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WWII Battles.

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Presentation on theme: "WWII Battles."— Presentation transcript:

1 WWII Battles

2 Objectives Identify the characteristics and results of the major battles in WWII Identify the Turning Points in WWII

3 WWII Begins Battle of Poland
Date: September 1, 1939 Location: Poland Tactics: Blitzkrieg – fast moving planes and tanks followed by infantry Results: Poland Surrenders Sept. 27, 1939 Poland Split between Germany & USSR

4 Battle of Poland What did the German air force do to Poland?

5 What happened after the Battle of Poland in the winter of 1939 and spring of 1940?

6 Phony War or Sitzkrieg Winter 1939-Spring 1940
France stayed at the Maginot Line, waiting for the Germans. Neither side committed to a significant attack British and France prepare for war.

7 Finland Soviet Union Early 1940-March 1940
Stalin forced the Baltic republics of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia to accept Soviet military bases. When he tried to do that with Finland, war broke out. Fins held out until March before the Soviets forced them to surrender. As a result, the Soviets moved their frontier 70 miles west

8 Where did Hitler plan to attack next? Why?

9 Scandinavia Denmark and Norway Why?
Wanted to control the Baltic and North Sea for access to Atlantic Claim France and Great Britain are planning to attack Hitler’s Demands: accept “protection from the Third Reich” Results: Denmark accepts Norway was defeated Hitler gains access to the Atlantic Neville Chamberlain (British Prime) Minister forced to resign Winston Churchill new Prime Minister

10 Luxembourg, Netherlands, Belgium
May 10, 1940 Massive attacks on the land First large-scale airborne attack in the history of warfare Dutch surrendered five days later

11 Hitler Prepares to attack France
What are his options?

12 Maginot Line Line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses along the French-German border

13 Maginot Line

14 Maginot Line

15 The Miracle of Dunkirk British Forces German Forces
300,000 British, French and Belgian troops trapped by German Panzers (Tanks) at Dunkirk German Forces The Miracle of Dunkirk

16 Miracle of Dunkirk Citizen action - citizens of Britain bring 850 boats -yachts, fishing boats, tugs, trawlers, destroyers and cruisers to rescue the trapped soldiers

17 Battle of Dunkirk

18 France Falls Germans continue sweep toward Paris
French turn over Paris to the Germans, rather than see it destroyed

19 Results of Battle of France
Northern France - Nazi Occupied Southern France – Vichy Government = Puppet Govt. controlled by Nazi’s led by French Traitor Henri Petain Free French Government set up in Britain under Charles de Gaulle (French General)

20 Hitler sets his sights on Britain
What 3 things did Hitler do to try and get the British to submit? What did Churchill offer the people of England?

21 Battle of Britain Operation Sea Lion
Hitler’s Plan: Knock out British Royal Air Force Land 250K soldiers on shores of England Summer 1940 Luftwaffe bombs Great Britain’s factories and airfields RAF 2000 planes vs. Germans 4500 British 3 secret weapons: Radar Enigma – German secret code machine Blackout

22 The Blitz – Bombing of Civilians
Sept 7 – Hitler begins bombing London and other cities Why? To break British Moral Germans lose 2300 planes vs. British 600 British citizens are bombed day and then night Hitler could not defeat the British

23 The Blitz Where did Londoner’s stay during the bombings?
How many civilians lost their lives?

24 Winston Churchill “Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few.” Who is Churchill referring to?

25 Nazi Aggression (1940-1941) Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria
Joined the axis powers in Nov. 1940 Economically dependent on Germany Provided troops for the invasion of Soviet Union Allowed Germany to attack Yugoslavia and Greece Yugoslavia and Greece Delays invasion of Soviet Union by 6 weeks April 1941 Yugoslavia and Greece defeated British divert troops from North Africa to help– 2nd Dunkirk

26 What was the code name for the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union ?
Operation Barbarossa Why? Living Space, Oil, Wheat When? June 22, 1941 Who? 3 Million German troops attack along an 1800 mile front What? 3 Pronged attack 1. Moscow Kiev 3. Leningrad How? Blitzkrieg

