseasMcCarthy then began looking for spies in the Army – the army then began its own investigations & found no communists
45Living with the Bomb Duck & Cover Fallout shelters Fallout Protection from the blastFallout sheltersBuilt in backyards to protect from falloutFalloutRadiation left over after a blastCold War NightmaresMoviesEnjoyed a time of prosperityThey would stock the fallout shelters with canned food & medical suppliesTime of prosperity & consumerism – talk about tomorrow – makes it a time of contrastsFrank Zappa said – “Communism doesn’t work because people like to own stuff”
47Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953 – 1961 Pledged to end Korean War Chapter 23Section 4
48Election of 1952Truman will not run again: Foreign Policy not working, USSR had the bomb, China fallen to communism, US troops in Korea.Democrats nominated Adlai StevensonRepublicans nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower*Eisenhower promised to go to Korea to force an end to the war if elected.Dec armistice signed
49‘More Bang for the Buck’ Believed key to winning Cold war was a strong economyConventional war cost too much – using atomic weapons gave the US ‘more bang for the buck’*Massive RetaliationThe best way to prevent a conventional war was to threaten with nuclear weaponsEisenhower cut military expenditures from $50 billion to $34 billion and increased the number of bombs from 1,000 to 18,000
50BrinkmanshipCritics of Eisenhower’s Massive Retaliation called his willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side down= “brinkmanship”Secretary of State John Dulles- major player in US policy in 1950’s.Brikmanship was like playing chicken – critics warned it was too dangerous
51IN MARCH OF 1953 JOSEPH STALIN THE COMMUNIST DICTATOR OF THE SOVIET UNION DIED. AFTER THIS THE KOREAN PEACE NEGOIATIONS TOOK A MORE POSITIVE TURN.
52Nikita Khrushchev becomes leader of USSR NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV BECAME THE LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION AFTER STALIN’S DEATH. HE DENOUNCED THE CRIMES OF STALIN IN A FAMOUS 1956 SPEECH AND SET OUT TO REFORM THE USSR. ALTHOUGH HE ADVOCATED “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE” THERE WERE SEVERAL SERIOUS ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WHILE HE WAS IN OFFICE. IN 1956 HE ANNOUNCED AT A UN SPEECH THAT “WE (USSR) WILL BURY YOU (US)”Nikita Khrushchev becomes leader of USSR
53**The Domino Theory1947- President Truman started sending money to French forces in Vietnam trying to prevent their colony from take over by Communists.Eisenhower continued this policy“Domino Theory”- Eisenhower’s belief that if one Asian nation fell to communism others would fall as well.
54Containment – 1950s Taiwan Suez Canal Crisis (1956) China attacks TaiwanUS warns of nuclear weaponsChina backs downContainment worksSuez Canal Crisis (1956)Egyptian troops seized Suez Canal—Britain & France sent troopsUSSR supported EgyptBritish & French withdrawUS offered aid to Eygpt to build a dam on the Nile River. They had to withdraw the aid because Egypt accepted weapons from Communist Czechoslovakia.Egyptian government then attacked the Suez Canal to win it from the French so it could make money off of it and use it to build the damBritish & French invade Egypt.Soviet Union offers aid to Egypt – British & French pull their troops outOther countries in the Middle East begin receiving aid & weapons from the Soviet Union
55Central Intelligence Agency Created to use covert operations to combat & contain CommunismDeveloping Nations were keyIran – CIA started a riot & returned the Shah of Iran to powerGuatemala- CIA trained opponents of communist president ousted him.United Fruit CompanySoviet Union was starting Communist revolutions in other countries – Eisenhower knew he could not stop them so he created the CIAIran – successful covert operations – the Shah was in exile & replaced by a pro-Soviet prime minister. CIA organized street riots & arranged a coup to put the shah back in powerGuatemala – Guzman – president was pro-Communist which took over large properties including the US owned United Fruit company. - Czechoslovakia armed Guatemala & CIA responded by arming the opposition in Nicaragua & the Honduras. The opposition invaded & ran Guzman out of office
56OCTOBER 4TH 1957 THE SPACE RACE BEGAN WHEN RUSSIA LAUNCHED SPUTNIK, THE FIRST ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE TO ORBIT THE EARTH. AMERICANS WERE SHOCKED THAT THE SOVIETS WERE THE FIRST INTO SPACESOUND IS
57Sputnik*Sputnik--First artificial satellite launched by the Soviets in 1957Alarmed AmericansAmericans falling behind in missile technologyB-52 Bomber – able to fly across continentsIntercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs)Could deliver bombs without aircraftNational Aeronautics & Space AdministrationNASACoordinate research in rocket science & space explorationNational Defense Education Act (NDEA)Education in science, math & foreign languagesThe NDEA put more money & emphasis on these categories instead of reading, language arts and social studies.
58USSR WAS THE FIRST TO SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCH AN ICBM In 1957 a new word entered the world’s vocabulary: ICBM, short for intercontinental ballistic missiles. These were nuclear bomb carrying missiles with ranges of over five thousand miles. No place on earth was safe from nuclear destruction.USSR WAS THE FIRST TO SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCH AN ICBMFIRST US ATLAS ICBM
59The U.S. did not get an object into orbit until January of 1958 after several embarrassing failures. The space race was on.
60OCTOBER 23, 1956 THE PEOPLE OF HUNGARY ROSE UP AGAINST THEIR USSR COMMUNIST IMPOSED GOVERNMENT. FOR A SHORT TIME IT APPEARED THAT THE REVOLT MIGHT SUCCEED BUT ON NOVEMBER 4TH SOVIET TANK ARMIES INVADED AND CRUSHED THE REVOLT. A SIMILAR 1952 REVOLT IN POLAND WAS ALSO DEFEATED BY RUSSIAN TANKS.
61FIDEL CASTROON JANUARY 1, 1959 REVOLUTION IN CUBA SUCCESSFULLY OVERTHREW THE Pro-US GOVERNMENT. ON JANUARY 6TH FIDEL CASTRO BECAME PREMIER AND LATER COMMUNIST DICTATOR OF CUBA. MANY CUBANS FLEE TO THE U.S.
62The Paris Summit (1960)1959- Soviet leader Khrushchev visited the USEisenhower & Khrushchev agreed to meet again in Paris 1960.The Soviets shot down an American spy plane before the summit beganAt first, Eisenhower denied US involvement.Khrushchev broke up the summit
63U-2 Plane was piloted by Garry Powers MAY 1960: THE U-2 INCIDENTA US U-2 RECONNAISSANCE (SPY) PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN OVER THE SOVIET UNIONU-2 Plane was piloted by Garry PowersAND ITS PILOT GARY POWERS CAPTURED AND PUT ON TRIAL. KHRUSHCHEV USED THIS INCIDENT TO CANCEL A PLANNED EAST-WEST SUMMIT CONFERENCE IN PARIS. – Eisenhower claimed it was a weather plane but Khruschev produced the pilot and Eisenhower was caught in his lie – Diplomacy began to seriously break downPHOTOS, U-2 IN FLIGHT, CRASHED U-2 IN RUSSIA, GARY POWERS ON TRIAL IN MOSCOW. HE WAS CONVICTED AND GIVEN A TEN YEAR PRISON TERM BUT IN 1961 HE WAS EXCHANGED FOR A CAPTURED SOVIET SPY AND RETURNED HOME.
64Military Industrial Complex Eisenhower’s warning in his farewell speechDo not let the build up of military industry affect democracyWar and the build up of military & spending on military can negatively affect democracy