6 Only 3% of the Earth’s water is fresh water (no salt). 2/3 of this water is frozen in ice sheets.Therefore only 1% of the fresh water on Earth is available.
7 Review of Terms...Definition of Lithosphere: the solid rocky ground of the Earth’s crust.Do not write in pamphlet
8 Atmosphere: the environment surrounding the Earth. Do not write in pamphlet
9 Hydrosphere: All water on Earth Hydrosphere: All water on Earth. Including that in the lithosphere and atmosphere.
10 Scientists who study water... HydrologistA person who studies Earth’s water systems and helps to find solutions to problems of water quality and quantity.Not in pamphlet
11 Oceanographer: A person who studies all aspects of the ocean Oceanographer: A person who studies all aspects of the ocean. They are concerned with the biology, geology, physics, and mathematics of the ocean.
12 Why do We Not Run Out of Water?? Because of the:WATER CYCLE
14 The constant cycling of water through the processes of : Evaporation&Condensation.condensa tioWater is constantly changing from(gas liquid)and back again. This driven by the sun’s energy.
15 Ocean Water vs. Fresh Water Three ways in which fresh water differs from ocean water are:1. Salinity2. Density3. Freezing point
16 1. Salinity - Definition-The amount of salt dissolved in a specific amount of water.salt comes from dissolved solids in the ground and volcanoes.salt comes from dissolved solids in the ground and volcanoes.
17 Fresh Water Salt Water has tiny amounts of salt. Average amount of salt in salt water is 35 ppt.Salt content varies depending on location.Increase salt at the equator and poles
18 2. Density - Definition-The amount of mass of a substance in a certain unit volume. *How tightly packed together the material is in a substance.
19 *Ocean water is more dense than fresh water due to the salt content. The Dead Sea
20 3. Freezing Point -Definition -The temperature at which a liquid freezes.*Fresh water... 0oC*Salt water oC
21 Core Lab Activities Activity 1-3A “Salinity’s Effect on Water Density” Graphing Assignment pp60-61“Temperature & Water Density”
22 Sources of Fresh Water Lakes, ponds and wetlands Streams and rivers Ground waterRun OffGlaciersDrainage Basins
23 3. Ground Water...Precipitation that falls on land and sinks out of sight.Sinks through pores in rocks and goes down to bedrock where it pools.These pools to us make up “wells”.
25 4. Run Offdoesn’t sink into the ground or evaporate.: flows on land.is affected by:a) ground material,b) amount of rain,c) amount of time it rains,d)slope (steepness) of the land,e)vegetation,f) the amount of development.
26 5.Glaciers...A moving mass of snow and ice.Found in areas where it is so cold the snow remains all year.
27 Glaciers in mountains and on the continent of Antarctica
28 Glaciers slow down the Water Cycle by storing big amounts of frozen fresh water. Some water thaws in the hot summer months.They give us information about the Earth’s past climates. ( samples)
41 Drainage basins close to home are Labrador Sea, & Gulf Of St. Lawrence
42 6 Major Drainage Basins in NL Labrador SeaGulf of St. LawrenceWest Coast Gulf of St. LawrenceSouth Coast Gulf of St. LawrenceAtlantic Ocean Avalon PeninsulaAtlantic Ocean North-east Coast
43 One Component Affects Another Salinity :affects the types of organisms that can survive in an area. Eg. Dead Sea
44 Temperature :affects the amount of dissolved oxygen in water. Ex. The higher the temp. the more oxygen.
45 The convergence of the Labrador Current and the Gulf Stream Current (place where they meet) influences productivity of the Grand Banks (more fish there), the movement of icebergs, and migration of capelin and whales.