Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Sec. 1. Era of confrontation & competition between the Soviet & US from 1946 to 1990. The roots of the Cold War can be found in the period."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 22 Sec. 1
Era of confrontation & competition between the Soviet & US from 1946 to The roots of the Cold War can be found in the period just before the end of WWII. TWO Differing Goals: 1. The United State’s Goals- Democracy, free enterprise & economic growth would lead to peaceful future in post war world. 2. The Soviet Union’s Goals : keep Germany weak economically & militarily, communism was superior to capitalism= spread communism.
Map of Europe AFTER World War II
YALTA CONFERENCE, 1945: FDR, CHURCHILL AND STALIN MET TO DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR.
FDR (BEFORE HE DIED), STALIN, & CHURCHILL PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN CAUSING THE COLD WAR Soviets were setting up communist governments in Europe as they moved through. 1. Poland - two rival governments claimed the right to govern Poland- one communist the other –non-communist. Agreement- FDR & Churchill agreed to recognize communist government set up by the Soviets; Stalin agreed to allow free elections later (never happened) 2. Declaration of Liberated Europe- Big three agreed that people in Europe had the right to form governments & democracy. 3. Germany - the Big Three agreed to divide Germany into 4 zones controlled by : Britain, France, US, & Soviets. Berlin also divided into 4 zones Stalin insisted that Germany pay heavy war reparations FDR got Stalin to accept German goods instead of cash
Division of Germany after World War II
POTSDAM CONFERENCE, JULY 1945 CHURCHILL, TRUMAN, AND STALIN DECIDE HOW TO DEAL WITH GERMANY AND JAPAN POTSDAM CONFERENCE, JULY 1945 CHURCHILL, TRUMAN, AND STALIN DECIDE HOW TO DEAL WITH GERMANY AND JAPAN
FDR died; 1 st meeting between President Truman, Stalin, Churchill War was still raging against Japan at this point Stalin wants to keep Germany weak; Truman distrustful of Stalin-won’t appease him. Agreement- 1. Stalin agreed to accept small amount of industrial equipment from US, British, & French zones instead of cash. 2. Soviets had to pay for part of it with food shipments from the Soviet zone to Western Germany. 3. Truman agreed to accept new German-Polish border * Truman hinted that the US had developed a new powerful weapon (atomic bomb).
Soviets established communist government in Romania & did not allow non-communist to serve in government in Poland. *“Satellite nations”- communist countries of Eastern Europe controlled by USSR. Winston Churchill gave a speech in Fulton, Missouri– “an iron curtain has fallen across Eastern Europe”. *“Iron Curtain”- area separating free Europe from communist area of Eastern Europe & Soviet Union.
Churchill giving his “iron curtain” speech in March of 1946 at Fulton Missouri Churchill’s main points were that there should be a US/UK agreement within the framework of the U.N. to resist and deter any disturbances to world peace and that Stalin wants "not war but the fruits of war”, and if the allies stay strong and united they can counter any Soviet threat "A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victories.... From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”
UNITED NATIONS MEETS FOR THE FIRST TIME, 1945
*George Kennan › American Ambassador to USSR * Long Telegram : 5,540 word explanation of what he believed were Soviet goals Proposed long term *CONTAINMENT of Communism *Containment – keeping Communism within its present territory *Containment will be US policy during the Cold War for 40 years!! Chapter 22 Sec. 2
IRAN WAS THE SITE OF THE FIRST DISPUTE OF THE COLD WAR IN
After WWII- US & USSR jointly occupied Iran US withdrew– USSR refused to withdraw & supported a communist government in North Iran (wanted access to oil). Truman’s Actions: 1. Sent strong message to Soviets to withdraw 2. Sent USS Missouri to eastern Mediterranean Result- Soviet’s withdrew with promise of a Iranian-Soviet oil company.
BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY FACED COMMUNIST REVOLTS IN 1947 AND ASKED THE U.S. FOR AID TO DEFEND THEMSELVES FROM COMMUNIST TAKEOVERS FIGHTING AGAINST COMMUNISTS IN GREECE
1. The Roosevelt Corollary 2. The Quadruple Alliance 3. The Monroe Doctrine 4. The Platt Amendment
Truman’s policy on fighting Soviet aggression around the world Asked Congress for $400 million to fight communists in Turkey & Greece. Truman pledged to help people fighting against communism with money & supplies. “To aid free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.”
