Presentation on theme: "Warm Up: What was the League of Nations? What was the main goal of the League of Nations? What was the main fault of the League of Nations? StandardsObjective."— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up: What was the League of Nations? What was the main goal of the League of Nations? What was the main fault of the League of Nations? StandardsObjective Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers on a map and discuss the major turning points of the war, the principal theaters of conflict, key strategic decisions, and the resulting war conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on the importance of geographic factors. Compare the economic and military power shifts caused by the war, including the Yalta Pact, the development of nuclear weapons, Soviet control over Eastern European nations, and the economic recoveries of Germany and Japan. I will be able to organize information for the different conferences during and after World War 2 and infer the reasoning behind why the Cold War begins.
The Atlantic Conference aboard the USS Augusta
The Atlantic Conference and Charter President Roosevelt and PM Churchill meet on August 9 and 10, 1941 Meet in Newfoundland on the USS Augusta Purpose: Discuss a postwar international system and to restore self-governing countries Drafted 8 common principles to support after the war Allies don’t believe that the Soviet Union can hold off Hitler for very long Great Britain wants the US to get involved ○ This was also to protect the British colonies such as India and Egypt
8 Common Principles Both countries (US and UK) agreed not to seek territorial expansion to seek the reform of international trade; Wanted to make a global economy to establish freedom of the seas, international labor, economic, and welfare standards. supporting the restoration of self-governments for all countries that had been occupied during the war and allowing all peoples to choose their own form of government
Reactions to the Atlantic Conference The United States reacted in poor favor of the Atlantic conference Wanted to stay isolated from Europe ○ Roosevelt hoped that the Charter might encourage the American people to back U.S. intervention in World War II on behalf of the Allies Churchill wanted to get the US into World War 2 Upset because Roosevelt would not discuss this, but rather focused on the international system He wanted this also to help protect British colonies in SE Asia Although the US does not join, this agreement does raise morale in the UK
The Tehran Conference Purpose: to coordinate their attack against Germany and Japan. Discussion of Operation Overlord ○ Stalin did not fully believe that the British and US were committed to a 2 front war. Stalin would declare war on Japan after a victory in Europe ○ He would only join if he was to get territory (conceded by Roosevelt) President Roosevelt, Premier Stalin and PM Churchill meet on November 28 to December 1, The Three meet in Tehran, Iran
Eastern Europe, Germany at Tehran The Baltics would only rejoin the Soviet Union if they voted to rejoin the Soviet Union Stalin wanted no international interference in the voting process Poland’s borders were redrawn The idea of Germany being occupied was brought up as a discussion point
Other Points From Tehran Proposed the future United Nations would be dominated by “four policemen” the United States, Britain, China, and Soviet Union “would have the power to deal immediately with any threat to the peace and any sudden emergency which requires action.” Big Three issued Declaration of the Three Powers Regarding Iran thanked the Iranian Government for its assistance in the war against Germany promised to provide it with economic assistance both during and after the war Roosevelt believe he won because of what he got from the Soviet Union Stalin also is believe the Soviet Union won because he secured more territories
The Yalta Conference Stalin (USSR), Roosevelt (US), Churchill (UK) were in attendance. Conference held at Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine on February This conference took place before the Germans surrendered Purpose: To discuss what would happen to Germany after the war in Europe ends and to discuss how to attack Japan Roosevelt wants the UN, Stalin wants to protect against future German invasions, and Churchill wants to not give Stalin too much power Main ideas: peace and security
Yalta Agreement Agreed upon the following items: divide Germany into four ‘zones’, which Britain, France, the USA and the USSR would occupy after the war. bring Nazi war-criminals to trial. set up a Polish Provisional Government of National Unity 'pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible'. help the freed peoples of Europe set up democratic and self-governing countries by helping them to ○ (a) maintain law and order; ○ (b) carry out emergency relief measures; ○ (c) set up governments; and ○ (d) hold elections this was called the Declaration of Liberated Europe set up a commission to look into the amount of reparations.
Yalta and The Big Three Russia wins the Yalta Conference by getting the most Russia would join the war in the Pacific, in return for occupation zones in North Korea and Manchuria. ○ This was without the knowledge of Britain or China (who it greatly affected) Russia also agreed to join the United Nations. Both of these were due to the US insistence in having the USSR help in the war in pacific Tensions would build due to Poland US and GB want it to be a free elected state while the USSR want Poland apart of the Eastern Bloc Roosevelt is criticized for giving up too much to Stalin
Divide and Conquer! On your map, divide up Germany into 4 parts and label which countries should get what! France Britain United States Soviet Union Copy how your elbow buddy’s map and compare how they decided to divide it. Find someone of the opposite gender in the class who has a division different that you and your partner!
The Potsdam Conference Attended by President Truman (US), Premier Stalin (USSR), and new PM Attlee replacing Churchill (UK) Met in Potsdam, Germany on July 17 th to August 2, Known as the “Treaty of Versailles of World War II” Purpose: negotiate the end of the War in the Pacific and determine the post war borders of Europe The Big Three disagreed on ○ the details of how to divide Germany. ○ the size of reparations Germany have to pay. ○ Russian influence over the countries of Eastern Europe.
Three Factors before the Potsdam Conference Relations between the superpowers had worsened considerably since Yalta. In March 1945, Stalin had invited the non-Communist Polish leaders to meet him, and arrested them. In April 1945, Roosevelt dies, and America had a new president, Truman, who was inclined to ‘get tough’ with the Russians. Also, soon after he had arrived at the Conference, Truman learned (on 21 July) that America had tested the first atomic bomb. It gave the Americans a huge military advantage over everyone else. It also meant that Truman didn't need Stalin's help in Japan. ○ What do you think happened or will happen due to this factor?
The Result of Potsdam The Big Three agreed on to set up the four ‘zones of occupation’ in Germany. The Nazi Party, government and laws were to be destroyed, and 'German education shall be so controlled as completely to eliminate Nazi and militarist doctrines and to make possible the successful development of democratic ideas. to bring Nazi war-criminals to trial. to recognize the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity and hold 'free and unfettered elections as soon as possible'. Russia was allowed to take reparations from the Soviet Zone, and also 10% of the industrial equipment of the western zones as reparations. America and Britain could take reparations from their zones if they wished.
Division of Germany
Check for Understanding! This cartoon was drawn after the Potsdam Conference. How is this a representation of the results of Potsdam?
The United Nations Q: How did the United Nations begin to form from the Atlantic conference to its creation? A: Atlantic Conference ○ Part of the purpose of the Atlantic Conference was to discuss a postwar international system Tehran Conference ○ Proposed the future United Nations would be dominated by “four policemen” Yalta Conference ○ Outlined in the Yalta Agreement that they would begin to create the United Nations ○ Russia also agreed to join the United Nations.
What is the UN? The United Nations was a new version of the League of Nations Objective is to keep peace and assist people who need the help Promote human rights around the world Offer security to those in need Security Council – 5 countries who cannot be kicked off USSR, US, France, Great Britain, and China
Thinking Ahead What event do you think comes as a direct result of the Potsdam Conference? What do you think might have played a role in this event from the conferences we have learned?