Map of Europe – WW2 Map of WW2 – changes of the country borders during WW2 http://www.worldology.com/Europe/world_war_2_imap.htm
Berlin is invaded, Hitler commits suicide. The Allies have won the war. On May 7 th 1945: Germany officially surrenders. This results in Victory in Europe. Churchill sits at the entrance to Hitler’s bunker
World War Two Conferences Towards the end of World War Two there were several conferences held between ‘The Big Three’. ‘The Big Three’ were: President Franklin Roosevelt, USA Joseph Stalin, USSR Prime Minister Winston Churchill, UK These conferences were discussing the following issues: The State of the War The Status of Germany, Poland, Eastern Europe and Japan The United Nations
The Big Three: Joseph Stalin Timeline 1879: Born in Georgia, son of a cobbler 1899: Expelled from priests’ training college for revolutionary views 1902-17: Joined the Bolsheviks, and was imprisoned and exiled several times for revolutionary activities 1917: Took part in the Bolshevik Revolution and became Commissar of Nationalities 1922: Became General Secretary of the Communist Party 1924-29: After Lenin’s death, began to take over the leadership defeating Trotsky and his supporters, who opposed Stalin’s policy of ‘Socialism in one Country’ 1928-37: Collectivised Russia’s agriculture causing famine and great suffering without making farming efficient 1932: Suicide of his wife Nadya 1934-39: Removes rivals and those suspected of disloyalty in the great purge 1941-45: Became Prime Minister and led the Russian forces to victory against Germany 1945-48: Established the Communist satellite states of Eastern Europe 1945-53: Organised post-war reconstruction. Continued his strict rule of the Russian people behind the Iron Curtain
The Big Three – Franklin Roosevelt Timeline 1882: Born in New York State, into a wealthy family Attended Harvard University 1905: Married but had several affairs throughout his life 1908: Became a lawyer 1911: Became a Democrat state politician 1913: Appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy 1928: Became Governor of New York 1933-45: President of the United States 1930s: Created ‘New Deal’ to provide welfare relief for unemployed and to recover the economy 1941: Japan attacks Pearl Harbour but Roosevelt decides to prioritise defeating Nazis March 1945: Dies of a brain haemorrage
The Big Three – Winston Churchill Timeline 1874: Born at Blenheim Palace, the son of a Conservative politican Attends Harrow, a very famous private school, then joins the military as an officer 1900: Elected as a Conservative politician 1906: Moves to the Liberal party 1915: Initiates Gallipoli campaign, and resigns afterwards 1917: Becomes Minister of Munitions 1921: Becomes Minister of Colonies 1924: Becomes Chancellor of the Exchequer 1940: Becomes British Prime Minister 1945: July – resigns as PM 1951: Becomes British PM again 1955: Resigns as PM again, remains a politician 1964: Resigns from politics 1965: Dies from a stroke
Bretton Woods Conference, 1944 The conference took place in July 1944, but did not become operative until 1959, when all the European currencies became convertible. Purpose Established the IMF and IBRD “The nations should consult and agree on international monetary changes which affect each other. They should outlaw practices which are agreed to be harmful to world prosperity, and they should assist each other to overcome short-term exchange difficulties.” The IBRD was created to speed up post-war reconstruction, to aid political stability, and to foster peace.
Bretton Woods Conference, 1944 Main terms of the agreement: Formation of the IMF and IRBD (presently part of the World Bank) Adjustably pegged Foreign exchange market rate system: The exchange rates were fixed. Currencies were required to be convertible for trade related and other current account transactions. All member countries were required to subscribe to the IMF’s capital.
The Yalta Conference, 1945 February 1945 The ‘Big Three’ agreed on: Russia would help fight Japan once Germany had surrendered Germany divided into four zones: American, French, British and Soviet Hunt down and punish war criminals responsible for genocide Liberated countries could choose their ideology All would join the United Nations Organisation to be established after the war Eastern Europe would be seen as a ‘soviet sphere of influence’ Stalin Roosevelt Churchill
World War Two Conferences Crucial Developments between Yalta and Potsdam Conferences: President Roosevelt died in April 1945 and was replaced by Truman, who was to adopt a more hardline, or ‘get tough’, policy towards the Soviets. Germany finally surrendered unconditionally on 7 May 1945. Winston Churchill’s Conservative Party lost the 1945 UK general election and Churchill was succeeded as Prime Minister by the Labour Party leader, Clement Atlee. As the war in Europe ended, the Soviet Red Army occupied territory as far west as deep inside Germany On the very day after the Potsdam Conference began, 17 July 1945, the United States successfully tested its first atomic bomb.
