Fascism Fascism – a form of totalitarianism, based on loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. Extreme nationalism One Party rule Denied human rights Supreme military Male-dominated Controlled mass media Labor unions suppressed National police force Censorship Anti - Communist
Italy High unemployment and inflation lead to social unrest. People want strong leader to take control of country. Benito Mussolini – editor and politician, won support on middle class and industry leaders. Founded Fascist Party in 1919.
30,000 Fascists march on Rome in 1922. Demand that Mussolini take control. Il Duce (Leader) – Abolished democracy – Outlawed all parties except Fascism – Secret police jailed opponents – Censorship – Outlawed strikes – Sided with industrialists and landowners Mussolini marches on Rome, 1922
Germany American loans are helping economy. Great Depression ended any recovery. German economy collapses. Civil unrest breaks out. Turn to Adolf Hitler for security.
Adolf Hitler Former soldier, awarded Iron Cross for bravery. Joined group that wanted to over- turn the Treaty of Versailles. Forms the National Socialist German Workers’ Party- Nazi Party (1923) Plotted to take over government, arrested and jailed. (Tried for Treason) 5yr sentence (Served 9 months)
Mein Kampf “My Struggle” Book written by Hitler in jail. Lebensraum- Germans needed more living space, by regaining lost land. Aryans- master race, all others inferior Anti-Semitism – discrimination or prejudice directed at Jews Anti-Bolshevik- one leader, one state
Hitler becomes Chancellor Hitler appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister) of Germany in 1933. “der Führer” – leader – Banned other parties – SS / Gestapo, secret police – Opponents arrested and murdered – Banned strikes/ unions – Government controlled industry – Put Germans to work (Built Factories, roads, weapons, – Military Unemployment went from 6 million to 1.5 million
Total control Propaganda Censorship, burned books Controlled church Children joined Hitler Youth (Boys) or League of German Girls. Anti-Semitism Kristallnacht – Night of Broken Glass.
Chapter 15.4 Japan Seeks an Empire Japan Invades Manchuria Japan has investments in Manchuria, Chinese province In 1931, Japanese army seizes Manchuria League of Nations protests action; Japan withdraws from League Japan Invades China In 1937, Japan launches war on China
Aggression in Europe, Asia, & Africa 1931-1939 September 1931 Japan Invades Manchuria July 1937 Japan Invades China March 1939 Germany Seizes Czechoslovakia October 1935 Italy Attacks Ethiopia March 1938 Germany Annexes Austria April 1939 Italy Conquers Albania March 1936 Germany occupies Rhineland September 1938 Germany Takes Sudetenland
European Aggressors on the March Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia In 1935, Mussolini attacks Ethiopia League of Nations does not stop aggression Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty In 1935, Hitler begins rebuilding German army In 1936, Germany occupies Rhineland
AGGRESSION BEGINS IN EUROPE In the early 1930s both Japan and Germany quit the League of Nations Hitler then began a huge military build-up (in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles) By 1936 Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland, a German region bordering France and Belgium that was demilitarized by the Versailles Treaty
CIVIL WAR IN SPAIN In 1936, a group of Spanish army officers led by General Francisco Franco, rebelled against the Spanish Republic A Civil War ensued as Hitler and Mussolini supported Franco’s fascists while the western democracies remained neutral SPANISH LOYALIST AT THE INSTANT OF DEATH by Robert Capra, 1936
Hitler’s Plan Late in 1937, Hitler was anxious to start his assault on Europe Austria was the first target The majority of Austria’s 6 million people favored unification with Germany On March 12, 1938, German troops marched into Austria unopposed A day later, Germany announced its union with Austria
CZECHOSLOVAKIA NEXT Hitler then turned to Czechoslovakia 3 million German-speaking people lived in Sudetenland Hitler built up troops on the border... France & Britain vowed to protect Czech. from Germany Sudetenland
Munich Conference (Appeasement) Leaders meet at the Munich Conference to settle Czech crisis Neville Chamberlain (Britain’s prime minister) met with Hitler and Mussolini and signed an agreement. Britain and France agree to let Hitler take Sudetenland as long as he agreed to not invade Czechoslovakia. Hitler agreed. The agreement gave Sudetenland to Germany.
Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace Appeasement- Giving in to the demands of an aggressor to avoid a war. (Giving up your principles) Winston Churchill Did not agree with Neville Chamberlain about Appeasement
“PEACE IN OUR TIMES!!?” Munich turned over the Sudetenland to Germany without a single shot fired Chamberlain returned to England and announced, “I have come back from Germany with peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time.” Chamberlain and Daladier believed Hitler and signed the Munich Agreement in September of 1938
GERMAN OFFENSIVE BEGINS Despite Munich Pact, Hitler was not finished expanding the German Empire March 15, 1939: German troops poured into what remained of Czechoslovakia At nightfall Hitler declared, “Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist” Germany had conquered Czechoslovakia without firing a shot German troops invade Czechoslovakia in March of 1939
Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan Signed the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Wanted to keep the U.S. out of the war. Would help one another if attacked.
