Presentation on theme: "A World in Flames: Rise of Dictators"— Presentation transcript:
1A World in Flames: Rise of Dictators Chapter 11A World in Flames: Rise of Dictators
2Essays for Ch 11 Test DO 2 OF THESE QUESTIONS Explain how leaders in Europe and the US failed to respond to Nazi Germany’s military aggression and persecution of Jews and other groups. In what ways did leaders like Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill rally their nations to take action?Why were many German Jews and Jews in other parts of Europe unable to flee and immigrate to the United States (and other countries) when the Nazis took power?Describe FASCISM and the beliefs of its followers. Explain how Fascist ideology contributed to the global warfare that caused World War II.
3CBATo what extent, if any, should civil liberties be restricted during times of war?You will write a position paper on this topicYou will cite a minimum of 5 sources to defend your positionThis will be written after the holiday break
4Rise of DictatorsTotalitarian Rule: A government that exerts total control over a nation (government, economics, religion, home) * Leaders use terror and intimidation to silence any oppositionHitler and Mussolini had FASCIST governments [Franco in Spain will use Fascism as well]Stalin had a COMMUNIST governmentFascists and Communists were fierce enemiesGerman, Italy, Japan (& Russia) were all “EXPANSIONIST” expansionism refers to the doctrine of a state expanding its territorial base (or economic influence) usually, though not necessarily, by means of military aggression.
6COMMUNISMa political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
7DictatorsDICTATOR: a person exercising absolute power, especially a ruler who has absolute, unrestricted control in a government without hereditary succession.Book Work pUse your books to fill in information about the 3 dictators of the timeSTALIN ><- - - MUSSOLINIHITLER >
8Stalin 1927-1953 – Soviet Dictator 5 Year Plans: Stalin’s plan to modernize agriculture and build new industriesStalin’s Economic PlansCommunism meant the state owned/controlled EVERYTHINGStalin tried to modernize economy with 5year plansUSSR/Russia too big/complex for this to workStalin Reign of TerrorWhen “plans” failed, Stalin needed to blame someonePURGES to remove enemies and undesirable individuals“Show Trials” for any who Stalin saw as disloyal7 million arrested, 1 million killed, millions in labor campsStalin’s power was absolutePeople of Russia ADORED/FEARED Stalin and his party
9Mussolini 1922-1943 – Italian dictator After WWI, Mussolini rose to power in Italy“Il Duce” organized the Fascist party to bring order“Blackshirts” terrorized and intimidated all ItaliansThe King appointed Mussolini Prime Minister hoping it would satisfy himMussolini seized power (dictatorship)Economic reforms brought order and some prosperity to ItalyElections suspended (to maintain order), other political parties outlawedEurope praised Mussolini for fixing Italy’s economyMussolini had visions of another Roman Empire“ITALY IS NOTHING WITHOUT CONQUEST”Italy will invade Ethiopia and crush them quickly
10Hitler (enraged by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles 1932-1945 German Dictator The Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers’ Party)A form of fascism based on racial superiority and nationalismHitler’s powerful public speaking quickly made him the leader of the partyNov. ‘23 – Nazi’s tried to overthrow German gov’t – failedHitler sentenced to 5 year (only served 9 months)Mein Kampf – outlined Hitler’s philosophy and his plan for GermanyStrengthen German Military * Aryan Race policiesRemoval of “undesirablesHitler Becomes Chancellor (Great Depression hit Germany hard)Nazi Party won majority in 1932 election for ReichstagHitler appointed Chancellor (head of govt) by President to appease Nazi’sHitler suspended free speech and free pressStormtroopers used to ‘silence’ oppositionBurned down Reichstag and blamed the Communists – used to pass law giving him dictatorial powers
