Presentation on theme: "WWII Battles. Objectives Identify the characteristics and results of the major battles in WWII Identify the Turning Points in WWII."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Identify the characteristics and results of the major battles in WWII Identify the Turning Points in WWII
Date: September 1, 1939 Location: Poland Tactics: Blitzkrieg – fast moving planes and tanks followed by infantry Results: Poland Surrenders Sept. 27, 1939 Poland Split between Germany & USSR WWII Begins Battle of Poland
What did the German air force do to Poland?
What happened after the Battle of Poland in the winter of 1939 and spring of 1940?
Phony War or Sitzkrieg Winter 1939-Spring 1940 France stayed at the Maginot Line, waiting for the Germans. Neither side committed to a significant attack British and France prepare for war.
Finland Soviet Union Early 1940-March 1940 Stalin forced the Baltic republics of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia to accept Soviet military bases. When he tried to do that with Finland, war broke out. Fins held out until March before the Soviets forced them to surrender. As a result, the Soviets moved their frontier 70 miles west
Where did Hitler plan to attack next? Why?
Scandinavia Denmark and Norway Why? Wanted to control the Baltic and North Sea for access to Atlantic Claim France and Great Britain are planning to attack Hitler’s Demands: accept “protection from the Third Reich” Results: Denmark accepts Norway was defeated Hitler gains access to the Atlantic Neville Chamberlain (British Prime) Minister forced to resign Winston Churchill new Prime Minister
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Belgium May 10, 1940 Massive attacks on the land First large-scale airborne attack in the history of warfare Dutch surrendered five days later
Hitler Prepares to attack France What are his options?
Maginot Line Line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses along the French-German border
300,000 British, French and Belgian troops trapped by German Panzers (Tanks) at Dunkirk
Miracle of Dunkirk Citizen action - citizens of Britain bring 850 boats -yachts, fishing boats, tugs, trawlers, destroyers and cruisers to rescue the trapped soldiers
Battle of Dunkirk
France Falls Germans continue sweep toward Paris French turn over Paris to the Germans, rather than see it destroyed
Results of Battle of France Northern France - Nazi Occupied Southern France – Vichy Government = Puppet Govt. controlled by Nazi’s led by French Traitor Henri Petain Free French Government set up in Britain under Charles de Gaulle (French General)
Hitler sets his sights on Britain What 3 things did Hitler do to try and get the British to submit? What did Churchill offer the people of England?
Battle of Britain Operation Sea Lion Hitler’s Plan: Knock out British Royal Air Force Land 250K soldiers on shores of England Summer 1940 Luftwaffe bombs Great Britain’s factories and airfields RAF 2000 planes vs. Germans 4500 British 3 secret weapons: Radar Enigma – German secret code machine Blackout
The Blitz – Bombing of Civilians Sept 7 – Hitler begins bombing London and other cities Why? To break British Moral Germans lose 2300 planes vs. British 600 British citizens are bombed day and then night Hitler could not defeat the British
The Blitz Where did Londoner’s stay during the bombings? How many civilians lost their lives?
Winston Churchill “Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few.” Who is Churchill referring to?
