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Markus Geissler, PhD Professor, Computer Information Science Cosumnes River College Sacramento, California, USA.

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Presentation on theme: "Markus Geissler, PhD Professor, Computer Information Science Cosumnes River College Sacramento, California, USA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Markus Geissler, PhD Professor, Computer Information Science Cosumnes River College Sacramento, California, USA

2 Overview  Quick review Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Hall’s high- vs. low-context cultures  Defining small screen devices  Cultural issues related to ICT convergence  Defining software agents  Agent-related considerations for small screen devices  Examples Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

3 Quick Review: Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions  Power Distance (PDI)  Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)  Masculinity/Femininity (MAS)  Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)  Long-Term Orientation (LTO) Source:  High- vs. low-context cultures (Hall, 1976) Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

4 Defining Small Screen Devices Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

5 Characteristics of Small Screen Devices  Small screen continues to be a requirement for portability  User can see only one or two applications at a time  Keyboard issues Small Limited number of characters Fewer function keys  Power-related issues Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

6 ICT Convergence Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

7 ICT Convergence  Multiple separate devices are being combined into one  Objective: Make the features of the converged device as usable as when they required separate devices. Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

8 Modern SmartPhone Features Making a voice telephone call Making a video telephone call Receiving a voice telephone call Receiving a video telephone call Displaying a caller’s name Displaying a caller’s phone number Displaying a caller's image Receiving a Call Waiting message Receiving a Call Waiting message along with the caller’s name Receiving a Call Waiting message along with the caller’s phone number Receiving a Call Waiting message along with the caller’s image Forwarding a voice telephone call Forwarding a voice telephone call based on certain criteria Retrieving data from a device-based address book Storing data in a device-based address book Retrieving data from a network (cloud)-based address book Storing data in a network (cloud)-based address book Sending an SMS message Receiving an SMS message Sending an MMS message Receiving an MMS message Downloading content from the Internet at high speeds (5 Mbps and above) Uploading content to the Internet at high speeds (5 Mbps and above) Downloading from the Internet at lower speeds (less than 5 Mbps) Uploading to the Internet at lower speeds (less than 5 Mbps) Sending an message Receiving an message Sending an message with one or more attachments Receiving an message with one or more attachments Connecting one or more wireless peripherals (headsets, etc.) Connecting one or more wired peripherals (headsets, etc.) Viewing high-quality photos (5 MP and above) Taking high-quality photos (5 MP and above) Viewing low-quality photos (less than 5 MP) Taking low-quality photos (less than 5 MP) Playing low-quality stored video Playing high-quality stored video Playing low-quality streaming video Playing high-quality streaming video Recording low-quality video Recording high-quality video Playing low-quality stored audio Playing high-quality stored audio Playing low-quality streaming audio Playing high-quality streaming audio Recording low-quality stored audio Recording high-quality stored audio Downloading text content from one or more social networking websites Downloading multimedia content from one or more social networking websites Uploading text content to one or more social networking websites Uploading multimedia content to one or more social networking websites Translating text content from one language into another Translating multimedia content from one language into another Assisting users in dealing with their own disabilities or those of others, including hearing, visual, reading, learning and memory disabilities Conducting secure point-of-sale/point-of-service transactions through a telephone bill Conducting secure point-of-sale/point-of-service transactions through a telephone card Conducting secure point-of-sale/point-of-service transactions through a connected bank account Determining user location using the Global Positioning System services Obtaining directions to other locations using Global Positioning System services Carrying secure personal information (identification, medical and/or similar information) Using biometric authentication to control device usage Conducting secure banking transactions Conducting building-related tasks (unlocking doors, switching lights, activating climate systems, activating desired music, handling security systems, activating garage door, remotely controlling and monitoring electronic devices and appliances, etc.) Conducting vehicle-related tasks (remotely unlocking doors, starting engine, etc.) Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

9 Modern SmartPhone Features  Now seriously…  SmartPhones can perform many different tasks.  Good SmartPhones can download and run many different applications.  Very good SmartPhones can perform more than one task at a time.  … if the users want that capability! Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

10 Cultural Issues Related to ICT Convergence  Some cultures handle convergence better than others Cultural dimensions Other factors ○ Age ○ Gender ○ Level of education ○ Level of IT skill and experience  Some let agents handle convergence! Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

