4 FascismFascism – a form of totalitarianism, based on loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader.Extreme nationalismOne Party ruleDenied human rightsSupreme militaryMale-dominatedControlled mass mediaLabor unions suppressedNational police forceCensorshipAnti - Communist
5 Italy High unemployment and inflation lead to social unrest. People want strong leader to take control of country.Benito Mussolini – editor and politician, won support on middle class and industry leaders.Founded Fascist Party in 1919.
6 30,000 Fascists march on Rome in 1922. Mussolini marches on Rome, 192230,000 Fascists march on Rome in 1922.Demand that Mussolini take control.Il Duce (Leader)Abolished democracyOutlawed all parties except FascismSecret police jailed opponentsCensorshipOutlawed strikesSided with industrialists and landowners
7 Germany American loans are helping economy. Great Depression ended any recovery.German economy collapses.Civil unrest breaks out.Turn to Adolf Hitler for security.
8 Adolf Hitler Former soldier, awarded Iron Cross for bravery. Joined group that wanted to over-turn the Treaty of Versailles.Forms the National Socialist German Workers’ Party- Nazi Party(1923) Plotted to take over government, arrested and jailed. (Tried for Treason)5yr sentence (Served 9 months)
9 Mein Kampf “My Struggle” Book written by Hitler in jail.Lebensraum- Germans needed more living space, by regaining lost land.Aryans- master race, all others inferiorAnti-Semitism – discrimination or prejudice directed at JewsAnti-Bolshevik- one leader, one state
10 Hitler becomes Chancellor Hitler appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister) of Germany in 1933.“der Führer” – leaderBanned other partiesSS / Gestapo, secret policeOpponents arrested and murderedBanned strikes/ unionsGovernment controlled industryPut Germans to work (Built Factories, roads, weapons,Military Unemployment went from 6 million to 1.5 million
11 Total control Propaganda Censorship, burned books Controlled church Children joined Hitler Youth (Boys) or League of German Girls.Anti-SemitismKristallnacht – Night of Broken Glass.
12 Chapter 15.4 Japan Seeks an Empire Japan Invades ManchuriaJapan has investments in Manchuria, Chinese provinceIn 1931, Japanese army seizes ManchuriaLeague of Nations protests action; Japan withdraws from LeagueJapan Invades ChinaIn 1937, Japan launches war on China
15 European Aggressors on the March Mussolini Attacks EthiopiaIn 1935, Mussolini attacks EthiopiaLeague of Nations does not stop aggressionHitler Defies Versailles TreatyIn 1935, Hitler begins rebuilding German armyIn 1936, Germany occupies Rhineland
16 AGGRESSION BEGINS IN EUROPE In the early 1930s both Japan and Germany quit the League of NationsHitler then began a huge military build-up (in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles)By 1936 Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland, a German region bordering France and Belgium that was demilitarized by the Versailles Treaty
18 SPANISH LOYALIST AT THE INSTANT OF DEATH by Robert Capra, 1936 CIVIL WAR IN SPAINIn 1936, a group of Spanish army officers led by General Francisco Franco, rebelled against the Spanish RepublicA Civil War ensued as Hitler and Mussolini supported Franco’s fascists while the western democracies remained neutralSPANISH LOYALIST AT THE INSTANT OF DEATH by Robert Capra, 1936
19 Hitler’s PlanLate in 1937, Hitler was anxious to start his assault on EuropeAustria was the first targetThe majority of Austria’s 6 million people favored unification with GermanyOn March 12, 1938, German troops marched into Austria unopposedA day later, Germany announced its union with Austria
20 CZECHOSLOVAKIA NEXT Hitler then turned to Czechoslovakia Sudetenland3 million German-speaking people lived in SudetenlandHitler built up troops on the border . . .France & Britain vowed to protect Czech. from Germany
21 Munich Conference (Appeasement) Leaders meet at the Munich Conference to settle Czech crisisNeville Chamberlain (Britain’s prime minister) met with Hitler and Mussolini and signed an agreement.Britain and France agree to let Hitler take Sudetenland as long as he agreed to not invade Czechoslovakia. Hitler agreed.The agreement gave Sudetenland to Germany.
22 Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace Appeasement- Giving in to the demands of an aggressor to avoid a war.(Giving up your principles)Winston Churchill Did not agree with Neville Chamberlain about Appeasement
23 Chamberlain and Daladier believed Hitler and signed the Munich Agreement in September of 1938 “PEACE IN OUR TIMES!!?”Munich turned over the Sudetenland to Germany without a single shot firedChamberlain returned to England and announced,“I have come back from Germany with peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time.”
24 GERMAN OFFENSIVE BEGINS Despite Munich Pact, Hitler was not finished expanding the German EmpireMarch 15, 1939: German troops poured into what remained of CzechoslovakiaAt nightfall Hitler declared, “Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist”Germany had conquered Czechoslovakia without firing a shotGerman troops invade Czechoslovakia in March of 1939
25 Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan Signed the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Wanted to keep the U.S. out of the war.Would help one another if attacked.