Nazi Aggression ( ) Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria Joined the axis powers in Nov Economically dependent on Germany Provided troops for the invasion of Soviet Union Allowed Germany to attack Yugoslavia and Greece Yugoslavia and Greece Delays invasion of Soviet Union by 6 weeks April 1941 Yugoslavia and Greece defeated British divert troops from North Africa to help– 2 nd Dunkirk
What was the code name for the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union ? Operation Barbarossa Why? Living Space, Oil, Wheat When? June 22, 1941 Who? 3 Million German troops attack along an 1800 mile front What? 3 Pronged attack 1. Moscow 2. Kiev 3. Leningrad How? Blitzkrieg
Soviet Invasion Scorched earth policy - Stalin’s order to destroy anything of value (land, materials )that can be used by the Germans By November - Nazis control 40% of Soviet population and are near Moscow Hitler’s Big Mistake Generals say take Moscow Hitler spits his troops and sends some to Leningrad and Stalingrad
Soviet Invasion Stalin’s Plan : 3 Russian Generals - Time, Winter, Distance Nazi Problems: Thin Supply lines, Exhausted troops Lack of winter clothing By December Nazi’s are 20 miles from Moscow General Zhukov arrives with reserves (freed prisoners) from Siberia & winter sets in Nazis unable to take Moscow
Soviet Union Siege of Leningrad ( Nov Jan. 1944)Siege of Leningrad ( Nov Jan. 1944) 1 Million Russians trapped inside Leningrad die of starvation, cold, disease1 Million Russians trapped inside Leningrad die of starvation, cold, disease
Battle of Stalingrad Hitler Reasons - Destroy Russian Morale, Oil Stalin - Hold city at all costs Russians counterattack in Nov – Why? “General Winter” Russians encircle German army Hitler refuses to allow troops to retreat
Battle of Stalingrad Turning point 1 st major defeat for Hitler broke the German Military - lose 20 Generals, best soldiers and equip. Germany no longer on the offensive on Eastern Front
U.S. Involvement - Europe Neutrality Acts (1937) – prohibited sale of arms to warring nations Destroyers for Bases (1940) – gave England WWI destroyers in exchange for naval bases Cash-n-Carry (1940) – cash for supplies Lend Lease (1940) – lend war equipment to Britain Atlantic Charter (1941) – FDR & Churchill called for destruction of Nazi’s
Pacific Japanese Attack French (Indochina) and British (Singapore) Colonies in SE Asia. Why? French and British occupied with Hitler U.S. Retaliates Bans sale of scrap metal, oil, and freezes Japanese Assets in U.S.
Why did the Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor? To retaliate for cutting off oil supplies U.S. will try and prevent Japanese Expansion Destroy U.S. Pacific Fleet and avoid US naval interference in the Pacific Yamamoto - masterminded surprise attack
Pearl Harbor December 7, am on a Sunday Morning Surprise Attack 19 American ships destroyed 188 Airplanes destroyed 2400 people killed USS Arizona – 1100 die
North Africa Importance Control of Mediterranean Sea, Suez Canal, Straights of Gibraltar Access to oil fields in the Middle East Open a Second Front
North Africa Who: Vichy French controlled Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Italy controlled Libya British controlled Egypt German forces American forces What Italy attacked British in Egypt Hitler sent Erwin Rommel a.k.a “the Desert Fox” to help
Battle of El Alamein El Alamein – British (Montgomery) attack German’s (Rommel) German’s are pushed out of Egypt to Libya and defeated in Jan Turning Point – beginning of the end for Nazi in N. Africa
Operation Torch Allies “Pincer Strategy” – Advance from east and west to squeeze the Nazi’s out of North Africa US (Eisenhower) from the west; British (Montgomery) from the east May 1943 – Allies have all of N. Africa What does this set up? **Allied Control of Mediterranean Sea - Can launch attack on Southern Europe
Battle of North Africa
Invasion of Italy Allies attack Sicily King Victor Emmanuel III fires Mussolini and has him arrested New Italian government signs armistice Allies meet tough resistance from Germans on Italian Peninsula
End of Mussolini Mussolini tries to escape to Switzerland, but instead….
End of Mussolini
The Jewish Problem First Solution – Emigration 1933 Boycott of Jewish Business – purpose to isolate Jews socially and economically; 1933 Camps and Deportations of German Jews - forced emigration of Jews from Germany begins 1935 Nuremburg Laws – Deprived German Jews of Citizenship ; identification of Jews through yellow star of David 1938 Kristallnacht – campaign of terror against German Jews Second Solution - Isolation Ghetto’s – designated/isolated areas in towns and cities Deportations of Jews throughout Europe
Identifying the Jews Nuremburg Laws
The Final Solution Final Solution - code word for destruction of all European Jews Genocide – deliberate destruction of a race, religious, or ethnic group concentration camps Mass Shootings Starvation Poison gas
Images of Auschwitz Largest Concentration Camp 1 million die
6 Million Die – Only 4 Million Survive CountryKilledSurviveOriginal Poland3 M10%3.3M USSR1.3 M30%2.85M Germany & Austria 200K16%240K Netherlands104K25%140K Czech271K14%315K Which country lost the most Jews?
