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CHAPTER 26 Clouds of War Foreign Affairs 1933-1936 Rise of Hitler Austrian Anti- Semite Organized Nazi Party Wrote Mein Kampf Preached Germans were Master.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 26 Clouds of War Foreign Affairs 1933-1936 Rise of Hitler Austrian Anti- Semite Organized Nazi Party Wrote Mein Kampf Preached Germans were Master."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CHAPTER 26 Clouds of War

3 Foreign Affairs Rise of Hitler Austrian Anti- Semite Organized Nazi Party Wrote Mein Kampf Preached Germans were Master Race Great Speaker Jews scapegoats Thugs and Bullies Establish Third Reich Attacked Treaty of Versailles Appealed to a discontented Germany Nazi Bible

4 Hitler as a Soldier in World War I

5 4 NAZI PROPAGANDA DEPICTING THE IDEAL ARYAN MEMBER OF THE MASTER RACE

6 5 EXAMPLES OF NAZI ANTISEMITISM FINAL SOLUTION TO THE JEWISH PROBLEM

7 6 COVER PAGE OF GERMAN EDITIONS OF MEIN KAMPF WRITTEN IN 1924 WHILE HITLER WAS IMPRISONED FOR STAGING A REVOLT

8 7 HITLER ELECTED CHANCELLOR OF GERMANY 1933 Der Fuhrer

9 8 VOLKSWAGEN: A CAR FOR ALMOST EVERY GERMAN FAMILY

10 9 WHY WAS HITLER SUCCESSFUL IN TAKING OVER GERMANY?

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12 11 STALIN, RUTHLESS DICTATOR OF THE USSR: Systematic liquidation

13 Il Duce Italy was under the control of Benito Mussolini

14 Under the control of expansion minded military leaders Japan

15 Italy, Japan, the Soviet Union and Germany had become threats to World Peace

16 15 JAPAN INVADES MANCHURIA ITALY INVADES ETHIOPIA SPANISH CIVIL WAR HITLER’S CONQUESTS

17 In 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia

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19 The Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations y No control of major conflicts. y No progress in disarmament. y No effective military force.

20 19 ETHIOPIAN ARMY

21 Royal Family of Ethiopia

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23 1936 Germany moved its army into the Rhineland

24 Rome-Berlin Axis, 1936 The “Pact of Steel”

25 Spanish Civil War 1936 Rebels led by Francisco Franco rose up against Spanish government Franco hoped to overthrow the Loyalist regime Franco aided by Mussolini and Hitler US did not aid the Loyalists and a government friendly to the US will collapse

26 25 HITLER & FRANCO FRANCO PROPAGANDA POSTER

27 26 THE DEMOCRACIES REACT BRITAIN,FRANCE AND THE UNITED STATES REMAINED NEUTRAL AND REFUSED TO AID EITHER SIDE BECAUSE THEY DID NOT WANT TO FIGHT ANOTHER WAR BRITAIN,FRANCE AND THE UNITED STATES REMAINED NEUTRAL AND REFUSED TO AID EITHER SIDE BECAUSE THEY DID NOT WANT TO FIGHT ANOTHER WAR THIS ACTUALLY HELPED FRANCO WIN BECAUSE HITLER & MUSSOLINI GAVE SUBSTANTIAL MILITARY AID THIS ACTUALLY HELPED FRANCO WIN BECAUSE HITLER & MUSSOLINI GAVE SUBSTANTIAL MILITARY AID

28 27 U.S. FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA

29 Good Neighbor Policy FDR improved relations with Latin America FDR renounced intervention in Latin America at 7 th Pan American Conference in Montevideo 1933 US marines left Haiti in 1934 Cuba was released from Platt Amendment US kept its naval base at Guantanamo US reduced troops in Panama FDR held in great esteem by citizens of Latin America

30 US and Mexico 1938 President of Mexico announced government takeover of foreign oil properties US had a lot of money in the oil properties US and Mexico negotiated and the Mexican government paid companies for their properties

31 Japanese-American Relations Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 Condemned by the League of Nations as an aggressor Japan withdrew from the League 1937 Japan attacked China Europeans afraid to act USS Panay attacked on the Yellow River by Japan in 1937 Japan apologized and paid an indemnity

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33 FDR and Neutrality FDR warned if aggression of Japan, Italy, and Japan was allowed to continue it would lead to another world war US could not be a spectator FDR called for a Quarantine of the Nazis and their allies

34 The Quarantine Speech was given by U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on October 5, 1937 in Chicago, calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and isolationism that was prevalent at the time. The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by isolationists and foes to intervention. No countries were directly mentioned in the speech, but it was interpreted as referring to Japan, Italy, and Germany. [1] Roosevelt suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression.Franklin Delano RooseveltChicago JapanItalyGermany [1]