11 Definitions of Agent  Common usage An agent is a “person who acts on behalf of another, for example, managing business, financial or contractual matters, or provides a service.”  Computer science-related An agent is “an entity that performs a specific activity in an environment of which it is aware and that can respond to changes.” ○ (Sterling & Taveter, 2009) Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

12 Agent Design Considerations for Small Screen Devices - 1a  Problem: Small screen size Agents need to fit as much information onto the screen as practical.  Potential benefit to users “By stripping down the Web site interface to the most basic functions, site designers can focus the user’s attention and offer relevant information without distractions.” ○ (Markoff, 2008) Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

13 Agent Design Considerations for Small Screen Devices - 1b  Solutions Prevent less important content from being displayed. Include user interface components for easy navigation. Use style sheets to customize content display. ○ (Jones & Marsden, 1997) Include a “zooming facility to enlarge display beyond the physical limits of the screen” ○ (Churchill & Hedberg, 2008) Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

14 Agent Design Considerations for Small Screen Devices - 1c  Members of high-UAI cultures may not be satisfied with seeing only part of the content.  Members of low-context cultures may desire to see more information than is possible to present.  Members of high-context cultures may not be easily able to figure out functions with which they are not familiar. Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

15 Agent Design Considerations for Small Screen Devices - 2a  Problem: Ability to only display one or two applications at a time  Solution: Allow applications to run in the background and inform users of desired events. Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

16 Agent Design Considerations for Small Screen Devices - 2b  “Design for short contacts and task centeredness” (Churchill & Hedberg, 2008)  Use the designated information area.  Use available light and sound functions.  Make notifications configurable Members of high-LTO, high-UAI or low-MAS cultures will likely want more frequent notification. Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

17 Agent Design Considerations for Small Screen Devices - 3  Problem: Limited input capabilities  Solution: Design agents that work well with the device capabilities. Make button functions context-sensitive. Indicate to members of high-UAI cultures what the current button function is. Include the capability to handle voice commands. ○ Interface with voice command or touch screen agents Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

18 Agent Design Considerations for Small Screen Devices - 4  Problem: Limited battery power  Solution: Design agents that minimize power usage. And further reduce it when the battery is low. Poll batch and network functions as infrequently as practical. Design and empower intermediary agents to handle multiple polling functions. Designers from low-PDI cultures may find it more difficult to create agent hierarchies.  Or just include a larger battery… Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

19 Intermediary Agents Timekeeper Agent Calendar Alarm Clock Screen Saver Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

20 Agent Design Considerations for Small Screen Devices - 5  Problem: Some elements are probably too complex for most people, no matter what their culture. “Movable, collapsible, overlapping, semitransparent interactive panels” ○ (Churchill & Hedberg, 2008)  Solution: Keep it simple! Divide a complex application into multiple smaller and simpler applets, if possible. Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

21 A Possible Overarching Approach  Allow users to set their own preferences so that all enabled agents can customize the user experience and thereby provide a consistent interface for the user. Embedded agents may be able to assist users in creating those preferences. Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

22 Example Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

23 Summary  Cultures approach various ICTs differently  Design agents to allow users from multiple cultures  Approach the design of agents for small screen devices from the perspective of the user Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

24 Bibliography  Choi, B., Lee, I., Kim, J., & Jeon, Y. (2005). Proceedings from CHI 2005: A Qualitative Cross-National Study of Cultural Influences on Mobile Data Service Design. Portland, OR: ACM.  Churchill, D. & Hedberg, J. (2008). Learning object design considerations for small-screen handheld devices. Computers & Education 50 (3), pp Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

25 Bibliography (continued)  Hall, E.T. (1976). Beyond Culture, New York: Doubleday.  Hofstede, G. (2009). Geert Hofstede™ Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from hofstede.com/.  Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

26 Bibliography (continued)  Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw Hill.  Jones, M. & Marsden, G. (1997). From the large screen to the small screen - retaining the designer‘s design for effective user interaction. The Institution of Electrical Engineers. Retrieved from Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)

27 Bibliography (continued)  Markoff, J. (July 13, 2008). On a Small Screen, Just the Salient Stuff. The New York Times. Retrieved from nology/13stream.html nology/13stream.html  Sterling, L. & Taveter, K. (2009). The Art of Agent-Oriented Modeling. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Cultural Factors Affecting the Design of Agents Embedded in Small Screen Portable Devices (SmartPhones, MP3 players, PDAs, etc.)


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