Presentation on theme: "Write down at least 3 things you know about the Cold War?"— Presentation transcript:
Write down at least 3 things you know about the Cold War?
Warm up What was the Cold War? What were some of the things that had created tension between the US and the USSR? How did the defeat of the Nazis at the end of WWII create problems between the US and the USSR? What promises did the Russians make at Yalta?
Quiz 1. Which Eastern European country set-up a communist government independent of the U.S.S.R.? 2. What metaphor did Churchill use to describe post-war Soviet domination of Eastern Europe? 3. When the U.S. gave financial aid to non- communist forces in the Greek Civil War, it established a principle that the U.S. would give aide to any people’s trying to resist communism. What term is used to describe this doctrine in U.S. foreign policy?
Quiz 4/25 1. How did the Soviets view the Marshall Plan? 2. How did the U.S. respond when Stalin cut-off access to west Berlin? 3. What was the U.S. led anti-communist European alliance called?
Definition & Causes Cold War = undeclared hostilities between US and Soviet Union (Russia). Capitalism v. Communism Both sides thought the other side was trying to dominate the world.
History of Tension US had sent troops and supplies to help the “whites” in 1917. US and England had not opened a second front like Stalin wanted early in WWII. Communists want to overthrow capitalism.
How it Happened During WWII, the US & England began to disagree with Russia about things that should happen after the war was over. US wants self-determination—that is people voting on what kind of government they want. England wants to preserve its empire. USSR wants to control central and Eastern Europe.
The Yalta Conference 1945—City in Russia where Churchill, FDR, and Stalin met.
Stalin agreed to help US against Japan 2-3 months after Germany was defeated. Stalin wanted territory in China and Japan. All 3 leaders agreed on creating United Nations. US and Russia disagree on punishing Germany. Stalin vaguely agreed to elections in Eastern Europe (particularly Poland).
Problems with Eastern Europe Russia had liberated (freed) the countries of Eastern Europe from the Nazis during WWII. Russia wants these countries to be communist like they are. But if they allow elections, the people will probably not choose to be communist.
So Russians don’t allow free elections. Instead, start putting communist people in power in the countries they control in Eastern Europe. First is Poland—U.S. is mad. Truman, who is now President, scolds the Russians.
The Potsdam Conference July of 1945 in City in Germany. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin.
Things Decided Germany to be divided into 4 zones and people could get reparations from their zone. Demilitarize Germany Shift borders of Poland Resettle Germans Demand unconditional surrender of Japan or they would face “Prompt and utter Destruction.”
Policy of Containment Containment became foundation of US Cold War policy towards communism. Put forth by George Kennan. Called for preventing the spread of communism. Said that if not allowed to spread, that overtime, communism would collapse on its own.
The “Iron Curtain” Winston Churchill gave a speech at Westminster College in Missouri (1946). He used the metaphor of an “Iron Curtain” for describing the division of Europe caused by Soviet domination of Eastern Europe. He called for all of the English speaking people to join forces against the Communist threat.
Review Why did Stalin get mad at the US and England during WWII? What promise did Stalin make at the Yalta conference that he later broke? What section of Europe did Russia control after WWII? How come they controlled this area? Why did Truman decide that he did not want the Russians’ help defeating the Japanese after all?
What was alarming to people in the U.S. about Stalin’s speech in 1946? What is “containment”? Who came up with the idea? Who gave the “Iron Curtain” speech and what does it mean? Besides ending the war without having to invade Japan, what is another reason (involving Russia) that historians have argued motivated Truman to decide on using the atomic bomb?
What are the “means of production.” What is the difference--in terms of ownership of the means of production— between communism and capitalism? Why do many religious people not like communism?
More Problems in Europe British too weak (and broke) to help Turkey and Greece from threat of communism.
The First Test of Containment In 1947, there was trouble in Greece and Turkey. Both countries were just south of Communist controlled Eastern Europe. Greece was in turmoil and Greek Communists were fighting for control of the country. In Turkey, the Russians were trying to get access to the Mediterranean.
The Truman Doctrine President Truman wanted to ask Congress to give $ to help these countries fight off Communism. His advisers tell him that he must scare the American people to get the $.
Truman’s Speech “At the present moment, nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.
The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. Truman went on to say that the US must help all people who were trying to “resist attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.” The Truman Doctrine = US will help countries fight-off Communism.
The Marshall Plan Proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947. Trying to deal with the problems of Post-War reconstruction in Western Europe—Lots of rebuilding to do, lots of poverty, homelessness, and hunger. Many of these countries have Communist parties that are receiving lots of support. Marshall calls for massive U.S. aid to help rebuild Western Europe. This plan to give money to rebuild Western Europe is called the Marshall Plan.
Reasons for Marshall Plan 1. To keep Western Europe from going communist. 2. Need a healthy Western Europe to trade with (need the markets). Offered to Eastern Europe as well but rejected as a plan for the US to take over Europe. Gives 17-billion over 5-years and is very successful.
Warm-Up 1. What was the Cold War1. 2. How did Yalta lead to the outbreak of the Cold War? 2. What was the Truman Doctrine? 3. What was Marshall Plan? 4. What was “Containment” and who came up with the idea?
Berlin Crisis US wants a strong Germany to both help European economy and to help contain Communism. The Russians want a weak, Communist dominated Germany so they won’t be attacked again and to extend their influence. Unable to agree, the 2-sides begin organizing the sections of Germany that they control how they want.
A Divided Germany The US, French, and British controlled Western German Zones (and Western Berlin) start to use a common currency. This outrages the Russians because at Potsdam the Allies had agreed to treat Germany as one country. The Russians then begin a blockade to prevent the US, French, and Brits. From having access to their areas of Berlin. This leaves over 2-million west Berliners on their own.
The Berlin Airlift 1948 To avoid war with the Russians by sending troops to force their way into western Berlin, Truman decides to have planes deliver food and supplies. He does this for 11-months. At the peak of the Berlin Airlift, a plane was landing every 45-seconds.
In May of 1949, Stalin called of the blockade. By now, though, Germany was divided into 2 nations: Western Germany (Democratic and Capitalist) & Eastern Germany (Communist)
NATO Berlin crisis convinced the US that Western Europe needed military as well as financial support to hold of Communism. They formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) as a military alliance against Communism. US, Canada, and 10 European countries. An attack against one is considered an attack against all. The Russians responded in 1955 with the Warsaw Pact, a defense alliance of the Communist Eastern European countries.