27 Soviet Invasion Scorched earth policy - Stalin’s order to destroy anything of value (land, materials )that can be used by the Germans By November - Nazis control 40% of Soviet population and are near Moscow Hitler’s Big Mistake Generals say take Moscow Hitler spits his troops and sends some to Leningrad and Stalingrad

28 Soviet Invasion Stalin’s Plan: 3 Russian Generals - Time, Winter, Distance Nazi Problems: Thin Supply lines, Exhausted troops Lack of winter clothing By December Nazi’s are 20 miles from Moscow General Zhukov arrives with reserves (freed prisoners) from Siberia & winter sets in Nazis unable to take Moscow

29 Soviet Union Siege of Leningrad ( Nov. 1941-Jan. 1944)
1 Million Russians trapped inside Leningrad die of starvation, cold, disease

30 Battle of Stalingrad Hitler Reasons - Destroy Russian Morale, Oil
Stalin - Hold city at all costs Russians counterattack in Nov – Why? “General Winter” Russians encircle German army Hitler refuses to allow troops to retreat

31 Battle of Stalingrad Turning point 1st major defeat for Hitler
broke the German Military - lose 20 Generals, best soldiers and equip. Germany no longer on the offensive on Eastern Front

32 U.S. Involvement - Europe
Neutrality Acts (1937) – prohibited sale of arms to warring nations Destroyers for Bases (1940) – gave England WWI destroyers in exchange for naval bases Cash-n-Carry (1940) – cash for supplies Lend Lease (1940) – lend war equipment to Britain Atlantic Charter (1941) – FDR & Churchill called for destruction of Nazi’s

33 Pacific Japanese Attack French (Indochina) and British (Singapore) Colonies in SE Asia. Why? French and British occupied with Hitler U.S. Retaliates Bans sale of scrap metal, oil, and freezes Japanese Assets in U.S.

34 Why did the Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor?
To retaliate for cutting off oil supplies U.S. will try and prevent Japanese Expansion Destroy U.S. Pacific Fleet and avoid US naval interference in the Pacific Yamamoto - masterminded surprise attack

35 Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 6am on a Sunday Morning Surprise Attack
19 American ships destroyed 188 Airplanes destroyed 2400 people killed USS Arizona – 1100 die





40 North Africa Importance
Control of Mediterranean Sea, Suez Canal, Straights of Gibraltar Access to oil fields in the Middle East Open a Second Front

41 North Africa Who: Vichy French controlled Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Italy controlled Libya British controlled Egypt German forces American forces What Italy attacked British in Egypt - 1942 Hitler sent Erwin Rommel a.k.a “the Desert Fox” to help

42 Battle of El Alamein El Alamein – British (Montgomery) attack German’s (Rommel) German’s are pushed out of Egypt to Libya and defeated in Jan. 1943 Turning Point – beginning of the end for Nazi in N. Africa

43 Operation Torch Allies “Pincer Strategy” – Advance from east and west to squeeze the Nazi’s out of North Africa US (Eisenhower) from the west; British (Montgomery) from the east May 1943 – Allies have all of N. Africa What does this set up? **Allied Control of Mediterranean Sea - Can launch attack on Southern Europe

44 Battle of North Africa

45 Invasion of Italy Allies attack Sicily
King Victor Emmanuel III fires Mussolini and has him arrested New Italian government signs armistice Allies meet tough resistance from Germans on Italian Peninsula

46 End of Mussolini Mussolini tries to escape to Switzerland, but instead….

47 End of Mussolini

48 The Jewish Problem First Solution – Emigration
1933 Boycott of Jewish Business – purpose to isolate Jews socially and economically; 1933 Camps and Deportations of German Jews - forced emigration of Jews from Germany begins 1935 Nuremburg Laws – Deprived German Jews of Citizenship ; identification of Jews through yellow star of David 1938 Kristallnacht – campaign of terror against German Jews Second Solution - Isolation Ghetto’s – designated/isolated areas in towns and cities Deportations of Jews throughout Europe

49 Identifying the Jews Nuremburg Laws

50 Polish Ghetto

51 The Final Solution Final Solution - code word for destruction of all European Jews Genocide – deliberate destruction of a race, religious, or ethnic group concentration camps Mass Shootings Starvation Poison gas

52 Concentration Camps

53 Images of Auschwitz Largest Concentration Camp 1 million die

54 6 Million Die – Only 4 Million Survive
Country Killed Survive Original Poland 3 M 10% 3.3M USSR 1.3 M 30% 2.85M Germany & Austria 200K 16% 240K Netherlands 104K 25% 140K Czech 271K 14% 315K Which country lost the most Jews?

