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A World in Flames: Rise of Dictators

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1 A World in Flames: Rise of Dictators
Chapter 11 A World in Flames: Rise of Dictators

2 Essays for Ch 11 Test DO 2 OF THESE QUESTIONS
Explain how leaders in Europe and the US failed to respond to Nazi Germany’s military aggression and persecution of Jews and other groups. In what ways did leaders like Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill rally their nations to take action? Why were many German Jews and Jews in other parts of Europe unable to flee and immigrate to the United States (and other countries) when the Nazis took power? Describe FASCISM and the beliefs of its followers. Explain how Fascist ideology contributed to the global warfare that caused World War II.

3 CBA To what extent, if any, should civil liberties be restricted during times of war? You will write a position paper on this topic You will cite a minimum of 5 sources to defend your position This will be written after the holiday break

4 Rise of Dictators Totalitarian Rule: A government that exerts total control over a nation (government, economics, religion, home) * Leaders use terror and intimidation to silence any opposition Hitler and Mussolini had FASCIST governments [Franco in Spain will use Fascism as well] Stalin had a COMMUNIST government Fascists and Communists were fierce enemies German, Italy, Japan (& Russia) were all “EXPANSIONIST”  expansionism refers to the doctrine of a state expanding its territorial base (or economic influence) usually, though not necessarily, by means of military aggression.


6 COMMUNISM a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

7 Dictators DICTATOR: a person exercising absolute power, especially a ruler who has absolute, unrestricted control in a government without hereditary succession. Book Work p Use your books to fill in information about the 3 dictators of the time STALIN > <- - - MUSSOLINI HITLER >

8 Stalin 1927-1953 – Soviet Dictator
5 Year Plans: Stalin’s plan to modernize agriculture and build new industries Stalin’s Economic Plans Communism meant the state owned/controlled EVERYTHING Stalin tried to modernize economy with 5year plans USSR/Russia too big/complex for this to work Stalin Reign of Terror When “plans” failed, Stalin needed to blame someone PURGES to remove enemies and undesirable individuals “Show Trials” for any who Stalin saw as disloyal 7 million arrested, 1 million killed, millions in labor camps Stalin’s power was absolute People of Russia ADORED/FEARED Stalin and his party

9 Mussolini 1922-1943 – Italian dictator
After WWI, Mussolini rose to power in Italy “Il Duce” organized the Fascist party to bring order “Blackshirts” terrorized and intimidated all Italians The King appointed Mussolini Prime Minister hoping it would satisfy him Mussolini seized power (dictatorship) Economic reforms brought order and some prosperity to Italy Elections suspended (to maintain order), other political parties outlawed Europe praised Mussolini for fixing Italy’s economy Mussolini had visions of another Roman Empire “ITALY IS NOTHING WITHOUT CONQUEST” Italy will invade Ethiopia and crush them quickly

10 Hitler (enraged by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles 1932-1945 German Dictator
The Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers’ Party) A form of fascism based on racial superiority and nationalism Hitler’s powerful public speaking quickly made him the leader of the party Nov. ‘23 – Nazi’s tried to overthrow German gov’t – failed Hitler sentenced to 5 year (only served 9 months) Mein Kampf – outlined Hitler’s philosophy and his plan for Germany Strengthen German Military * Aryan Race policies Removal of “undesirables Hitler Becomes Chancellor (Great Depression hit Germany hard) Nazi Party won majority in 1932 election for Reichstag Hitler appointed Chancellor (head of govt) by President to appease Nazi’s Hitler suspended free speech and free press Stormtroopers used to ‘silence’ opposition Burned down Reichstag and blamed the Communists – used to pass law giving him dictatorial powers

