German heavy mortar ”Karl’’ shelling Warsaw, August 1944.
Genocide On 1st August Hitler gave an order to kill all inhabitants of Warsaw the „Slaughter of Wola district” – ca. 40.000 victims of mass executions within 3 days Numerous mass killings after withdrawal of the order
Democratic State Over 150 titles of insurgent press – issued by all political movements Laws issued by authorities Sovereign state attributes Civil society – organizing everyday life in the city
1586 Polish Special Duties Flight, Brinidsi, Italy, August 1944.
“Further, having familiarized myself more closely with the Warsaw adventure, I am convinced that the Warsaw action represents a reckless adventure...” Joseph Stalin to Winston Churchill, August 16, 1944.
‘’Poland is our oldest ally in this war…Poland is a country which I, as an Englishmen, am proud to call an ally…I would like to make an appeal to the British Nation…HELP FOR WARSAW!’’ Lt John Ward, a British war correspondent, despatch sent from Warsaw on September 6, 1944.
Warsaw Rising death toll: 18.000 Home Army soldiers, 180.000 civilians
Death of the city – Warsaw after the Rising…
Two uprisings – a comparison… Paris – August 1944Warsaw – January 1945
The Yalta Conference
Territorial change – post-war Poland marked in pink, pre-war Poland marked with red line
Political persecutions The trial of Sixteen Cavalry Capt. Witold Pilecki
SUMMARY THREE LEVELS OF WARSAW RISING’S SIGNIFICANCE: LOCAL – identity of the city of Warsaw NATIONAL – Warsaw Rising as an independent Poland GLOBAL – understanding of XX century as a century of totalitarian regimes