35 Americans were pacifists Americans were isolationists Nye hearings Many Americans wanted an amendment passed to the US Constitution to submit a declaration of war to a popular vote– favored by 75% of the American people

36 35 NYE COMMITTEE NYE COMMITTEE: SENATOR NYE FROM NORTH DAKOTA (CENTER) FORMED A COMMITTEE IN 1936 TO INVESTIGATE THE ACTIONS OF BANKERS AND MUNITIONS (WEAPONS) MAKERS FROM THE NYE REPORT CONVINCED MILLIONS OF CITIZENS THAT THE BANKERS WHO HAD LENT MONEY TO THE EUROPEAN ALLIES HAD BEEN "MERCHANTS OF DEATH" AND HAD TRICKED THE COUNTRY INTO WAR BECAUSE THEY WANTED TO MAKE A PROFIT AT ANY COST.

37 Neutrality Acts 1935,1936,1937 Americans were warned not to travel on belligerent ships No arms were to be sent to belligerent nations President could determine when a conflict was a war Cash and Carry– nations could buy US goods for cash only and they had to use their own ships, embargoed munitions

38 Hitler on the March March 1938 Germany invaded and annexed Austria

39 The Austrian Anschluss, 1938

40 Allies allowed Hitler to take the Sudentenland of Czechoslovakia “Peace in our time.” (Chamberlain) Six months later he took the rest of Czechoslovakia

41 40 EUROPEAN LEADERS AT THE MUNICH CONFERENCE THAT GAVE THE SUDETENLAND TO HITLER. A PRIME EXAMPLE OF APPEASEMENT. NO REPRESENTATIVE FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA WAS INVITED TO ATTEND. NEVILLE CHAMBERLAINEDOUARD DALADIER SPEECH BY HITLER

42 Non Aggression Pact 1939 August 1939 Non-Aggression Pact Germany and USSR Hitler wanted to avoid a two front war

43 The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 1939

44 43 THE WORLD IS SHOCKED WHEN GERMANY AND THE USSR SIGN A NONAGGRESSION PACT, PROMISING NOT TO ATTACK EACH OTHER

45 44 HITLER WANTED TO AVOID A TWO FRONT WAR

46 September 1, 1939 Germany and the USSR invaded Poland Britain and France declare war

47 46 HITLER INVADES POLAND:SEPTEMBER 1, 1939

48 47 MILITARY UNIT GERMANYPOLAND INFANTRY DIVISIONS 4638 MOTORIZED DIVISIONS 4 ¾ 11 CALVALRY BRIGADES (HORSES) TANK DIVISIONS 7NONE TANKS BOMBERS FIGHTERS OTHER PLANES MILITARY STRENGTH COMPARSION BETWEEN GERMANY AND POLAND IN 1939

49 US Reaction September 21, 1939 FDR called a special session of Congress Neutrality Act of repealed arms embargo

50 Phony War Section 2 Germany withdrawing forces from Poland Great Britain moving its forces to France French sat behind the Maginot Line* (350 miles long) Europe was quiet until USSR invaded tiny Finland

51 50 MAGINOT LINE

52 The Maginot Line, named after French Minister of Defense André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery casemates, machine gun posts, and other defenses, which France constructed along its borders with Germany and Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and in the run-up to World War II.Minister of DefenseAndré Maginot fortificationscasematesFranceWorld War IWorld War II Type Defensive line Built 1930–40 Construction materials Concrete, steel In use 1935–69 Controlled by France Battles/wars Battle of FranceBattle of France, World WarWorld War

53 52 CUTAWAY VIEW OF THE MAGINOT LINE

54 Blitzkrieg- A New Warfare- April 1940 Translates to lightning war and describes a force concentration of tanks, infantry, artillery, air power * and rapid speed to break through enemy lines, and proceeding without regard to flanks.force concentrationtanksinfantryartilleryair powerflanks * growing use and importance of aircraft

55 54 TOOLS OF THE BLITZKRIEG

56 April 1940 the “phony war” (sitzkrieg) ended with the invasion of Denmark and Norway May 1940 Germany invaded Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg June 14, 1940 German troops marched into Paris, France (France fell in 6 weeks)

57 56 GERMAN TROOPS ENTER PARIS

58 France Surrenders June, 1940

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60 59 FRANCE UNDER GERMAN CONTROL

61 The French Resistance The Free French General Charles DeGaulle The Maquis

62 Now Britain Is All Alone!

63 Air Power Proponent Billy Mitchell Supported using aircraft as a new military unit Planes shifted military targets from enemy armies to “vital centers” Mitchell demonstrated planes could sink a battle ship Mitchell denounced War and Department of the Navy as incompetent Five year suspension from military duty

64 Air Power continued Calvin Coolidge appointed a committee which supported buildup of an American air force 1927 Lindbergh’s famous flight Mitchell’s ideas now be taken seriously 1935 B-17 (Flying Fortress) unveiled William Moffet -USN supported aircraft and headed the Bureau of Aeronautics Moffett worked on the development of aircraft carriers