11Hitler Germany Rearms (in violation of Treaty of Versailles) Nazi’s begin spending huge on rebuilding military (work & power)Public works to hire unemployed built up German infrastructureLebensraum (living space) – Hitler looked to expand, regaining territory1936 Rhineland retaken, no action by European powerHitler signs an alliance with Italy, Japan would join later AXIS POWERSGermany Expands1938 Austria overtaken by German military (GB and Fr objected but did not act)APPEASEMENT: Chamberlin (GB) and Daladier (Fr) met with Hitler and Mussolini to try to keep the peace. They will give them the Sudetenlands if they would stop. People cheered “peace in our times,” but Hitler did not stop
12JapanDifficult economic times lead Japan (like Germany) towards militarism, dictatorshipJapan had to import most everythingMilitary leaders blamed politicians for economic problems, believed Japan was DESTINED to dominate AsiaJapan seized lands to secure resources – Manchuria had OILJapan will invade and take control of ManchuriaUS reacts by cutting off imports of metal & oilEmperor wanted to make peace with America and ordered troops withdrawn. Tojo, the leader of the military refusedThe military now was in control of Japan and expanded their invasion of China, sweeping through the countryRape of Nanking – Japanese troops took city, killing as many as 300,000Tojo took over as Prime Minister of Japan
13POD assignment Each POD will be assigned a small section in the book They are to read and discuss the event/topicYou need to be able to explain the 5W’s to the classWHOWHATWHEREWHENWHY
14POD assignment Each POD will be assigned a small section in the book They are to read and discuss the event/topicYou need to be able to explain the 5W’s to the classWHOWHATWHEREWHENWHY
15World War II Begins Austrian Anschluss Hitler called for the reunification of all “German speaking” peoples1938 – Hitler threatened to invade Austria unless Nazi-Austrians were given high government postsAustrian PM agreed, but would put to a peoples’ voteHitler, fearing the outcome, invaded Austria. He called it “ANSCHLUSS” or unification of Austria and GermanyMunich Crisis (Europe wanted to AVOID another war)Hitler’s next target were the Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)The Czech’s resisted – the French and Soviets promised aid if Hitler attackedNeville Chamberlain, PM of England, pledged support to FranceA meeting was called in Munich for the world leaders (Hitler, Chamberlain, Mussolini, Clemenseau)Hitler agreed to end expanding if he was allowed to keep Austria & ChechoslovakiaChamberlain returned to England claiming “PEACE IN OUR TIME”
16World War II Begins Hitler Demands Danzig The Nazi-Soviet Pact Shortly after Munich agreement, Hitler demanded control of Danzig, a city in Poland that was 90% german (but part of Poland since WWI)England and France were convinced war was coming, announced they would back Poland if they were attacked. This encouraged Poland to refuse HilterThe Nazi-Soviet PactHitler ordered his foreign minister to negotiate with Stalin over PolandThe NON AGGRESSION PACT between Germany and USSR promised not to attack each other and to split up PolandPact shocked the world (as Fascism/Communism were enemies), but it freed Hitler up from worrying about attack from the eastInvasion of PolandOn Sept. 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland using a new tactic called “BLITZKRIEG”Britain and France immediately declared war on Germany and WWII had begunIn less than 1 month, Germany and defeated PolandEngland and France awaited the German attackAgain, using BLITZKRIEG, Germany drove thru Belgium and into France, trapping French and British forces
17World War II Begins Miracle at Dunkirk Britain Remains Defiant British and French troops driven back to English Channel at DunkirkThe British mounted and all-out evacuation of troopsMore than 338,000 British and French troops rescued by water in what became known as the “MIRACLE AT DUNKIRK”3 weeks later, the French government surrendered to GermanyFrench leader, Charles de Gaulle escaped and worked with the Allies through out the war to free France from German controlBritain Remains DefiantEngland the only nation in Europe left to fight the Nazi’s – Hitler expected them to negotiate a peace but England remained defiant“Even though large tracts of Europe and many old and famous states have fallen or may fall into the group of the Gestapo and all the odious apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not flag or fail, we shall go on to the end We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be We shall never surrender, never ” Winston ChurchillGerman air force, the LUFTWAFFE, began bombing England’s militaryAfter an accidental bombing of London, England bombed BerlinHitler would react by launching the “Battle of Britain”, a non-stop bombing campaign on London