11 Hitler Germany Rearms (in violation of Treaty of Versailles)
Nazi’s begin spending huge on rebuilding military (work & power) Public works to hire unemployed built up German infrastructure Lebensraum (living space) – Hitler looked to expand, regaining territory 1936 Rhineland retaken, no action by European power Hitler signs an alliance with Italy, Japan would join later AXIS POWERS Germany Expands 1938 Austria overtaken by German military (GB and Fr objected but did not act) APPEASEMENT: Chamberlin (GB) and Daladier (Fr) met with Hitler and Mussolini to try to keep the peace. They will give them the Sudetenlands if they would stop. People cheered “peace in our times,” but Hitler did not stop

12 Japan Difficult economic times lead Japan (like Germany) towards militarism, dictatorship Japan had to import most everything Military leaders blamed politicians for economic problems, believed Japan was DESTINED to dominate Asia Japan seized lands to secure resources – Manchuria had OIL Japan will invade and take control of Manchuria US reacts by cutting off imports of metal & oil Emperor wanted to make peace with America and ordered troops withdrawn. Tojo, the leader of the military refused The military now was in control of Japan and expanded their invasion of China, sweeping through the country Rape of Nanking – Japanese troops took city, killing as many as 300,000 Tojo took over as Prime Minister of Japan

13 POD assignment Each POD will be assigned a small section in the book
They are to read and discuss the event/topic You need to be able to explain the 5W’s to the class WHO WHAT WHERE WHEN WHY

14 POD assignment Each POD will be assigned a small section in the book
They are to read and discuss the event/topic You need to be able to explain the 5W’s to the class WHO WHAT WHERE WHEN WHY

15 World War II Begins Austrian Anschluss
Hitler called for the reunification of all “German speaking” peoples 1938 – Hitler threatened to invade Austria unless Nazi-Austrians were given high government posts Austrian PM agreed, but would put to a peoples’ vote Hitler, fearing the outcome, invaded Austria. He called it “ANSCHLUSS” or unification of Austria and Germany Munich Crisis (Europe wanted to AVOID another war) Hitler’s next target were the Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) The Czech’s resisted – the French and Soviets promised aid if Hitler attacked Neville Chamberlain, PM of England, pledged support to France A meeting was called in Munich for the world leaders (Hitler, Chamberlain, Mussolini, Clemenseau) Hitler agreed to end expanding if he was allowed to keep Austria & Chechoslovakia Chamberlain returned to England claiming “PEACE IN OUR TIME”

16 World War II Begins Hitler Demands Danzig The Nazi-Soviet Pact
Shortly after Munich agreement, Hitler demanded control of Danzig, a city in Poland that was 90% german (but part of Poland since WWI) England and France were convinced war was coming, announced they would back Poland if they were attacked. This encouraged Poland to refuse Hilter The Nazi-Soviet Pact Hitler ordered his foreign minister to negotiate with Stalin over Poland The NON AGGRESSION PACT between Germany and USSR promised not to attack each other and to split up Poland Pact shocked the world (as Fascism/Communism were enemies), but it freed Hitler up from worrying about attack from the east Invasion of Poland On Sept. 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland using a new tactic called “BLITZKRIEG” Britain and France immediately declared war on Germany and WWII had begun In less than 1 month, Germany and defeated Poland England and France awaited the German attack Again, using BLITZKRIEG, Germany drove thru Belgium and into France, trapping French and British forces

17 World War II Begins Miracle at Dunkirk Britain Remains Defiant
British and French troops driven back to English Channel at Dunkirk The British mounted and all-out evacuation of troops More than 338,000 British and French troops rescued by water in what became known as the “MIRACLE AT DUNKIRK” 3 weeks later, the French government surrendered to Germany French leader, Charles de Gaulle escaped and worked with the Allies through out the war to free France from German control Britain Remains Defiant England the only nation in Europe left to fight the Nazi’s – Hitler expected them to negotiate a peace but England remained defiant “Even though large tracts of Europe and many old and famous states have fallen or may fall into the group of the Gestapo and all the odious apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not flag or fail, we shall go on to the end We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be We shall never surrender, never ” Winston Churchill German air force, the LUFTWAFFE, began bombing England’s military After an accidental bombing of London, England bombed Berlin Hitler would react by launching the “Battle of Britain”, a non-stop bombing campaign on London