1947 George Marshall – Secretary of State European recovery plan American aid to rebuild Europe after WWII- US sent billions of dollars to help western Europe recover. Necessary to fight Communism
GERMAN CITY OF HAMBURG IN 1947 BEFORE THE MARSHALL PLAN HAMBURG, 1952, AFTER THE MARSHALL PLAN EFFECTS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN
1948- US, Britain, France announce that they will merge their 3 zones & allow Germany to set up a government. Make West Berlin part of new Germany June USSR cut all rail, road traffic to West Berlin
Truman ordered an airlift of supplies to West Berliners 11 months (2 million tons of supplies) Also sent bombers with atomic weapons to Britain just in case
IN MAY OF 1949 THE RUSSIANS ENDED THE BERLIN BLOCKADE
**NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization Mutual defense alliance *Warsaw Pact Soviet Union’s response to West Germany joining NATO An organized military alliance in Eastern Europe
EASTERN EUROPEAN NATIONS TAKEN OVER BY THE USSR AFTER WW II YUGOSLAVIA, WHILE COMMUNIST, REMAINED INDEPENDENT
IN OCTOBER 1947 THE UN AUTHORIZED THE CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL WITH BOTH THE US AND USSR VOTING IN FAVOR. ON MAY 14 TH 1948 ISRAEL DECLARED ITS INDEPENDENCE AND FIVE ARAB STATES IMMEDIATELY INVADED WITH THE GOAL OF DESTROYING THE NEWLY CREATED JEWISH STATE. THEY WERE DEFEATED BY ISRAEL The Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Al Husseini stated, “I declare a holy war, my Moslem brothers! Murder the Jews! Murder them all!" MUFTI AND HITLER DURING THE WW II
BECAUSE OF THE 1948 ARAB ISRAELI WAR SOME 500,000 ARABS FLED ISRAEL AND MANY REMAIN REFUGEES TODAY HOPING TO RETURN TO THEIR FORMER HOMES. IT IS ESTIMATED THAT AS MANY AS 800,000 JEWS WERE FORCED TO LEAVE ARAB COUNTRIES DURING THE 1940’S AND 50’S. MOST OF THESE REFUGEES WERE ABSORBED INTO ISRAEL. THE CONFLICT BETWEEN ARABS AND ISRAELIS IS AN ONGOING THEME IN THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE US DURING THE COLD WAR AND BEYOND.
Chinese Revolution › 1949 Communists › Mao Zedong US sent aid to Nationalist government who were defeated & fled to Taiwan Shocked America 1949 – Soviets test their first Atomic Bomb Sino-Soviet Pact › 1950 › China & USSR Changed US policy towards Japan › Encouraged more rapid recovery
President Truman approves the development of the hydrogen bomb. This new type of nuclear weapon is at least 100 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in THE FIRST US HYDROGEN BOMB WAS EXPLODED IN NOVEMBER OF THE USSR EXPLODED ONE IN 1953.
38 th parallel Communist in the North Democracy in the South June 25, North Korea invaded South Korea Test of Containment US got UN to send multinational force led by US
North Koreans pushed the South Korean and U.N. armies all the way to Pusan in the south Pusan Perimeter
GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR WAS PUT IN OVERALL COMMAND OF UNITED NATIONS FORCES Macarthur made a brilliant Invasion at Inchon which pushed the North Koreans back over the border China then invaded & pushed the UN army back to the 38 th parallel
THE WAR IN KOREA TURNED INTO A STALEMATE RESEMBLING WORLD WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.
Truman fired Gen. McArthur- MacArthur wanted to attack China (criticized president openly) *Limited War › Truman remained committed to a limited objective of containing communism **Important turning point in Cold War › Created the need for the US to begin a massive military build up
peace negotiations began Armistice signed July 1953 (President Eisenhower)-hinted use of bomb against China 33,600 US soldiers died Changes: Led to US military buildup
Fear that Communists were secretly working to subvert the American government Sept Soviet Igor Gouzenko defected to Canada; carried documents that Soviet spies were trying to infiltrate US & Canada Subversion › The effort to secretly weaken a society & overthrow its government J. Edgar Hoover › FBI Director Loyalty Review Program ( ) US Government screened all federal employees for Communist leanings. 6 million US federal employees screened 14,000 investigated by FBI 2,000 quit their jobs 212 were fired for “questionable" loyalty Chapter 22 Section 3
Formed in1938 to investigate Communists & Fascists in the US. The Committee investigated communists & those who “sympathized” with them. Richard Nixon - member of the committee ( ) 1. Hollywood on Trial- HUAC questioned people in the movie industry about communist activities. “The Hollywood Ten”- used 5 th Amendment to refuse to testify. Blacklists- people who refused to cooperate were denied jobs. 2. Alger Hiss (former member of FDR’s staff)- accused of being a communist by (Whittaker Chambers). Hiss denied being a communist Pumpkin Papers- seemed to prove that Hiss had lied Hiss was found guilty of perjury
Whittaker Chambers › Admitted he was a Communist & claimed there were other government officials Alger Hiss › Government official named by Chambers › Pumpkin Papers › Convicted of perjury
Government charged them with spying NY couple-members of Communist Party Convicted & put to death (1953) Divided the country
Cryptographers cracked the Soviet spy code (1946) Found many spies in the US American public didn’t know until 1995 Proved Rosenberg's were guilty
Claimed to have the names of 205 Communists in the government (State Department) Charged Secretary of State Dean Acheson & Army Chief of Staff George Marshall *McCarthyism-tactic of damaging reputations using vague unfounded charges
(1950)McCarran Internal Security Act › Made it illegal to conspire or perform any act with a person contributing to a totalitarian government › Required all Communist organizations & party members to register with the Attorney General 1954-Army-McCarthy Hearings › Televised hearings › McCarthy seen bullying witnesses in the Army › * Caused his support to fade Senate voted censure of McCarthy
Duck & Cover › Protection from the blast Fallout shelters › Built in backyards to protect from fallout Fallout › Radiation left over after a blast Cold War Nightmares › Movies Enjoyed a time of prosperity
Chapter 23 Section 4
Truman will not run again: Foreign Policy not working, USSR had the bomb, China fallen to communism, US troops in Korea. Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson Republicans nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower *Eisenhower promised to go to Korea to force an end to the war if elected. Dec armistice signed
Believed key to winning Cold war was a strong economy Conventional war cost too much – using atomic weapons gave the US ‘more bang for the buck’ *Massive Retaliation › The best way to prevent a conventional war was to threaten with nuclear weapons
Critics of Eisenhower’s Massive Retaliation called his willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side down= “ brinkmanship ” Secretary of State John Dulles- major player in US policy in 1950’s.
