Presentation on theme: "World War II (1939-1945) Chapter 28 (3 or 4) Totalitarian Governments Nazi Germany Imperial Japan Fascist Italy Axis Powers."— Presentation transcript:
World War II ( ) Chapter 28 (3 or 4)
Totalitarian Governments Nazi Germany Imperial Japan Fascist Italy Axis Powers
Germany Violates Versailles Treaty Stopped Reparation Payments Re-Built Military Began to Expand Other totalitarian regimes act aggressively
Italy Attacks Ethiopia, 1935 Benito Mussolini invades Ethiopia with overpowering force 2,000 Italian troops killed, 275,000 Ethiopians killed
Ethiopia and King Haile Selassie Ethiopia one of few independent nations in Africa Italy invaded Ethiopia Ethiopian king, Haile Selassie I, appealed to League of Nations for help (did little – oil boycott of Italy which most didn’t follow anyway) Ethiopians tried to fight but weapons were no for armored vehicles, planes and poison gas of Italians In spring of 1936, Mussolini announced Ethiopia was part of Italian Empire
Emperor Haile Selassie during his famous speech to the League of Nations
Spanish Civil War ( ) Leftists Republicans Loyal to democratically elected government Preferred by Britain and France, though gave very little assistance Right Wing Nationalists Loyal to General Francisco Franco Aided by Germany and Italy
Germany Occupied the Rhineland (1936) Supposed to remain demilitarized zone as per the Versailles Treaty
Anchluss (1938) Hitler announces union with Austria Austrians do not resist Hitler announces union with Austria Austrians do not resist
Sudetenland Germany took over the Sudetenland (Sept, 1938) Hitler claimed it’s the last territory he would take
Appeasement Appeasement = The policy of giving in to someone to avoid a conflict League of Nations, specifically Britain and France, used appeasement against Hitler
Munich Pact - The Failure of Appeasement Munich Conference = meeting between British and French leaders and Hitler Hitler promised not to take more land in return for being allowed to keep land he already took
The Munich Pact (1938) The Height of Appeasement The Munich Pact (1938) The Height of Appeasement Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with. Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Germans Take Czechoslovakia (March, 1939) Violation of Munich Pact British leaders again do nothing
Germany Invades Poland (Sept 1, 1939) and WW2 Begins Blitzkrieg = German style of attack, “Lightning Warfare”
German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland in October 1939.
Meanwhile In Asia…
Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931
Japanese Aggression When Japan invaded Manchuria, the League of Nations condemned the action, which led to Japan’s withdrawal from the group. League took little action – did not recognize Japan’s postage stamps
The Japanese Invasion of China, 1937 Japanese occupy Beijing and Chinese fight back. A stalemate occurred for the next 8 years
The War In Asia When WW2 broke out in Europe in 1939, Japan joined the Axis powers (called Tripartite Agreement) In the early stages of war Japan continued to expand
Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy!
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii As Japan expanded in the Pacific, they knew the one nation in their way would be U.S. Japan thought they could wipe out U.S. with one swift sneak attack Over 2400 American military were killed in the attack on December 7, 1941 In response, US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan The American battleships West Virginia and Tennessee under attack at Pearl Harbor.
From 1939 to 1942, the Axis Powers Dominated
France Fell Within Weeks in 1940
WW1 was 2 nd time in less than 50 years Germany had invaded France After WW1, France was determined to ensure this never happened again France constructed a series of steel and concrete fortifications along its Eastern border, stretching nearly 200 miles long. This was immensely expensive and further weakened the French economy. The Maginot Line
Charles de Gaulle By June of 1940, the Germans entered Paris France agreed to armistice and was split in half: – Northern France = Occupied by Germany – Southern France = Vichy France, technically independent, but really under control of Germans Charles de Gaulle set up the Free French government, with its base in Great Britain The Free French fought against Germans, often using guerrilla tactics such as blowing up bridges, wrecking trains and cutting telephone and telegraph wires
France Surrenders June, 1940
A Divided France Henri Petain
The French Resistance The Free French General Charles DeGaulle The Maquis
The Battle of Britain, July to October, 1940
Winston Churchill In May of 1940, Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as the prime minister of Britain Churchill had earned himself a reputation of speaking out against the policy of appeasement all throughout the 1930s Hitler offered a peace negotiation which Churchill refused In response, Hitler ordered his air force, the Luftwaffe to soften up Britain for invasion
The Battle of Britain The Battle of Britain is the attempt by the German Luftwaffe to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF), before a planned sea and airborne invasion of Britain during World War II.
Air war conducted by the German Luftwaffe Commonly called “The Blitz” 40,000 British civilians killed in urban bombing raids, especially in London Royal Air Force prevents Germans from invading, and Hitler turns toward USSR The Battle of Britain 40
Turning Points in World War II
Hitler Turns to Russia
Battle of Stalingrad: Winter of German ArmyRussian Army 1,011,500 men1,000,500 men 10,290 artillery guns13,541 artillery guns 675 tanks894 tanks 1,216 planes1,115 planes
The Battle of Stalingrad After failing to capture Moscow & Leningrad, Hitler tried one last attack on the city of Stalingrad in the south. After six long months, again, the harsh winter not only drove the Germans out, but had the Soviets advancing towards Germany. Assault at Stalingrad
Red Army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the Reichstag in Berlin, Germany.
Battle of Midway (June, 1942) U.S. defeated Japan Beginning of U.S. drive to get Japanese out of the islands they had taken in the Pacific The Japanese cruiser Mikuma shortly before sinking.
The Italian Campaign - “Operation Torch” Europe’s “Soft Underbelly” Allies plan assault on weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov May 1943
The Allies Liberate Rome: June 5, 1944
Italy Surrenders Upon the Allied invasion, Mussolini was forced to resign. His successor’s first act was to dissolve the Fascist Party. Clara Petacci (left) and Benito Mussolini (right) hung by their feet after death.
D-Day (June 6, 1944)
Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [“Operation Overlord”]
Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Mass Graves at Bergen-Belsen
The U.S. & the U.S.S.R. Emerged as the Two Superpowers of the later 20 th Century
The Yalta Conference (February, 1945) Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at a Soviet resort called Yalta Made agreement for Soviets to enter war against Japan once Germany was defeated The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
The Potsdam Conference (July, 1945) Germany already surrendered, Japan would soon Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed plans for postwar Europe with much disagreement The "Big Three" at the Potsdam Conference: Joseph Stalin, Harry Truman, and Winston Churchill.
The Creation of the U. N.
Japan was occupied by the U.S. U.S. wrote new constitution making Japan a democracy Korea was split into 2: North Korea (communist) and South Korea (non- communist) China regained land it lost to Japan, but had a civil war and became communist Colonies returned to prewar owners throughout Asia (and the world)