18 American Neutrality America was concerned about the rise of dictators, but not enough to get involved – ISOLATIONISM” THE NYE COMMITTEE – looked into the allegation that gun makers “tricked” the US into entering the war to make money. Report issued that convinced even more Americans that ISOLATIONISM was the way to go LEGISLATING NEUTRALITY – Congress passed the NEUTRALITY ACT in 1935 making it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war. This would be amended in 1936 to include either side in a civil war because Spain was fighting a civil war * Shortly after US action, Hitler and Mussolini pledged to back Franco in the Spanish Civil War * Japan will sign on with Germany and Italy – Axis Powers

19 Revised Neutrality Act of 1939
US Congress passed another NEUTRALITY ACT in 1938 – any non-military goods purchased from the US was on a “CASH AND CARRY” basis to prevent any US ships from being sunk, and maybe drawing the US back into war FDR found a way around the Neutrality Acts Britain asked the US for old WWI ships to help replenish their Navy “Destroyers for Bases” - FDR gave/sent 50 old destroyers to Britain in exchange for US access to British bases in the Atlantic Ocean US people accepted this deal – they favored England over Germany Issue wasn’t giving aid, it was HOW MUCH/WHAT KIND of aid

20 FDRoosevelt’s Internationalism
FDR wanted “INTERNATIONALISM” or trade between countries to continue (believed it created prosperity and prevented wars) FDR warned that the NEUTRALITY ACTS might “drag us into war instead of keeping us out” When Japan invaded China, FDR claimed the NEUTRALITY ACTS did not apply and authorized the sale of arms to China

21 Four Freedoms Speech FDR gave a major speech to help convince the American people that there were GOOD REASONS why the US needed to be part of this fight Four Freedoms Speech explained what we had that countries under totalitarian rule did not have ** Freedom of Speech ** Freedom of Worship ** Freedom from Want ** Freedom from Fear People could understand and were willing to be part of saving these basic freedoms that we took for granted

22 Lend – Lease Act By December 1940 – Britain was out of funds to fight the war FDR proposed a new program, the LEND LEASE ACT Britain could borrow military goods After the war, they could return them or pay rent on them This program will be extended to the USSR in 1941 when Germany invaded Russia FDR was willing to support any fight against Nazi Germany

23 Hemispheric Defense Zone
Getting supplies to England was a big issue – Germany still ruled the seas with their submarines The US could not defend British ships and remain neutral FDR declared the entire Northern Atlantic a “hemispheric defense zone” and therefore neutral The US Navy could protect ships in neutral waters The US Navy could reveal the position of Germany submarines to the British if they were found in the neutral zone

24 The Atlantic Charter FDR and Churchill met to develop a plan for a post war world Democratic Non-aggression Free Trade Economic Advancement Freedom of the Seas Churchill later said FDR said he was just waiting for an event to justify the US entry into the war Tensions between the US and Germany escalated as German U-Boats sunk an American ship that had been warning British ships of U-Boat positions The following month, 2 more US ships were sunk

25 Japan Attacks PEARL HARBOR
America “EMBARGOS” Japan US tried economic pressure to stop Japan from advancing in Asia “STRATEGIC MATERIALS” like iron, steel, oil were withheld from Japan US Lend-Lease program used with China as well, also angering Japan Needing more resources, Japan planned on attacking SE Asia America was the only power in position to stop their plans While negotiations for peace continued, Japan planned a surprise attack Surprise Attack US had decoded a message that made it clear Japan was planning for war US did not believe Hawaii a target because it was too far from Japan December 7, 1941 – Japan hit Pearl Harbor, catching the US totally off guard 8 battleship, 3 cruisers, 3 destroyers and 4 other vessels were sunk 180 aircraft were destroyed and 2,403 Americans were killed Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan the next day Congress voted 388 to 1 to declare war on Japan

