2ObjectivesIdentify the characteristics and results of the major battles in WWIIIdentify the Turning Points in WWII
3WWII Begins Battle of Poland Date: September 1, 1939Location: PolandTactics: Blitzkrieg – fast moving planes andtanks followed by infantryResults:Poland SurrendersSept. 27, 1939Poland Split between Germany & USSR
4Battle of PolandWhat did the German air force do to Poland?
5What happened after the Battle of Poland in the winter of 1939 and spring of 1940?
6Phony War or Sitzkrieg Winter 1939-Spring 1940 France stayed at the Maginot Line, waiting for the Germans.Neither side committed to a significant attackBritish and France prepare for war.
7Finland Soviet Union Early 1940-March 1940 Stalin forced the Baltic republics of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia to accept Soviet military bases. When he tried to do that with Finland, war broke out.Fins held out until March before the Soviets forced them to surrender.As a result, the Soviets moved their frontier 70 miles west
9Scandinavia Denmark and Norway Why? Wanted to control the Baltic and North Sea for access to AtlanticClaim France and Great Britain are planning to attackHitler’s Demands: accept “protection from the Third Reich”Results:Denmark acceptsNorway was defeatedHitler gains access to the AtlanticNeville Chamberlain (British Prime) Minister forced to resignWinston Churchill new Prime Minister
10Luxembourg, Netherlands, Belgium May 10, 1940Massive attacks on the landFirst large-scale airborne attack in the history of warfareDutch surrendered five days later
11Hitler Prepares to attack France What are his options?
12Maginot LineLine of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses along the French-German border
18France Falls Germans continue sweep toward Paris French turn over Paris to the Germans, rather than see it destroyed
19Results of Battle of France Northern France - Nazi OccupiedSouthern France –Vichy Government = Puppet Govt. controlled by Nazi’sled by French Traitor Henri PetainFree French Government set up in Britain underCharles de Gaulle (French General)
20Hitler sets his sights on Britain What 3 things did Hitler do to try and get theBritish to submit?What did Churchill offer the people of England?
21Battle of Britain Operation Sea Lion Hitler’s Plan:Knock out British Royal Air ForceLand 250K soldiers on shores of EnglandSummer 1940 Luftwaffe bombs Great Britain’s factories and airfieldsRAF 2000 planes vs. Germans 4500British 3 secret weapons:RadarEnigma – German secret code machineBlackout
22The Blitz – Bombing of Civilians Sept 7 – Hitler begins bombing London and other citiesWhy? To break British MoralGermans lose 2300 planes vs. British 600British citizens are bombed day and then nightHitler could not defeat the British
23The Blitz Where did Londoner’s stay during the bombings? How many civilians lost their lives?
24Winston Churchill“Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few.”Who is Churchill referring to?
25Nazi Aggression (1940-1941) Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria Joined the axis powers in Nov. 1940Economically dependent on GermanyProvided troops for the invasion of Soviet UnionAllowed Germany to attack Yugoslavia and GreeceYugoslavia and GreeceDelays invasion of Soviet Union by 6 weeksApril 1941 Yugoslavia and Greece defeatedBritish divert troops from North Africa to help– 2nd Dunkirk
26What was the code name for the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union ? Operation BarbarossaWhy?Living Space, Oil, WheatWhen?June 22, 1941Who?3 Million German troops attack along an 1800 mile frontWhat?3 Pronged attack1. Moscow Kiev3. LeningradHow?Blitzkrieg
27Soviet InvasionScorched earth policy - Stalin’s order to destroy anything of value (land, materials )that can be used by the GermansBy November - Nazis control 40% of Soviet population and are near MoscowHitler’s Big MistakeGenerals say take MoscowHitler spits his troops and sendssome to Leningrad and Stalingrad
28Soviet InvasionStalin’s Plan: 3 Russian Generals - Time, Winter, DistanceNazi Problems: Thin Supply lines, Exhausted troopsLack of winter clothingBy December Nazi’s are 20 miles from MoscowGeneral Zhukov arrives with reserves (freed prisoners) from Siberia & winter sets inNazis unable to take Moscow
29Soviet Union Siege of Leningrad ( Nov. 1941-Jan. 1944) 1 Million Russians trapped inside Leningrad die of starvation, cold, disease
30Battle of Stalingrad Hitler Reasons - Destroy Russian Morale, Oil Stalin - Hold city at all costsRussians counterattack in Nov – Why?“General Winter”Russians encircle German armyHitler refuses to allow troops to retreat
31Battle of Stalingrad Turning point 1st major defeat for Hitler broke the German Military - lose 20 Generals, best soldiers and equip.Germany no longer on the offensive onEastern Front
32U.S. Involvement - Europe Neutrality Acts (1937) – prohibited sale of arms to warring nationsDestroyers for Bases (1940) – gave England WWI destroyers in exchange for naval basesCash-n-Carry (1940) – cash for suppliesLend Lease (1940) – lend war equipment to BritainAtlantic Charter (1941) – FDR & Churchill called for destruction of Nazi’s
33PacificJapanese Attack French (Indochina) and British (Singapore) Colonies in SE Asia.Why? French and British occupied with HitlerU.S. RetaliatesBans sale of scrap metal, oil, and freezes Japanese Assets in U.S.
