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Between two totalitarianisms. Poland in the World War II Paweł Ukielski Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Between two totalitarianisms. Poland in the World War II Paweł Ukielski Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Between two totalitarianisms. Poland in the World War II Paweł Ukielski Ph.D.

2 Soviet Minister of Int. Affairs, Molotov, is signing the German-Soviet Non- Aggression Pact, Moscow, August 23, 1939.

3 Secret Protocol Map of divided Poland attached to the Hitler – Stalin Pact. Thick black line in the middle marks the German - Soviet border.

4 German (Sept. 1, 1939) and Soviet invasion of Poland (Sept. 17, 1939). Black and red arrows mark the main axes of attack

5 The fourth partition of Poland

6 Polish 303 Fighter Squadron during Battle of Britain achieved the highest numbers of kills of any allied squadron


8 German occupation of Poland – one of thousands of street executions, Warsaw 1941.

9 German concetration camp in Auschwitz

10 Victims of the Soviets, Eastern Poland, 1940.

11 5 March 1940. The protocol sentencing to death more the 20.000 Polish officers The Katyń Massacre

12 Teheran Conference, Nov. 28, 1943-Dec. 1, 1943 (from the left: Stalin, F.D.Roosevelt, W.Churchill)

13 Warsaw Insurgents, August 1944.

14 German heavy mortar ”Karl’’ shelling Warsaw, August 1944.

15 Genocide On 1st August Hitler gave an order to kill all inhabitants of Warsaw the „Slaughter of Wola district” – ca. 40.000 victims of mass executions within 3 days Numerous mass killings after withdrawal of the order

16 Democratic State Over 150 titles of insurgent press – issued by all political movements Laws issued by authorities Sovereign state attributes Civil society – organizing everyday life in the city

17 1586 Polish Special Duties Flight, Brinidsi, Italy, August 1944.

18 “Further, having familiarized myself more closely with the Warsaw adventure, I am convinced that the Warsaw action represents a reckless adventure...” Joseph Stalin to Winston Churchill, August 16, 1944.

19 ‘’Poland is our oldest ally in this war…Poland is a country which I, as an Englishmen, am proud to call an ally…I would like to make an appeal to the British Nation…HELP FOR WARSAW!’’ Lt John Ward, a British war correspondent, despatch sent from Warsaw on September 6, 1944.

20 Warsaw Rising death toll: 18.000 Home Army soldiers, 180.000 civilians

21 Death of the city – Warsaw after the Rising…

22 Two uprisings – a comparison… Paris – August 1944Warsaw – January 1945

23 The Yalta Conference

24 Territorial change – post-war Poland marked in pink, pre-war Poland marked with red line

25 Political persecutions The trial of Sixteen Cavalry Capt. Witold Pilecki

26 SUMMARY THREE LEVELS OF WARSAW RISING’S SIGNIFICANCE: LOCAL – identity of the city of Warsaw NATIONAL – Warsaw Rising as an independent Poland GLOBAL – understanding of XX century as a century of totalitarian regimes

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