3 rd Reich Before the D-Day Invasion
Invasion of France Challenges Atlantic Wall – series of coastal fortifications along the Atlantic coast built by the 3 rd Reich to prevent invasion English Channel
Operation Overlord Operation Overlord - Code name for Invasion of France Purpose – open up the Western Front and drive the Nazi’s out of France Date – June 6, 1944
Deception at Calais Elaborate Plan by Allies to Deceive Hitler into thinking attack would be at Calais, France, NOT Normandy Discouraged Germans from reinforcing troops at Normandy Sherman Tank made of Inflated Rubber
D-Day Invasion Why? __________________________ June 6, 1944 D-Day Invasion on the Normandy coast of France. Allied paratroopers dropped in behind enemy lines to help secure the beaches. 176,000 allied troops landed on Omaha, Utah, Gold, Sword and Juno beaches marking the largest amphibious assault in history
Images from D-day
D-Day Results 3,000/150,000 Americans die on 1 st day. 1 Million additional soldiers arrive within 1 month September 1944, France is Liberated
Battle of the Bulge Significance - Last German Offensive Germany army tries to break through Allied forces which creates a “bulge” in the Allied defenses
Battle of the Bulge
V-E Day Victory Europe V-E Day – May 8, 1945 End of War in Europe Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide in his command bunker. April 12 Roosevelt died - Who was president?
Japanese Take the Pacific Why? Need supplies, raw materials and oil What? Dutch East Indies, Malaysia, Burma, Hong Kong, French Indochina and the Philippine Islands. U.S. chooses to make Hitler a Priority Strategy in Pacific – Defensive not Offensive
Battle of Midway U.S. Secret Weapon Broke Japanese Code U.S. Ambush Japanese lose aircraft carriers and planes Turning Point – 1. Japanese defeat 2. Ends Japanese Control of Pacific
What is Island Hopping Island Hopping - Attack only strategic locations to get closer to Japan By-passed Japanese islands would be cut-off from supply lines
Iwo Jima March, Miles from Tokyo Japanese start with 23,000 troops, end with 1,000 U.S. losses high Indicated - expected results of invasion on Japanese mainland
Okinawa June Miles from Tokyo Close enough to launch an invasion of Japan One of bloodiest battles in the Pacific U.S. losses – 12,000 Japanese losses – 110,000
What happened at the Yalta Conference? Who - Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill When - February, 1945 What - Discuss Post War World 1.Divide Germany and Berlin between Allies 2.Soviets agree to help defeat Japan in exchange for territory 3.Soviets agree to join UN
What happened at the Potsdam Conference? Who? Churchill, Truman Stalin When? August, 1945 What? Discuss post war world 1.Ultimatum to Japan - Unconditional surrender 2.Divide Germany and Berlin into 4 zones 3.Demilitarize Germany
Truman’s Choices Invasion of Japan Get Russia to attack Continue bombing Japan Change conditions of surrender Drop the Atomic Bomb
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Estimates of CasualtiesHiroshimaNagasaki Pre-raid population255,000195,000 Dead66,00039,000 Injured69,00025,000 Total Casualties135,00064,000
Images of Nagasaki and Hiroshima
V-J Day Victory Japan V-J day August 15, 1945 – End of fighting in Pacific Emperor Hirohito Quits - Symbolic to get military to stop fighting No longer need to fight to the death for him Japan Surrenders to MacArthur – September 2, 1945
Effects of WWII Largest Civilian and Military Casualties in History – 55Million, 22M Russians Most Costly War in History Map of Europe Re-drawn War Crimes Trials Nuremburg Japan 12 Million homeless More Destruction than any other war