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The Origins of the Cold War How the world fell into another war that was unlike anything anyone had seen before.

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Presentation on theme: "The Origins of the Cold War How the world fell into another war that was unlike anything anyone had seen before."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Origins of the Cold War How the world fell into another war that was unlike anything anyone had seen before

2 Churchill’s Back…the Prophet Churchill sees Stalin as a threat during WWII – Especially more so as Germany is falling FDR disagrees with him and sees Stalin as a friend and ally

3 Changing of the Guard FDR dies April 1945 Harry Truman takes over – Agrees with Churchill’s views on Stalin

4 Post WWII Europe

5 Post-WWII…US style 400,000 dead but the US won – Mainland untouched by enemy fire – Economy doing well

6 Soviet Union Post-WWII 50 times the fatalities of the US – 25% of the Soviets are killed or wounded Cities and Economy destroyed

7 Underlying Mistrust USSR fears the West – After WWI – western aid to the Whites ( ) – US Red Scare During WWII – West was slow to open up 2 nd front – Potsdam US soldier at guard tower in Northern Russia. Aiding Tsar.

8 Dealing with the losers Peace of Paris – 10 Feb 1947 – Reparations…again Italy, Finland, Hungary, Romanians all owe money and land to USSR – Decision to split up Germany is decided USSR gets factories and moveable items – Austria is also divided but not forced to pay any reparations

9 Germany’s Destiny Russia want to punish Germany for the war – heavily US, Britain, and France want to get Germany back on her feet as quickly as possible Many ethnic Germans are kicked out of their current homeland during this time – Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland all kick them out – Germany gov’t doesn’t want to pay for them

10 Soviet Goals Terrified of Germany – 30,000,000 dead Soviets in two world wars Need Security – Satellite states – Comintern USSR wants communist HEGEMONY – leadership or dominance, esp. by one country over another

11 US Goals Tired of European Wars – Want democracy and capitalism because… Capitalistic democracies don’t fight each other Bring blessings of liberty to the oppressed Self-interest US Capitalist Plot – US wanted to prop up the European countries – USSR saw this as a ploy to draw Eastern Europe into American Sphere

12 Stalin Breaks the Yalta Pact Yalta called for monitored elections in freed states – With FDR dead, Stalin pressed for control within these countries – Truman and Churchill angered

13 Soviets Begin to Expand Feeling threatened by Germany and provoked by the US Poland, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, eastern Germany, Finland, Yugoslavia, Baltics

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15 US sees Soviet land grabs as offensive, not defensive USSR sees US as trying to isolate them from the world

16 Stalin Emboldened 1946 – with the new satellite states, Stalin predicts complete communist victory in the world Cominform used to carry out plans – New Comintern

17 The Iron Curtain Falls

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19 The Iron Curtain, March 1946 Churchill, in speech in Fulton Missouri says an Iron Curtain has descended across Europe

20 George Kennan and the “X Letter” American diplomat in Moscow and leading authority on Russia sends letter signed “X” to US intelligence – Warned US that it could NOT co- exist with USSR – Only option: CONTAINMENT – policy of keeping communism contained within its existing borders – USSR would only expand without serious risks, i.e. – did not want to fight war with US

21 Greece and Turkey in Trouble Stalin wants Greece and Turkey to free Black Sea Fleet Stalin demanded military bases in the Turkish Straits, an area of sea belonging to Turkey

22 Problems with Greece Political instability – Communist Party created the National Liberation Front (EAM) – National Republican Greek League (EDES) During WWII, EDES received aid from Britain – Churchill met with Stalin in 1944 and agreed to give him Romania if the USSR backed off Greece – 1944 – the nationalists won and the size of the Communist party decreased March 1946 – elections were held in Greece and the corrupt elections favored EDES – Communists formed the Democratic Army of Greece (DA) to fight to restore Greece to democracy Britain and Greece turn to US for help because Yugoslavia is aiding the communists 1949 – EDES defeated the DA – 80,000 people were killed and another 700,000 were left homeless – Economically destroyed

23 Issues with Turkey Feb 1945 – Turkey finally decided to side with Allies in WWII – Allowed Turkey to become charter member of the United Nations Behind technologically and want help from Britain and US

24 Truman’s Solution Truman Doctrine 1947 – Says US will support free people trying to resist subjugation Gives $400,000,000 to save Greece and Turkey Paves the way for military options What is the US getting into?

25 The Marshall Plan 1948 Communism becoming increasingly popular George Marshall developed a plan to give $13,000,000,000 – Food, loans, fuel to heat homes, machinery – Was also offered to satellite states in Eastern Europe Yugoslavia took US aid

26 Comecon – the Soviet Response Marshall Plan seen as plan to split satellite states – Poland and Czechoslovakia tried but were forced to refuse the aid Stalin introduced Comecon, a Soviet Marshall Plan – Originally called Molotov plan – Economic organization under the leadership of the Soviet Union

27 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization – military alliance to counter Soviet Expansion All for One, One for all COLLECTIVE SECURITY – principle of mutual military assistance

28 The Death of Stalin: A Massive Stroke?

29 A Conspiracy Stroke Was he killed by KGB and Politburo because he was angling toward unwanted WWIII? – Hyper paranoid but Stalin “issued orders” for the guards to go home – Politburo slow to order help to Stalin

30 A New Hope: Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev

31 Khrushchev vs. Stalin Khrushchev was not as suspicious or cruel as Stalin (Co- prosperity) – Condemned some of the steps of the Stalin regime – Moved toward more peaceful relations with the West Seems to be a lessening of Cold War tensions under Khrushchev

32 The Warsaw Pact, 1955 Soviet Response to NATO Agreed on paper not to interfere with another’s internal affairs – Really Soviet Union? Only Yugoslavia was not a member of the pact


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