65 US Prepares for War FDR special message to Congress urging the US to rearm FDR asked for billions for a 2 ocean navy Peacetime draft

66 65 THE LONDON BLITZ: GERMANS TURN THEIR BOMBERS AGAINST LONDON AND OTHER BRITISH CITIES THE LONDON BLITZ: GERMANS TURN THEIR BOMBERS AGAINST LONDON AND OTHER BRITISH CITIES Summer and Fall of 1940

67 Battle of Britain Britain basically standing alone against Hitler Hitler will send hundreds of bombers to pound Britain Hitler hoped to get Britain to surrender ‘British had “Ultra” (helped them decode German messages) plus radar Knew when the Germans were coming and were able to move RAF to intercept Still Britain suffered terrible losses

68 67 AIR RAID WARDEN WATCHED FOR GERMAN BOMBERS ATOP LONDON BUILDING

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70 69 LONDON DOCKS BURN AFTER GERMAN RAID

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73 72 LONDONERS SLEEP UNDERGROUND IN SUBWAY STATIONS TO AVOID THE BOMBS

74 British defenses against German bombers will be increasingly successful Hitler will postpone his planned invasion of England known as “Operation Sea Lion” Winter of 1940 Germany still continued bombing of British cities

75 74 A DR. SEUSS POLITICAN CARTOON FROM 1940 ABOUT US COMPLACENCY WHILE BRITAIN WAS FIGHTING FOR HER EXISTENCE AGAINST NAZI GERMANY.

76 World Affairs and the Presidential Campaign 1940 Election campaign of 1940 Democrats will nominate FDR for a THIRD term Broke two term tradition Republicans will nominate Wendell Wilkie Both candidate held similar views about foreign policy Issue of election was breaking the two term precedent and New Deal policies FDR will win

77 Destroyer Deal FDR will transfer 50 old, but usable destroyers to Great Britain In return the US received 99 year leases on bases on British naval bases from New Foundland to British Guiana

78 Helping the British January Lend Lease US would lend or lease Great Britain or any country whose defense the President considered vital to the defense of the US whatever war supplies they needed.

79 Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms

80 FREEDOM of SPEECHFREEDOM of RELIGION

81 Freedom from WantFreedom from Fear

82 Atlantic Charter August 1941 Churchill and FDR Led to 8 point Atlantic Charter Reminiscent of Wilson’s 14 points Self-determination, no territorial changes New League of Nations Critics complained the US no longer neutral

83 y Roosevelt and Churchill sign treaty of friendship in August y Solidifies alliance. y Fashioned after Wilson’s 14 Points. y Calls for League of Nations type organization.

84 83 home home | search the site | sitemap search the site sitemap Text of the Atlantic Charter The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world. First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other; Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned; Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them; Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity; Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security; Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want; Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance; Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measure which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments. Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston S. Churchill This is Churchill's edited copy of the final draft of the Atlantic Charter. This is Churchill's edited copy of the final draft of the Atlantic Charter. home home | search the site | sitemap search the site sitemap Text of the Atlantic Charter The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world. First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other; Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned; Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them; Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity; Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security; Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want; Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance; Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measure which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments. Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston S. Churchill This is Churchill's edited copy of the final draft of the Atlantic Charter. This is Churchill's edited copy of the final draft of the Atlantic Charter. The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world. First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other; Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned; Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them; Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity; Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security; Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want; Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance; Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measure which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments. Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston S. Churchill ATLANTIC CHARTER

85 84 CHURCHILL AND FDR MEET AND AGREE ON THE POSTWAR WORLD: THE ATLANTIC CHARTER

86 War Comes to the United States FDR will extend zone necessary to US defense far into the North Atlantic US troops will occupy Iceland US will seize ships of Germany, Italy and countries conquered by Germany German submarine warfare stepped up in the North Atlantic US conveying ships Greer was attacked FDR initiates a shoot on sight policy Kearny was attacked Reuben James was sunk Undeclared naval war between the US and Germany being waged in the North Atlantic

87 Operation Barbarossa: June 22, 1941 y 3,000,000 German soldiers. y 3,400 tanks.

88 Trouble in the Pacific Japanese aggression building what it called the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Japan had seized French and Dutch possession British colonies next? Japan hoped to seal Burma Road to keep aid from getting into China US responded with a trade embargo against Japan Japan demanded US cut off ID TO China US demanded Japan with draw from China YS broken Japanese code –US knew an attack was imminent, but where?

89 Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Surprise attack The US fleet stationed in Pearl Harbor will be destroyed or damaged 2300 servicemen died December 8, 1941 FDR addressed Congress Japan’s action has plunged the US into War Germany and Italy will declare war on the US

90 Burma Road

91 President Roosevelt Signs the US Declaration of War

92 Pearl Harbor Memorial

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