Sun Yixian, leader of the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) led a revolt that overthrew the Qing Dynasty. Yuan became the first president of the Chinese Republic.
1915 – Yuan made himself emperor.
1916 – Yuan died and civil war broke out. Sun could not reorganize the Kuomintang.
1920s – The Communist Party was formed. Sun allied with them.
1925 – Sun died and Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) became the leader of the Kuomintang.
1927 – Chiang Kai-shek forced the Communists into hiding.
1928 – Chiang Kai-shek became President of China
1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria. They wanted to gain a mainland empire for access to resources.
1934 – Communists began the Long March (retreat to the north) and Mao Zedong arose as the top Communist leader.
1937 – Japan began a full-scale invasion of China.
The king of Italy let Benito Mussolini lead the government. Mussolini used thugs to threaten his political opponents. He abolished democracy – Italy invaded Ethiopia.
Nazism = German fascism – Adolf Hitler became Germany’s leader – Hitler formed an alliance with Mussolini and Japan.
1936 – General Francisco Franco led a revolution. Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin sent aid – Franco became the Fascist dictator.
Great Britain – Neville Chamberlain, Winston Churchill France – Charles de Gaulle USSR – Joseph Stalin U.S. – Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman
Germany – Adolf Hitler Italy – Benito Mussolini Japan – Emperor Hirohito and Prime Minister Hideki Tojo
Germany took over most of Czechoslovakia.
Alliance formed by Hitler and Mussolini
Signed by Hitler and Stalin
Germany invaded Poland. Britain and France declare war. Germany defeated Poland in a 4 week blitzkrieg (lightning war) Used the Luftwaffe and panzers
Germany invaded Denmark and Norway
Germany defeated Holland, Luxembourg, and Belgium (in two weeks). Allies were pushed to the coast of Dunkirk (France)
“Miracle of Dunkirk” – 350,000 solders were evacuated across the English Channel
French surrendered when Germany advanced past the Maginot Line (France’s main defense)
Germany bombed British cities. The Royal Air Force (RAF) fought off the German Luftwaffe for a year.
Hitler sent Gen. Rommel (The “Desert Fox”) to aid Mussolini in North Africa.
Lend-Lease Act signed with U.S.
Germany took over Yugoslavia and Greece
Hitler invaded the USSR German advances were stopped in December when temperatures fell to -40 degrees F
Japan attacked the U.S. naval base in Hawaii Japan also attacked Guam, Wake Isl., and Philippines.
Fought entirely in the air Allies saved Australia
Tide of war turned against Japan. Adm. Nimitz led Allies Japan lost many of their best pilots.
Gen. Douglas MacArthur ordered the U.S. to attack the island where the Japanese were building an airbase.
Germans tried to take the Suez Canal. First major British victory against Germany.
Churchill and Roosevelt agreed they would accept only an unconditional surrender.
Germany surrendered at Stalingrad (USSR)
Germans were forced out of Africa by British Gen. Montgomery and American Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Allies captured Sicily and drove Mussolini from power.
D-Day Allies invaded the coast of Normandy. Largest amphibious invasion in World history.
Gen. Patton used a blitzkrieg to break through German lines, then swept across northern France.
Fought in the Philippines. Largest naval battle in world history. U.S. crushed the Japanese Navy.
Last obstacles to invading mainland Japan. “Uncommon valor was a common virtue.”
Battle of the Bulge Gen. Patton and Gen. Omar N. Bradley led an offensive attack on the German border and within weeks pushed back the Germans. Bradley, Eisenhower, and Patton
Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt met to discuss the future of Europe.
USAF firebombed Dresden and Tokyo (Japan)
Gen. Bradley led troops toward Berlin from the west
Soviet troops pushed into Berlin and took over the city. April 30 – Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin.
V-E Day celebrated by the Allies. Japan still had to be defeated before the war could end.
U.S. President Truman chose to drop an atomic bomb on Japan to prevent more casualties in an invasion. Aug. 6 th – 1 st A-bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Aug. 9 th – 2 nd A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Aug. 14 th – Japanese government surrendered. Aug. 15 th – V-J Day celebrated by Allies.
Japan had planned to attack the Panama Canal since it was a trade center for the Allies – the war ended before the attack.
Germany would be divided into 4 zones controlled by US, USSR, UK, France. Democracy would be established throughout Europe. But, Stalin did NOT allow elections in Eastern Europe.
Communist/Soviet satellite nations – Poland, Czechoslovakia, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania Germany was divided into 2 sections – East Germany was communist Churchill said “…an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”
Policy to prevent spread of communism Truman Doctrine (1947) – US aid to Turkey and Greece to prevent communism Marshall Plan (1947) – aid to Western Europe for economic recovery and to prevent communism Berlin Airlift (1948) – Soviets closed off Berlin to the West; Allies drop food and medicine and the blockade is removed