55 3rd Reich Before the D-Day Invasion

56 Invasion of France Challenges
Atlantic Wall – series of coastal fortifications along the Atlantic coast built by the 3rd Reich to prevent invasion English Channel

57 Operation Overlord Operation Overlord - Code name for Invasion of France Purpose – open up the Western Front and drive the Nazi’s out of France Date – June 6, 1944

58 Deception at Calais Elaborate Plan by Allies to Deceive Hitler into thinking attack would be at Calais, France, NOT Normandy Discouraged Germans from reinforcing troops at Normandy Sherman Tank made of Inflated Rubber

59 D-Day Invasion Why? __________________________
June 6, 1944 D-Day Invasion on the Normandy coast of France. Allied paratroopers dropped in behind enemy lines to help secure the beaches. 176,000 allied troops landed on Omaha, Utah, Gold, Sword and Juno beaches marking the largest amphibious assault in history

60 Images from D-day

61 D-Day Results 3,000/150,000 Americans die on 1st day .
1 Million additional soldiers arrive within 1 month September 1944, France is Liberated

62 Battle of the Bulge Significance - Last German Offensive
Germany army tries to break through Allied forces which creates a “bulge” in the Allied defenses

63 Battle of the Bulge

64 V-E Day Victory Europe V-E Day – May 8, 1945 End of War in Europe
Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide in his command bunker. April 12 Roosevelt died - Who was president?

65 Japanese Take the Pacific
Why? Need supplies, raw materials and oil What? Dutch East Indies, Malaysia, Burma, Hong Kong, French Indochina and the Philippine Islands. U.S. chooses to make Hitler a Priority Strategy in Pacific – Defensive not Offensive

66 Battle of Midway U.S. Secret Weapon U.S. Ambush Turning Point –
Broke Japanese Code U.S. Ambush Japanese lose aircraft carriers and planes Turning Point – 1. Japanese defeat 2. Ends Japanese Control of Pacific

67 What is Island Hopping Island Hopping - Attack only strategic locations to get closer to Japan By-passed Japanese islands would be cut-off from supply lines

68 Iwo Jima March, 1945 660 Miles from Tokyo
Japanese start with 23,000 troops, end with 1,000 U.S. losses high Indicated - expected results of invasion on Japanese mainland

69 Okinawa June 1945 350 Miles from Tokyo
Close enough to launch an invasion of Japan One of bloodiest battles in the Pacific U.S. losses – 12,000 Japanese losses – 110,000

70 What happened at the Yalta Conference?
Who - Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill When - February, 1945 What - Discuss Post War World Divide Germany and Berlin between Allies Soviets agree to help defeat Japan in exchange for territory Soviets agree to join UN

71 What happened at the Potsdam Conference?
Who? Churchill, Truman Stalin When? August, 1945 What? Discuss post war world Ultimatum to Japan - Unconditional surrender Divide Germany and Berlin into 4 zones Demilitarize Germany

72 Truman’s Choices Invasion of Japan Get Russia to attack
Continue bombing Japan Change conditions of surrender Drop the Atomic Bomb

73 Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Estimates of Casualties Hiroshima Nagasaki Pre-raid population 255,000 195,000 Dead 66,000 39,000 Injured 69,000 25,000 Total Casualties 135,000 64,000

74 Images of Nagasaki and Hiroshima

75 Atomic Bomb

76 V-J Day Victory Japan V-J day August 15, 1945 – End of fighting in Pacific Emperor Hirohito Quits - Symbolic to get military to stop fighting No longer need to fight to the death for him Japan Surrenders to MacArthur – September 2, 1945

77 Effects of WWII Largest Civilian and Military Casualties in History – 55Million, 22M Russians Most Costly War in History Map of Europe Re-drawn War Crimes Trials Nuremburg Japan 12 Million homeless More Destruction than any other war

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