34Why did the Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor? To retaliate for cutting off oil suppliesU.S. will try and prevent Japanese ExpansionDestroy U.S. Pacific Fleet and avoid US naval interference in the PacificYamamoto - masterminded surprise attack
35Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 6am on a Sunday Morning Surprise Attack 19 American ships destroyed188 Airplanes destroyed2400 people killedUSS Arizona – 1100 die
40North Africa Importance Control of Mediterranean Sea, Suez Canal, Straights of GibraltarAccess to oil fields in the Middle EastOpen a Second Front
41North AfricaWho:Vichy French controlled Algeria, Morocco, TunisiaItaly controlled LibyaBritish controlled EgyptGerman forcesAmerican forcesWhatItaly attacked British in Egypt -1942 Hitler sent Erwin Rommel a.k.a “the Desert Fox” to help
42Battle of El AlameinEl Alamein – British (Montgomery) attack German’s (Rommel)German’s are pushed out of Egypt to Libya and defeated in Jan. 1943Turning Point – beginning of the end for Nazi in N. Africa
43Operation TorchAllies “Pincer Strategy” – Advance from east and west to squeeze the Nazi’s out of North AfricaUS (Eisenhower) from the west; British (Montgomery) from the eastMay 1943 – Allies have all of N. AfricaWhat does this set up?**Allied Control of Mediterranean Sea - Can launch attack on Southern Europe
45Invasion of Italy Allies attack Sicily King Victor Emmanuel III fires Mussolini and has him arrestedNew Italian government signs armisticeAllies meet tough resistance from Germans on Italian Peninsula
46End of MussoliniMussolini tries to escape to Switzerland, but instead….
48The Jewish Problem First Solution – Emigration 1933 Boycott of Jewish Business – purpose to isolate Jews socially and economically;1933 Camps and Deportations of German Jews - forced emigration of Jews from Germany begins1935 Nuremburg Laws – Deprived German Jews of Citizenship ; identification of Jews through yellow star of David1938 Kristallnacht – campaign of terror against German JewsSecond Solution - IsolationGhetto’s – designated/isolated areas in towns and citiesDeportations of Jews throughout Europe
51The Final SolutionFinal Solution - code word for destruction of all European JewsGenocide – deliberate destruction of a race, religious, or ethnic groupconcentration campsMass ShootingsStarvationPoison gas
56Invasion of France Challenges Atlantic Wall – series of coastal fortifications along the Atlantic coast built by the 3rd Reich to prevent invasionEnglish Channel
57Operation OverlordOperation Overlord - Code name for Invasion of FrancePurpose – open up the Western Front and drive the Nazi’s out of FranceDate – June 6, 1944
58Deception at CalaisElaborate Plan by Allies to Deceive Hitler into thinking attack would be at Calais, France, NOT NormandyDiscouraged Germans from reinforcing troops at NormandySherman Tank made of Inflated Rubber
59D-Day Invasion Why? __________________________ June 6, 1944 D-Day Invasion on the Normandy coast of France.Allied paratroopers dropped in behind enemy lines to help secure the beaches.176,000 allied troops landed on Omaha, Utah, Gold, Sword and Juno beaches marking the largest amphibious assault in history
64V-E Day Victory Europe V-E Day – May 8, 1945 End of War in Europe Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide in his command bunker.April 12 Roosevelt died - Who was president?
65Japanese Take the Pacific Why? Need supplies, raw materials and oilWhat? Dutch East Indies, Malaysia, Burma, Hong Kong, French Indochina and the Philippine Islands.U.S. chooses to makeHitler a PriorityStrategy in Pacific –Defensive not Offensive
66Battle of Midway U.S. Secret Weapon U.S. Ambush Turning Point – Broke Japanese CodeU.S. AmbushJapanese lose aircraft carriers and planesTurning Point –1. Japanese defeat2. Ends Japanese Control of Pacific
67What is Island HoppingIsland Hopping - Attack only strategic locations to get closer to JapanBy-passed Japanese islands would be cut-off from supply lines
68Iwo Jima March, 1945 660 Miles from Tokyo Japanese start with 23,000 troops, end with 1,000U.S. losses highIndicated - expected results of invasion on Japanese mainland
69Okinawa June 1945 350 Miles from Tokyo Close enough to launch an invasion ofJapanOne of bloodiest battles in the PacificU.S. losses – 12,000Japanese losses – 110,000
70What happened at the Yalta Conference? Who - Roosevelt, Stalin, ChurchillWhen - February, 1945What - Discuss Post War WorldDivide Germany and Berlin between AlliesSoviets agree to help defeat Japan in exchange for territorySoviets agree to join UN
71What happened at the Potsdam Conference? Who? Churchill, Truman StalinWhen? August, 1945What? Discuss post war worldUltimatum to Japan - Unconditional surrenderDivide Germany and Berlin into 4 zonesDemilitarize Germany
72Truman’s Choices Invasion of Japan Get Russia to attack Continue bombing JapanChange conditions of surrenderDrop the Atomic Bomb
73Hiroshima and Nagasaki Estimates of CasualtiesHiroshimaNagasakiPre-raid population255,000195,000Dead66,00039,000Injured69,00025,000Total Casualties135,00064,000
76V-J Day Victory JapanV-J day August 15, 1945 – End of fighting in PacificEmperor Hirohito Quits - Symbolic to get military to stop fightingNo longer need to fight to the death for himJapan Surrenders to MacArthur – September 2, 1945
77Effects of WWIILargest Civilian and Military Casualties in History – 55Million, 22M RussiansMost Costly War in HistoryMap of Europe Re-drawnWar Crimes TrialsNuremburgJapan12 Million homelessMore Destruction than any other war