18American NeutralityAmerica was concerned about the rise of dictators, but not enough to get involved – ISOLATIONISM”THE NYE COMMITTEE – looked into the allegation that gun makers “tricked” the US into entering the war to make money. Report issued that convinced even more Americans that ISOLATIONISM was the way to goLEGISLATING NEUTRALITY – Congress passed the NEUTRALITY ACT in 1935 making it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war.This would be amended in 1936 to include either side in a civil war because Spain was fighting a civil war* Shortly after US action, Hitler and Mussolini pledged to back Franco in the Spanish Civil War* Japan will sign on with Germany and Italy – Axis Powers
19Revised Neutrality Act of 1939 US Congress passed another NEUTRALITY ACT in 1938 – any non-military goods purchased from the US was on a “CASH AND CARRY” basis to prevent any US ships from being sunk, and maybe drawing the US back into warFDR found a way around the Neutrality ActsBritain asked the US for old WWI ships to help replenish their Navy“Destroyers for Bases” - FDR gave/sent 50 old destroyers to Britain in exchange for US access to British bases in the Atlantic OceanUS people accepted this deal – they favored England over GermanyIssue wasn’t giving aid, it was HOW MUCH/WHAT KIND of aid
20FDRoosevelt’s Internationalism FDR wanted “INTERNATIONALISM” or trade between countries to continue (believed it created prosperity and prevented wars) FDR warned that the NEUTRALITY ACTS might “drag us into war instead of keeping us out” When Japan invaded China, FDR claimed the NEUTRALITY ACTS did not apply and authorized the sale of arms to China
21Four Freedoms SpeechFDR gave a major speech to help convince the American people that there were GOOD REASONS why the US needed to be part of this fightFour Freedoms Speech explained what we had that countries under totalitarian rule did not have** Freedom of Speech** Freedom of Worship** Freedom from Want** Freedom from FearPeople could understand and were willing tobe part of saving these basic freedoms thatwe took for granted
22Lend – Lease ActBy December 1940 – Britain was out of funds to fight the warFDR proposed a new program, the LEND LEASE ACTBritain could borrow military goodsAfter the war, they could return them or pay rent on themThis program will be extended to the USSR in 1941 when Germany invaded RussiaFDR was willing to support any fight against Nazi Germany
23Hemispheric Defense Zone Getting supplies to England was a big issue – Germany still ruled the seas with their submarinesThe US could not defend British ships and remain neutralFDR declared the entire Northern Atlantic a “hemispheric defense zone” and therefore neutralThe US Navy could protect ships in neutral watersThe US Navy could reveal the position of Germany submarines to the British if they were found in the neutral zone
24The Atlantic CharterFDR and Churchill met to develop a plan for a post war worldDemocraticNon-aggressionFree TradeEconomic AdvancementFreedom of the SeasChurchill later said FDR said he was just waiting for an event to justify the US entry into the warTensions between the US and Germany escalated as German U-Boats sunk an American ship that had been warning British ships of U-Boat positionsThe following month, 2 more US ships were sunk
25Japan Attacks PEARL HARBOR America “EMBARGOS” JapanUS tried economic pressure to stop Japan from advancing in Asia“STRATEGIC MATERIALS” like iron, steel, oil were withheld from JapanUS Lend-Lease program used with China as well, also angering JapanNeeding more resources, Japan planned on attacking SE AsiaAmerica was the only power in position to stop their plansWhile negotiations for peace continued, Japan planned a surprise attackSurprise AttackUS had decoded a message that made it clear Japan was planning for warUS did not believe Hawaii a target because it was too far from JapanDecember 7, 1941 – Japan hit Pearl Harbor, catching the US totally off guard8 battleship, 3 cruisers, 3 destroyers and 4 other vessels were sunk180 aircraft were destroyed and 2,403 Americans were killedRoosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan the next dayCongress voted 388 to 1 to declare war on Japan