IN MARCH OF 1953 JOSEPH STALIN THE COMMUNIST DICTATOR OF THE SOVIET UNION DIED. AFTER THIS THE KOREAN PEACE NEGOIATIONS TOOK A MORE POSITIVE TURN.
NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV BECAME THE LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION AFTER STALIN’S DEATH. HE DENOUNCED THE CRIMES OF STALIN IN A FAMOUS 1956 SPEECH AND SET OUT TO REFORM THE USSR. ALTHOUGH HE ADVOCATED “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE” THERE WERE SEVERAL SERIOUS ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WHILE HE WAS IN OFFICE. IN 1956 HE ANNOUNCED AT A UN SPEECH THAT “WE (USSR) WILL BURY YOU (US)” Nikita Khrushchev becomes leader of USSR
President Truman started sending money to French forces in Vietnam trying to prevent their colony from take over by Communists. Eisenhower continued this policy “Domino Theory”- Eisenhower’s belief that if one Asian nation fell to communism others would fall as well.
Taiwan › China attacks Taiwan › US warns of nuclear weapons › China backs down › Containment works Suez Canal Crisis (1956) Egyptian troops seized Suez Canal—Britain & France sent troops USSR supported Egypt British & French withdraw
Created to use covert operations to combat & contain Communism Developing Nations were key › Iran – CIA started a riot & returned the Shah of Iran to power › Guatemala - CIA trained opponents of communist president ousted him. United Fruit Company
OCTOBER 4 TH 1957 THE SPACE RACE BEGAN WHEN RUSSIA LAUNCHED SPUTNIK, THE FIRST ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE TO ORBIT THE EARTH. AMERICANS WERE SHOCKED THAT THE SOVIETS WERE THE FIRST INTO SPACE
*Sputnik --First artificial satellite launched by the Soviets in 1957 › Alarmed Americans › Americans falling behind in missile technology B-52 Bomber – able to fly across continents Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) › Could deliver bombs without aircraft National Aeronautics & Space Administration › NASA › Coordinate research in rocket science & space exploration National Defense Education Act (NDEA) › Education in science, math & foreign languages
In 1957 a new word entered the world’s vocabulary: ICBM, short for intercontinental ballistic missiles. These were nuclear bomb carrying missiles with ranges of over five thousand miles. No place on earth was safe from nuclear destruction. FIRST US ATLAS ICBM USSR WAS THE FIRST TO SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCH AN ICBM
The U.S. did not get an object into orbit until January of 1958 after several embarrassing failures. The space race was on.
OCTOBER 23, 1956 THE PEOPLE OF HUNGARY ROSE UP AGAINST THEIR USSR COMMUNIST IMPOSED GOVERNMENT. FOR A SHORT TIME IT APPEARED THAT THE REVOLT MIGHT SUCCEED BUT ON NOVEMBER 4 TH SOVIET TANK ARMIES INVADED AND CRUSHED THE REVOLT. A SIMILAR 1952 REVOLT IN POLAND WAS ALSO DEFEATED BY RUSSIAN TANKS.
ON JANUARY 1, 1959 REVOLUTION IN CUBA SUCCESSFULLY OVERTHREW THE Pro-US GOVERNMENT. ON JANUARY 6 TH FIDEL CASTRO BECAME PREMIER AND LATER COMMUNIST DICTATOR OF CUBA. MANY CUBANS FLEE TO THE U.S. FIDEL CASTRO
Soviet leader Khrushchev visited the US Eisenhower & Khrushchev agreed to meet again in Paris The Soviets shot down an American spy plane before the summit began At first, Eisenhower denied US involvement. Khrushchev broke up the summit
A US U-2 RECONNAISSANCE (SPY) PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN OVER THE SOVIET UNION U-2 Plane was piloted by Garry Powers MAY 1960: THE U-2 INCIDENT
Eisenhower’s warning in his farewell speech Do not let the build up of military industry affect democracy