Presentation on theme: "29.3 The Allies Turn the Tide Objective 1: Explain how Allied victories began to push back the Axis powers. Objective 2: Describe D-Day and the Allied."— Presentation transcript:
29.3 The Allies Turn the Tide Objective 1: Explain how Allied victories began to push back the Axis powers. Objective 2: Describe D-Day and the Allied advance toward Germany.
Total War – directing a nation’s resources towards the war effort. Increased involvement of women in the workforce. Rationing Converting factories to create materials for war Increased propaganda
Allies Forge Ahead 1942-1943 Allies beginning winning on all fronts (Pacific, N. Africa, Italy, Soviet Union, and France) Begin to push back the Axis powers
Coral Sea Color Footage Color Footage May 1942 (U.S. v. Japanese) First aircraft carrier v. aircraft carrier battle Ships did not even see each other during the battle Halted Japanese expansion in the Pacific
Midway June 1942 Commanders - Nimitz and Yamamoto Fought entirely from the air U.S. destroyed 4 Japanese carriers + 250 planes Japan unable to launch any offensive operations after Midway. Japan unable to keep pace with U.S. with shipbuilding and pilot training
Operation Torch Invasion of North Africa Push to gain full control of Med. Sea and precursor to invading S. Europe (Italy) Relieves pressure on Allied forces already in N. Africa – leads to eventual victory in N. African Campaign
North African Campaign – Supply problems for Rommel – Torch launched on Nov. 1942 – Montgomery/Patton push G/I back in retreat @ El Alamein defeat May ‘43 – Next step?
Next To Fall -Italy After Africa Montgomery and Patton move on to Italy which gives in quite quickly (Sep. 3, 43). Mussolini deposed and rescued by Germans. Germans hold northern Italy until 1945 (Anzio and Monte Cassino). Why so important? Mussolini’s fate.
Monte Cassino and Anzio Attempts to break the Gustav Line and reach Rome Anzio – attempt to break siege at Monte Cassino
Another Major Axis Loss: Stalingrad (Jul. 42 – Jan. 43) After losing Africa, Hitler goes after Stalingrad instead for Russian oil. Germans take city, then surrounded and besieged until winter. German 6 th was defeated after horrible winter/fighting conditions. Hitler wouldn’t surrender. Can’t defeat USSR and the tide turns as supplies become important. Fighting on the Eastern Front slowly goes to the Russians.supplies become important
"My hands are done for, and have been ever since the beginning of December. The little finger of my left hand is missing and - what's even worse - the three middle fingers of my right one are frozen. I can only hold my mug with my thumb and little finger. I'm pretty helpless; only when a man has lost any fingers does he see how much he needs then for the smallest jobs. The best thing I can do with the little finger is to shoot with it. My hands are finished." Anonymous German soldier
The Big Three Soviet Union – Stalin United States – Roosevelt Great Britain – Churchill Met in 1942 – agreed Europe/Nazis were priority Tehran 1943 – Stalin wants second front against Germans in Europe to take pressure off of Soviet Union
D-Day D-Day Operation Overlord Eisenhower planned attack of 3 million men June 6, 1944, allies attack at Normandy. Huge casualties for allies. (9,000 in one day) Held beaches for a month until Patton pushed through. August, ‘44: allies liberate Paris Sept. ‘44: France, Belgium, Holland, etc. liberated Oct. ‘44: U.S. Army enters Germany
Battle of the Bulge (12/44-1/45) Hitler’s last stand, tried to split allied forces b/c he was losing two front war. Allied win led to German retreat and race between Soviets and US for Berlin. Why? "The Ardennes battle drives home the lesson that a large-scale offensive by massed armor has no hope of success against an enemy who enjoys supreme command of the air. Our precious reserves had been expended, and nothing was available to ward off the impending catastrophe in the east." FM Von Rundstedt
Yalta Conference February 1945 Big Three Meeting – based off of distrust Stalin wants control of Eastern Europe for protection FDR and Churchill wanted self- determination in Eastern Europe Final agreements – S.U. would enter war against Japan 3 months after Germany surrendered Germany would be divided into four “zones” split between U.S., FR, G.B., and S.U.