4Italy Attacks Ethiopia, 1935 Benito Mussolini invades Ethiopia with overpowering force2,000 Italian troops killed, 275,000 Ethiopians killed
5Ethiopia and King Haile Selassie Ethiopia one of few independent nations in AfricaItaly invaded EthiopiaEthiopian king, Haile Selassie I, appealed to League of Nations for help (did little – oil boycott of Italy which most didn’t follow anyway)Ethiopians tried to fight but weapons were no for armored vehicles, planes and poison gas of ItaliansIn spring of 1936, Mussolini announced Ethiopia was part of Italian Empire
6Emperor Haile Selassie during his famous speech to the League of Nations
7Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) Leftists Right Wing Republicans Loyal to democratically elected governmentPreferred by Britain and France, though gave very little assistanceRight WingNationalistsLoyal to General Francisco FrancoAided by Germany and Italy
8Germany Occupied the Rhineland (1936) Supposed to remain demilitarized zone as per the Versailles Treaty
9Anchluss (1938) Hitler announces union with Austria Austrians do not resist
101938 - Sudetenland Germany took over the Sudetenland (Sept, 1938) Hitler claimed it’s the last territory he would take
11AppeasementAppeasement = The policy of giving in to someone to avoid a conflictLeague of Nations, specifically Britain and France, used appeasement against Hitler
12Munich Pact - The Failure of Appeasement Munich Conference = meeting between British and French leaders and HitlerHitler promised not to take more land in return for being allowed to keep land he already took
13The Height of Appeasement British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain The Munich Pact (1938)The Height of AppeasementBritish Prime Minister Neville ChamberlainNow we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.
22Japanese AggressionWhen Japan invaded Manchuria, the League of Nations condemned the action, which led to Japan’s withdrawal from the group.League took little action – did not recognize Japan’s postage stamps
23The Japanese Invasion of China, 1937 Japanese occupy Beijing and Chinese fight back. A stalemate occurred for the next 8 years
24The War In AsiaWhen WW2 broke out in Europe in 1939, Japan joined the Axis powers (called Tripartite Agreement)In the early stages of war Japan continued to expand
25A date which will live in infamy! Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941A date which will live in infamy!
26Pearl Harbor, HawaiiAs Japan expanded in the Pacific, they knew the one nation in their way would be U.S.Japan thought they could wipe out U.S. with one swift sneak attackOver 2400 American military were killed in the attack on December 7, 1941In response, US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on JapanThe American battleships West Virginia and Tennessee under attack at Pearl Harbor.
31WW1 was 2nd time in less than 50 years Germany had invaded France After WW1, France was determined to ensure this never happened againFrance constructed a series of steel and concrete fortifications along its Eastern border, stretching nearly 200 miles long.This was immensely expensive and further weakened the French economy.The Maginot Line
33Charles de Gaulle By June of 1940, the Germans entered Paris France agreed to armistice and was split in half:Northern France = Occupied by GermanySouthern France = Vichy France, technically independent, but really under control of GermansCharles de Gaulle set up the Free French government, with its base in Great BritainThe Free French fought against Germans, often using guerrilla tactics such as blowing up bridges, wrecking trains and cutting telephone and telegraph wires
38Winston ChurchillIn May of 1940, Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as the prime minister of BritainChurchill had earned himself a reputation of speaking out against the policy of appeasement all throughout the 1930sHitler offered a peace negotiation which Churchill refusedIn response, Hitler ordered his air force, the Luftwaffe to soften up Britain for invasion
39The Battle of BritainThe Battle of Britain is the attempt by the German Luftwaffe to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF), before a planned sea and airborne invasion of Britain during World War II.
40The Battle of Britain Air war conducted by the German Luftwaffe 40,000 British civilians killed in urban bombing raids, especially in LondonCommonly called “The Blitz”Royal Air Force prevents Germans from invading, and Hitler turns toward USSR
43Battle of Stalingrad: Winter of 1942-1943 German ArmyRussian Army1,011,500 men1,000,500 men10,290 artillery guns13,541 artillery guns675 tanks894 tanks1,216 planes1,115 planes
44The Battle of Stalingrad After failing to capture Moscow & Leningrad, Hitler tried one last attack on the city of Stalingrad in the south.After six long months, again, the harsh winter not only drove the Germans out, but had the Soviets advancing towards Germany.Assault at Stalingrad
45Red Army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the Reichstag in Berlin, Germany.
46Battle of Midway (June, 1942) U.S. defeated JapanBeginning of U.S. drive to get Japanese out of the islands they had taken in the PacificThe Japanese cruiser Mikuma shortly before sinking.
47The Italian Campaign - “Operation Torch” Europe’s “Soft Underbelly” Allies plan assault on weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov May 1943
49Italy SurrendersUpon the Allied invasion, Mussolini was forced to resign. His successor’s first act was to dissolve the Fascist Party.Clara Petacci (left) and Benito Mussolini (right) hung by their feet after death.
67The U.S. & the U.S.S.R. Emerged as the Two Superpowers of the later 20th Century
68The Yalta Conference (February, 1945) Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at a Soviet resort called YaltaMade agreement for Soviets to enter war against Japan once Germany was defeatedThe "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
69The Potsdam Conference (July, 1945) Germany already surrendered, Japan would soonTruman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed plans for postwar Europe with much disagreementThe "Big Three" at the Potsdam Conference: Joseph Stalin, Harry Truman, and Winston Churchill.
72Japan was occupied by the U.S. U.S. wrote new constitution making Japan a democracyKorea was split into 2: North Korea (communist) and South Korea (non-communist)China regained land it lost to Japan, but had a civil war and became communistColonies returned to prewar owners throughout Asia (and the world)