The Potsdam Conference, 1945 Held in the Berlin suburb of Potsdam. The following issues emerged: Disagreement over what to do with Germany. Stalin wanted to cripple it. America wanted to inject funds into the economy so as not repeat problems of the Versailles Peace Treaty Stalin wanted compensation for damage to Russia. Truman disagreed. Truman disagreed with Yalta plan allow Russia to have influence of Eastern Europe The Potsdam Conference ended without agreement on these issues. Clement Atlee Harry Truman
The Division of Germany The Potsdam Conference in 1945 divided Germany into four zones, each to be governed by one of the victorious powers; USSR, USA, France and Britain. The intention behind this was to prohibit Germany from once again rising as a military threat in Central Europe.
How was Germany Divided British Occupation Zone French Occupation Zone American Occupation Zone Soviet Occupation Zone Berlin
What about Berlin? French Zone British Zone American Zone Soviet Zone Although Berlin was in the Soviet Zone it was also divided into four regions. One for each of the victors of World War 2. In order to access these zones the allied powers needed the acquiescence of the Soviets. Specific roads and railway lines were given to the Western Powers to allow passage through Soviet-controlled Germany to supply their sectors in Berlin
The Long Telegram In February 1946, a key U.S. diplomat in Moscow, George F. Kennan, sent a telegram to the U.S. State Department on the nature of Soviet conduct and foreign policy. It detailed the nature of the Soviet Union in a post-WW2 world and how the US may go about relating to them. George F. Kennan
The Long Telegram “…At bottom of Kremlin's neurotic view of world affairs is traditional and instinctive Russian sense of insecurity. Originally, this was insecurity of a peaceful agricultural people trying to live on vast exposed plain in neighbourhood of fierce nomadic peoples. To this was added, as Russia came into contact with economically advanced West, fear of more competent, more powerful, more highly organized societies in that area. But this latter type of insecurity was one which afflicted rather Russian rulers than Russian people; for Russian rulers have invariably sensed that their rule was relatively archaic in form fragile and artificial in its psychological foundation, unable to stand comparison or contact with political systems of Western countries. For this reason they have always feared foreign penetration, feared direct contact between Western world and their own, feared what would happen if Russians learned truth about world without or if foreigners learned truth about world within. And they have learned to seek security only in patient but deadly struggle for total destruction of rival power, never in compacts and compromises with it…”
The Long Telegram The key points of Kennan’s telegram were: The USSR’s view of the world was a traditional one of insecurity The Soviets wanted to advance Muscovite Stalinist ideology (not simply ‘Marxism’). The Soviet regime was cruel and repressive and justified this by perceiving nothing but evil in the outside world. That view of a hostile outside environment would sustain the internal Stalinist system. The USSR was fanatically hostile to the West – but they were not ‘suicidal’.
Your Task – You take (non-nuclear) action Acting as either: OR Write a response to the long telegram President Harry TrumanPremier Joseph Stalin
Russia’s Liberations of Eastern Europe After countries were liberated from Nazis, instead of withdrawing their troops, Russia left them their. By July 1945, Stalin’s troops controlled the Baltic states, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania. Refugees were fleeing in fear of Communist takeover. “This war is not as in the past: whoever occupies a territory also imposes on it his own social system. Everyone imposes his own system as far as his army has power to do so. It cannot be otherwise.” Stalin
Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain Becomes a Communist ‘satellite’ zone, a buffer between Russia and the West. Also known as the Communist Bloc The name ‘Iron Curtain’ came from a speech by Winston Churchill
The Iron Curtain Speech By 1946, Soviet-dominated Communist governments were set up in: Poland Hungary Romania Bulgaria This was in spite of the hopes expressed at Yalta that there would be free and democratic elections in Eastern Europe after the war. Communist regimes not directly linked to Moscow had been established in Albania and Yugoslavia as well. His speech was also prompted by the presence of the Red Army in those countries ‘liberated’ from Germany by the Russians – and by the cloak of secrecy which descended over Eastern Europe within a few months of the end of the war.
Soviet Response – Joseph Stalin The response from the Soviet leadership was quick and one of outrage. Within a week Stalin had compared Churchill to Hitler. Stalin saw the speech as both ‘racist’ and as ‘a call to war with the Soviet Union’ Within three weeks the Soviets had taken several steps: Withdrew money from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) They stepped up the tone and intensity of anti-Western propaganda The initiated a new five-year plan of self-strengthening
Mr X Article In July 1947 a mysterious article appeared in the journal Foreign Affairs, attributed only to ‘Mr X’. It soon became public knowledge that the author was George Kennan. Given his new role as Head of the State Department’s new Policy Planning Staff, it gave the article the aura of official administration policy toward the Soviet Union.
Mr X Article From Kennan’s ‘Mr X’ article, ‘The Sources of Soviet Conduct’ in Foreign Affairs, July 1947: “The main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies…it will clearly be seen that the Soviet pressure against the free institutions of the western world is something that can be contained by the adroit and vigilant application of counter-force at a series of constantly shifting geographical and political points, corresponding to the shifts and manoeuvres of Soviet policy”