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Loading.... British, French, Americans British, French, Americans British Americans Foreign Intervention Czech Legion Czech Legion Admiral Kolchak Admiral.

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Presentation on theme: "Loading.... British, French, Americans British, French, Americans British Americans Foreign Intervention Czech Legion Czech Legion Admiral Kolchak Admiral."— Presentation transcript:

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3 British, French, Americans British, French, Americans British Americans Foreign Intervention Czech Legion Czech Legion Admiral Kolchak Admiral Kolchak French General Denikin General Denikin General Yudenich General Yudenich General Wrangel General Wrangel General Miller General Miller White armies and their leaders White armies and their leaders Back to Content Page Back to Content Page

4 During the Russian civil war it became Multi national conflict ending with parts of Russia controlled by foreign countries. These allied forces remained from the recent European conflicts for the First World War. 14 Nations held operations within Russia, many backed the pro-Tsarist, anti Bolshevik and the White Army. The allies withdrew troops in 1920 however the Japanese stood their ground until 1922 and a full withdrawal in The allied forces although openly backing the anti Bolsheviks movement with equipment and troops did not fail to successfully defeat the ‘Red Army’. Even Winston Churchill strongly disagreed with the Bolshevik rule ‘Kill the Bolshee, kiss the Hun’. This backing led Lenin to believe that the West would take any chance to abolish communism. After the allies withdrew the whites soon fell short to the superlatively structured ‘Red army’. Back to the map

5 The white army were the opponents of the ‘Red army’ during the civil war. They were lead by prominent politicians and mostly by former tsarist officers. Following their arrival after the October Revolution, the Whites created the Russian civil war. Their army consisted of anti Bolsheviks, including the foreign intervention of 14 countries. They surrounded the red army however, the Bolsheviks where well organised, with internal lines of communication. After the withdrawal of the foreign fractions the whites were left hopeless against the might of the red army. They soon fell short to the communists and conceded to the Red Army. Back to the map

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7 The Internal Lines of Communication granted well structured movement of troops, well organised boarders and well coordinated military. The lines meant that orders, food or equipment could easily be transported across the region. This coupled with the requisition of grain led to an unstoppable ‘Red Army’. The Bolsheviks controlled most of central Russia Including most big cities. This meant that with the nationalisation of factories under war communism they could manufacture their own supplies and send shorter distances than their White opponents. With the increase in production and a stricter army the reds became an immovable object and an unstoppable force. Back to the Question Back to the Question

8 The Bolshevik Party where the only ones who could for definite say that they were fighting for Russia because they were individual and did not have any outside support. They supposedly fought for a better future for Russia however, due to future famine and oppressive communism it is hard to see their point. The Bolsheviks used the card to gain supporters and with the support of the peasant population they built a strong high ground. The Bolsheviks did not have clashed beliefs like their opponents furthermore leading them to be a united cause rather than a coalition force. Back to the Question Back to the Question

9 The whites had the upper hand in numbers However, they were massively disunited furthermore, many groups hated their comrades. This situation was worsened by the fact they used foreign intervention to gain numbers when in fact it split their forces even more. European forces occupied some of Russia to support the Whites. These soldiers were thousands of miles from home, in a foreign country were no one speaks their language. Separate parties united to create the whites when in ideology terms each was different to the other, fashioning a un-settled and un-agreed faction. Back to the Question Back to the Question

10 The Red Army cultivated a large public following because of their ideologies for the future of Russia. This occurred because of the Whites and Greens plans for Russia, in the long term the capitalists’ would retake what the peasants had tried so hard to achieve. As a result of this they joined the Reds who promised communism. This public support was also gathered through the Red Armies use of the patriotic card to appeal to the Russian people. Back to the Question Back to the Question

11 The Trans Siberian Railway was is important for the transport of troops, supplies and food. The railway was occupied by both sides. This granted the easy and quick movement of nearly anything to the frontlines. With the reds being compact it was more useful to use on the other hand however, the whites and greens could use the line to transport equipment across the whole of Russia. Foreign countries such as Japan could give equipment to the front lines from the far east of Russia to the west. This transportation however, was fairly slow unless in this case you were the reds and would only need to transport it a fraction of the distance. The Trans Siberian railway was very useful however In my opinion will not have made the biggest impact on the result of the civil war however, you may argue it was vital to supply the Russian people and its armies. Back to the Question Back to the Question

12 During the civil war the ‘’secret’’ Bolshevik army (the Checka) seized massive amount of grain from peasants to feed ‘The Red Army’. This caused the first man made famine in history furthermore resulting in many cases of cannibalism throughout Bolshevik territory. The situation became so bad for the peasant that there were reports of sausages containing human flesh. The food seized went to fuelling the army, this meant the ‘Red Army’ became the best feed also, increasing the strength of the soldiers and keeping them from dying of malnutrition. This came at a cost however, after the war due to the lack of seed to grow food a widespread famine occurred across Russia. This led to many losing faith in Bolshevik rule. The seizing of grain became a crucial factor in the success of ‘The Red Army’ but on the other hand, it led to huge suffering and the lose of life. Back to the Question Back to the Question

13 Yevgeny Miller was a Russian General born in 1876 and died in Miller was the leader of the anti communist White Army during and after the civil war of during his campaign he strongly opposed democratization of the army and was arrested by his own soldiers after he ordered them to remove red armbands. Miller was supported by the Entente, Mostly British. After a unsuccessful advance in the summer of 1919, the Entente withdrew their troops leaving miller to face the red army alone. In 1920 he was evacuated to Norway and exiled from Russia. He later died in the Russian Capital Moscow in 1939 after being smuggled back into Russia. Back to the map

14 Denikin was a general of the white movement during the Russian Civil War. He became one of the foremost General of the white army. After Anton gained leadership of the anti Bolshevik Volunteer army in After failing to overcome the Red army he withdrew his Soldiers back in the face of a communist counter-offensive. He gathered his men for a final push for Moscow. Although it was expected for him to achieve his goal it did not materialize and he was defeated in Orel 1919, 400 miles south of Moscow. Denikin then turned his attention to executing the innocent, it was estimated that 100,000 Jews were slaughtered under his ‘White Terror’. He later died in Back to the map

15 After Wrangel’s intervention in the First World War he resigned from his post as an officer of the Russian Army. In 1918 he joined the ranks of the Anti Bolshevik volunteer army, under control by Denikin. Wrangel was given the command of the 1 st Cavalry Division and the rank of Major General of the White Movement. He was then later promoted to lieutenant General, and his division was promoted to a corps. He gained a reputation of being a advanced and thoroughly skilled general. He was nicknamed ‘the Black Baron’ in Red Army Propaganda. Following the defeats in the early 1920s Wrangel lost half of his army he ordered a mass evacuation. Back to the map

16 Yudenich was a proclaimed leader of the White army. He had gone from a decorated military background to the white movement after he develop a strong disagreement with the Bolshevik party. Yudenich met with many foreign diplomats and secured many allies in his war effort. He also sought for funding of his army due to lack of equipment. After a failed attempt attacking weekly reinforced Petrograd his movement began to collapse. His many eventually retreated and he was arrested whilst attempting to flee Russia. Yudenich was then imprisioned. After mcuh diplomatic pressuring he was freed. Back to the map

17 He began as a naval officer however he became the supreme ruler of the revolutionary anti-communist white army. After enlisting for the British army he was put to use try to topple Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks Back to the map


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