26Germany Declare WAR on US Hitler believed war with Japan would occupy the USHitler UNDERESTIMATED the USHitler hoped Japan would help Germany against Russia after Europe and America were defeatedUS believed Hitler was the bigger threat at the momentThe US would begin a fight with Japan (Navy), but they would also quickly commit to fighting with the Allies in Europe (Army)On December 11, 1941, Germany and Italy both declared war in the USWORLD WAR II HAD BEGUN FOR AMERICA
27THE HOLOCAUST Nazi Persecution of the Jews The HOLOCAUST killed nearly 6 million European Jews* It also killed nearly 6 million other “undesirables”So HOW DID THIS HAPPEN?**The Nuremberg Laws: the strongest laws were targeted at the Jewish population in areas controlled by Germany^^ Deprived Jewish people of their rights* banned marriage between a Jew and a German* barred Jews from holding public office or voting* compelled to adopt “jewish” sounding names* identifying markers (on ID cards, yellow stars on clothing)* Jews prohibited from being lawyers, doctors
28The HOLOCAUST Nazi Persecution of the Jews Most Jewish people chose to stay, did not believe this would last longIt became increasingly difficult to make a living, buy food, pay rentKRISTALLNACHT (the Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938** Hitler ordered an attack on Germany’s Jewish population** The ‘police’ were forbidden from intervening as thugs/Gestapo rioted- Anti-Jewish violence erupted in Germany and Austria- 91 Jewish people killed- 30,000 Jewish men taken to Concentration Camps- 100’s were injured- 7,500 businesses destroyed- 100’s of synagogues were destroyed/burnt** Life for Jewish people in Germany took an evil turn. From here on in, they were the target of the German government’s Jewish persecution
29Jewish Refugees Try to Flee Many families were now looking to escape Germany250,00 will successfully flee Nazi Germany, including Albert EinsteinLIMITS ON JEWISH IMMIGRATIONUS had limits on the number of people from any one regionGerman laws forbid leaving Germany with more than $4 so America feared these immigrants would be “public charges” and denied VISA applications to the USINTERNATIONAL RESPONSESeveral countries announced they could take in NO MORE Jewish refugeesSeveral ships will load up and sail in hopes some country would take them in, but it did not happen. These ships became floating refugee shipsSAINT LOUIS AFFAIRA ship called “THE SAINT LOUIS” arrived at Cuba with 930 Jewish refugeesThe ship was refused. It sailed to Florida. It was reusedIt sailed to France, Holland, then Great Britain. They were allowed to disembark. Most of these people ended up in Death Camps
30The Final Solution1942 – Wannsee Conference – Nazi leaders met to coordinate the “FINAL SOLUTION” to their Jewish problemPrevious ways (shooting) wasn’t working fast enough to eliminate all the “undesirable” people (Jews, Gypsies, other conquered people)Concentration CampsJewish from Germany and areas the Germans had conquered were rounded up and taken to detention centers known as CONCENTRATION CAMPS where they worked them until they died from hunger, exhaustion or diseaseThe young, old, sick would be sent to EXTERMINATION CAMPS (aka – death camps) to be executed in gas chambers
32Extermination CampsAuschwitz, Sobibor, Treblinka, Dachau were the worst of the death campsAuschwitz averages 12,000 killed PER DAY1.6 million died at AuschwitzUpon arrive, prisoners were sortedHealthy or skilled men and women would go to work campsElderly, sick, children would go to the gas chamberMost of the Jewish people of Europe were murderedHow something this horrid could happen is still debatedGerman people’s sense of injury after WWISevere economic problemsHitler’s control over the German peopleFear of Hitler’s SS/GestapoHistory of ANTI-SEMITISM and discrimination in Europe
33Essays for Chapter 11Explain how leaders in Europe and the US failed to respond to Nazi Germany’s military aggression and persecution of Jews and other groups. In what ways did leaders like Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill rally their nations to take action?Why were many German Jews and Jews in other parts of Europe unable to flee and immigrate to the United States (and other countries) when the Nazis took power?Describe FASCISM and the beliefs of its followers. Explain how Fascist ideology contributed to the global warfare that caused World War II.