26 Germany Declare WAR on US
Hitler believed war with Japan would occupy the US Hitler UNDERESTIMATED the US Hitler hoped Japan would help Germany against Russia after Europe and America were defeated US believed Hitler was the bigger threat at the moment The US would begin a fight with Japan (Navy), but they would also quickly commit to fighting with the Allies in Europe (Army) On December 11, 1941, Germany and Italy both declared war in the US WORLD WAR II HAD BEGUN FOR AMERICA

27 THE HOLOCAUST Nazi Persecution of the Jews
The HOLOCAUST killed nearly 6 million European Jews * It also killed nearly 6 million other “undesirables” So HOW DID THIS HAPPEN? **The Nuremberg Laws: the strongest laws were targeted at the Jewish population in areas controlled by Germany ^^ Deprived Jewish people of their rights * banned marriage between a Jew and a German * barred Jews from holding public office or voting * compelled to adopt “jewish” sounding names * identifying markers (on ID cards, yellow stars on clothing) * Jews prohibited from being lawyers, doctors

28 The HOLOCAUST Nazi Persecution of the Jews
Most Jewish people chose to stay, did not believe this would last long It became increasingly difficult to make a living, buy food, pay rent KRISTALLNACHT (the Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938 ** Hitler ordered an attack on Germany’s Jewish population ** The ‘police’ were forbidden from intervening as thugs/Gestapo rioted - Anti-Jewish violence erupted in Germany and Austria - 91 Jewish people killed - 30,000 Jewish men taken to Concentration Camps - 100’s were injured - 7,500 businesses destroyed - 100’s of synagogues were destroyed/burnt ** Life for Jewish people in Germany took an evil turn. From here on in, they were the target of the German government’s Jewish persecution

29 Jewish Refugees Try to Flee
Many families were now looking to escape Germany 250,00 will successfully flee Nazi Germany, including Albert Einstein LIMITS ON JEWISH IMMIGRATION US had limits on the number of people from any one region German laws forbid leaving Germany with more than $4 so America feared these immigrants would be “public charges” and denied VISA applications to the US INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE Several countries announced they could take in NO MORE Jewish refugees Several ships will load up and sail in hopes some country would take them in, but it did not happen. These ships became floating refugee ships SAINT LOUIS AFFAIR A ship called “THE SAINT LOUIS” arrived at Cuba with 930 Jewish refugees The ship was refused. It sailed to Florida. It was reused It sailed to France, Holland, then Great Britain. They were allowed to disembark. Most of these people ended up in Death Camps

30 The Final Solution 1942 – Wannsee Conference – Nazi leaders met to coordinate the “FINAL SOLUTION” to their Jewish problem Previous ways (shooting) wasn’t working fast enough to eliminate all the “undesirable” people (Jews, Gypsies, other conquered people) Concentration Camps Jewish from Germany and areas the Germans had conquered were rounded up and taken to detention centers known as CONCENTRATION CAMPS where they worked them until they died from hunger, exhaustion or disease The young, old, sick would be sent to EXTERMINATION CAMPS (aka – death camps) to be executed in gas chambers


32 Extermination Camps Auschwitz, Sobibor, Treblinka, Dachau were the worst of the death camps Auschwitz averages 12,000 killed PER DAY 1.6 million died at Auschwitz Upon arrive, prisoners were sorted Healthy or skilled men and women would go to work camps Elderly, sick, children would go to the gas chamber Most of the Jewish people of Europe were murdered How something this horrid could happen is still debated German people’s sense of injury after WWI Severe economic problems Hitler’s control over the German people Fear of Hitler’s SS/Gestapo History of ANTI-SEMITISM and discrimination in Europe

33 Essays for Chapter 11 Explain how leaders in Europe and the US failed to respond to Nazi Germany’s military aggression and persecution of Jews and other groups. In what ways did leaders like Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill rally their nations to take action? Why were many German Jews and Jews in other parts of Europe unable to flee and immigrate to the United States (and other countries) when the Nazis took power? Describe FASCISM and the beliefs of its followers. Explain how Fascist ideology contributed to the global warfare that caused World War II.

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