26 Allies Over 26 countries were on their side. Main nations: Great BritainFrance (defeated by Germany)Soviet UnionUnited States (will join later)ChinaAustraliaCanadaIndia
27 Chapter 16: World War II 1939-1945 Hitler’s Lightning War Japan Strikes in the PacificThe HolocaustThe Allies Are VictoriousThe Devastation of Europe & Japan
28 Nonaggression Pact August 23, 1939 Hitler wants Poland.An agreement where the Soviet Union (Stalin) and Germany agreed to not go to war with one another.They also signed a secret pact to split Poland b/w the 2 nations.
30 Germany Invades Poland September 1, 1939Britain, France declare war on Germany but Poland falls quickly (1 month)Blitzkrieg—lightning war—Germany’s new military strategyPlanes, tanks, infantry used to surprise enemy and quickly conquerWWII has now started.
34 The Soviets Make Their Move Soviets annex Lithuania, Latvia, & PolandInvade and met resistance in Finland (late Nov. 1939)Soviets suffer huge losses due to freezing winter (Finland)Finland surrenders on March 13, 1940
35 The Phony WarFrench, British mobilize along French border, wait for German attackMany months of no action—the “phony war”
36 In April 1940 Hitler attacks and quickly captures Denmark (4hrs), Norway (2months) Hitler invade Norway for natural resources (iron ore)British failure in Norway brought the fall of Neville Chamberlain’s Government
37 France Falls Troops & tanks invaded France. Germany invaded from the North, and Italy invaded from the South.Germans took over Paris, the capital city.France surrenders on June 22, 1940Charles de Gaulle, French general, organizesopposition to Germany(Free French)
38 EUROPE 1940- BRITAIN GOES IT ALONE KEYRed - Nazi occupied and controlledPurple - Nazi controlled under MussoliniBlue - Free country, supported by the United StatesGreen - Under the control of Josef Stalin of Russia who sided with the Nazis in 1939Yellow - Neutral, but greatly influenced by Nazis, for example, Spain was under the dictatorship of General Franco who was controlled by Hitler
39 Winston Churchill—Becomes British prime minister, vows “We Shall Never Surrender”
40 THE BATTLE OF BRITAINIn the summer of 1940 Germany launched an air attack on EnglandHitler’s plan to attack Britain was called “Operation Sea Lion”The goal was to bomb England into submissionEvery night for two solid months, bombers pounded British targets: airfields, military bases and then cities
41 RAF FIGHTS BACKThe Royal Air Force fought back bravely with the help of a new device called radarWith radar, British pilots could spot German planes even in darknessThe British Spitfire Plane was instrumental in downing 175 Nazi planes on September 15, 1940Six weeks later, Hitler called off the attack on EnglandRealized that Hitler could be stoppedA Spitfire dogs a German Domier Do-17 as it crosses the Tower of London
44 Axis Forces Attack North Africa Mussolini, Italy at first neutralMussolini declares war on France, Britain after German victorySeptember 1940—Mussolini attacks British in North AfricaBritain Strikes BackDecember 1940—British attack and drive Italians backErwin Rommel, German general, battles British in North AfricaIn 1942, Rommel first retreats then succeeds against British
45 The War in the BalkansHitler plans to invade Soviet Union; moves to take Balkan countriesHitler invades Yugoslavia (11 days), Greece (17 days) in April 1941; both fall quickly
46 Hitler Invades the Soviet Union Operation BarbarossaGermany invades an unprepared Soviet Union on June 22,1941Soviet troops burn land as they retreat; Germans move into Russia (Scorched Earth Policy)Germans stopped at Leningrad, forced to undertake long siege (1 million died)Germans almost capture Moscow, but forced to pull back
48 The United States Aids Its Allies American Policy (Isolationism)Most Americans want to avoid warRoosevelt fears that if allies fall, U.S. would have to fightHe hopes to strengthen allies so they can resist Germany“Cash-and-carry” programAllowed nations to buy weapons with cash if they shipped them on their own ships.Congress passed the first peacetime military draft in 1940.Roosevelt wins 3rd Presidential election, breaks the 2-term tradition
49 Lend-Lease Act Great Britain ran out of cash to pay for weapons. Roosevelt let Allies borrow or lease weapons if their nation’s defense was important to the U.S.Lend Lease helped the U.S. Economy (Sold Goods to Allies)Made isolationists angry
50 U. S. Lend-Lease Act, 1941Great Britain $31 billion Soviet Union $11 billion France $ 3 billion China $1.5 billion Other European $500 million South America $400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000
51 The Atlantic CharterRoosevelt and Churchill sign treaty of friendship on August 14, 1941 (Their Plan for postwar peace)Solidifies allianceCalls for Free TradeChoice of GovernmentSimilar to Wilson’s 14 Points.Calls for League of Nations type organization. (U.N.)
52 Battle in the Atlantic U.S. joins Great Britain Hitler ordered submarines to attack America on the east coast.He knew that British people would starve w/out U.S. help.Over 681 ships were destroyedU.S. used convoys to protect the ships.
53 German U-boats German submarines began attacking in wolf packs. Roosevelt allowed U.S. warships to attack German U-boats in self-defense.