Allies Over 26 countries were on their side. Main nations: – Great Britain – France (defeated by Germany) – Soviet Union – United States (will join later) – China – Australia – Canada – India
Chapter 16: World War II 1939-1945 Hitler’s Lightning War Japan Strikes in the Pacific The Holocaust The Allies Are Victorious The Devastation of Europe & Japan
Nonaggression Pact August 23, 1939 Hitler wants Poland. An agreement where the Soviet Union (Stalin) and Germany agreed to not go to war with one another. They also signed a secret pact to split Poland b/w the 2 nations.
Germany Invades Poland September 1, 1939 Britain, France declare war on Germany but Poland falls quickly (1 month) Blitzkrieg—lightning war—Germany’s new military strategy Planes, tanks, infantry used to surprise enemy and quickly conquer WWII has now started.
The Soviets Make Their Move Soviets annex Lithuania, Latvia, & Poland Invade and met resistance in Finland (late Nov. 1939) Soviets suffer huge losses due to freezing winter (Finland) Finland surrenders on March 13, 1940
The Phony War French, British mobilize along French border, wait for German attack Many months of no action—the “phony war”
In April 1940 Hitler attacks and quickly captures Denmark (4hrs), Norway (2months) Hitler invade Norway for natural resources (iron ore) British failure in Norway brought the fall of Neville Chamberlain’s Government
France Falls Troops & tanks invaded France. Germany invaded from the North, and Italy invaded from the South. Germans took over Paris, the capital city. France surrenders on June 22, 1940 Charles de Gaulle, French general, organizes opposition to Germany (Free French)
KEY Red - Nazi occupied and controlled Purple - Nazi controlled under Mussolini Blue - Free country, supported by the United States Green - Under the control of Josef Stalin of Russia who sided with the Nazis in 1939 Yellow - Neutral, but greatly influenced by Nazis, for example, Spain was under the dictatorship of General Franco who was controlled by Hitler EUROPE 1940- BRITAIN GOES IT ALONE
Winston Churchill—Becomes British prime minister, vows “We Shall Never Surrender”
THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN In the summer of 1940 Germany launched an air attack on England Hitler’s plan to attack Britain was called “Operation Sea Lion” The goal was to bomb England into submission Every night for two solid months, bombers pounded British targets: airfields, military bases and then cities
RAF FIGHTS BACK The Royal Air Force fought back bravely with the help of a new device called radar With radar, British pilots could spot German planes even in darkness The British Spitfire Plane was instrumental in downing 175 Nazi planes on September 15, 1940 Six weeks later, Hitler called off the attack on England Realized that Hitler could be stopped A Spitfire dogs a German Domier Do-17 as it crosses the Tower of London
Axis Forces Attack North Africa Mussolini, Italy at first neutral Mussolini declares war on France, Britain after German victory September 1940—Mussolini attacks British in North Africa Britain Strikes Back December 1940—British attack and drive Italians back Erwin Rommel, German general, battles British in North Africa In 1942, Rommel first retreats then succeeds against British
The War in the Balkans Hitler plans to invade Soviet Union; moves to take Balkan countries Hitler invades Yugoslavia (11 days), Greece (17 days) in April 1941; both fall quickly
Hitler Invades the Soviet Union Operation Barbarossa Germany invades an unprepared Soviet Union on June 22,1941 Soviet troops burn land as they retreat; Germans move into Russia (Scorched Earth Policy) Germans stopped at Leningrad, forced to undertake long siege (1 million died) Germans almost capture Moscow, but forced to pull back
The United States Aids Its Allies American Policy (Isolationism) Most Americans want to avoid war Roosevelt fears that if allies fall, U.S. would have to fight He hopes to strengthen allies so they can resist Germany “Cash-and-carry” program Allowed nations to buy weapons with cash if they shipped them on their own ships. Congress passed the first peacetime military draft in 1940. Roosevelt wins 3 rd Presidential election, breaks the 2-term tradition
Lend-Lease Act Great Britain ran out of cash to pay for weapons. Roosevelt let Allies borrow or lease weapons if their nation’s defense was important to the U.S. Lend Lease helped the U.S. Economy (Sold Goods to Allies) Made isolationists angry
Great Britain.........................$31 billion Soviet Union...........................$11 billion France......................................$ 3 billion China.......................................$1.5 billion Other European.................$500 million South America...................$400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000 U. S. Lend-Lease Act, 1941
The Atlantic Charter y Roosevelt and Churchill sign treaty of friendship on August 14, 1941 (Their Plan for postwar peace) y Solidifies alliance y Calls for Free Trade y Choice of Government y Similar to Wilson’s 14 Points. y Calls for League of Nations type organization. (U.N.)
Battle in the Atlantic U.S. joins Great Britain Hitler ordered submarines to attack America on the east coast. He knew that British people would starve w/out U.S. help. Over 681 ships were destroyed U.S. used convoys to protect the ships.
German U-boats German submarines began attacking in wolf packs. Roosevelt allowed U.S. warships to attack German U-boats in self- defense.