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SONG FOR THE DAY: COLD AS ICE

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Presentation on theme: "SONG FOR THE DAY: COLD AS ICE"— Presentation transcript:

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2 SONG FOR THE DAY: COLD AS ICE
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” -Winston Churchill Daily Comment & Card 1947 TRUMAN DOCTRINE -Proposal that the U.S. must bolster the deeds of free people resisting Communism -$400 million appropriated for aid to Greece and Turkey to fight Communism’s spread -Supported “containment” as a response to the Cold War SONG FOR THE DAY: COLD AS ICE

3 SONG FOR THE DAY: ICE ICE BABY
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” -Winston Churchill Daily Comment & Card KOREAN WAR -Korean (taken from Japan at end of WWII) was divided at the 38th parallel between the Soviet Union and the U.S. -North Korea invaded South Korea and the UN sent in troops -General MacArthur led the forces and pushed the North Koreans back so far the Chinese began to send in troops. -Mac Arthur was removed from command -Cease-fire called in July 1952 SONG FOR THE DAY: ICE ICE BABY

4 SONG FOR THE DAY: COLD AS ICE
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” -Winston Churchill Daily Comment & Card 1947 TRUMAN DOCTRINE KOREAN WAR -Korea (taken from Japan at end of WWII) was divided at the 38th parallel between the Soviet Union and the U.S. -North Korea invaded South Korea and the UN sent in troops -General MacArthur led the forces and pushed the North Koreans back so far the Chinese began to send in troops. -Mac Arthur was removed from command -Cease-fire called in July 1952 -Proposal that the U.S. must bolster the deeds of free people resisting Communism -$400 million appropriated for aid to Greece and Turkey to fight Communism’s spread -Supported “containment” as a response to the Cold War SONG FOR THE DAY: COLD AS ICE

5 THE COLD WAR B. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP C. THE KOREAN WAR
A. ORIGINS OF THE KOREAN WAR B. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP C. THE KOREAN WAR D. PANIC AT HOME E. THE SYMBOL OF THE COLD WAR

6 IRON CURTAIN A. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR 1. EUROPE DIVIDED
TENSION AFTER WW2 BETWEEN U.S. AND SOVIET UNION BECAME KNOWN AS THE COLD WAR. WINSTON CHURCHILL FIRST USED THIS TERM IN 1946. IRON CURTAIN 2

7 SOVIETS-EASTERN EUROPE
WE BOTH SAW THE WORLD IN BLACK OR WHITE—NO GRAY. WE USED THE TWO CAMP THEORY. SOVIETS-EASTERN EUROPE U.S.-WESTERN EUROPE SOVIETS CONCERNED WITH SECURITY, WE SEE IT AS WORLD DOMINATION. 3

8 2. THE ATOMIC PROBLEM THIS WAS THE MOST CRUCIAL QUESTION AFTER THE WAR. THEN IN 1949 EVERYTHING CHANGED!! THE SOVIETS TESTED THEIR OWN ATOMIC BOMB. “joe one” WE BOTH HAD OUR OWN SELF INTEREST IN MIND. 4

9 3. CONTAINMENT -KEEP COMMUNISM FROM SPREADING. -WE USED IT FIRST WITH GREECE AND TURKEY. -TRUMAN & “SCARE HELL OUT OF AMERICAN PEOPLE” -OUR FIRST PRIORITY 5

10 NO COMMIES B. THE COLD WAR HEATS UP 1. THE MARSHALL PLAN
-NAMED AFTER SECRETARY OF STATE GEORGE MARSHALL, -OFFERED FINANCIAL AID TO EUROPE NO COMMIES COST= $13 BILLION TO REVITALIZE WESTERN EUROPE & STIMULATE OUR ECONOMY. 6

11 NATO 2. NATO (1949) NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION
*NATO WAS HOW WE GOT INVOLVED IN VIETNAM 3. THE FALL OF CHINA CHIANG KAI SHEK VS. MAO ZEDONG WE DID NOT RECONGNIZE THE NEW CHINESE GOVERNEMENT UNTIL NIXON WAS IN OFFICE IN 1971. chiang mao 7

12 4. BERLIN BLOCKADE & AIRLIFT
THE SOVIET RESPONSE TO NATO WAS TO CUT OFF ACCESS TO BERLIN FROM JUNE 1948 TO MAY 1949. THE U.S. RESPONDED TO THE BLOCKADE BY AIRLIFTING SUPPLIES TO BERLIN. FOR 321 DAYS WE FLEW ALL NEEDED SUPPLIES INTO BERLIN. 8

13 5. ON THE HOMEFRONT CONGRESS ON COMMIE HUNT WITH HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE (HUAC) HOLLYWOOD STUDIOS BLACKLISTED THOSE WHO SPOKE OUT. 9

14 -ALGER HISS (STATE DEPT) -JULIUS & ETHEL ROSENBERG. SPIES?!
HISS WAS FOUND GUILTY OF PERJURY AND THE ROSENBERGS WERE EXECUTED. In 1997 The National Security Agency released the VENONA PAPERS—they showed decoded messages sent by the Soviet Intelligence in the 1940s and named Americans who had spied for the Soviet Union. Included in the list was Julius Rosenberg.

15 1949 SOVIET TEST ATOMIC BOMB FORMATION OF NATO FALL OF CHINA
BERLIN BLOCKADE 11

16 IN JUNE 1950, NORTH KOREA CROSSED THE LINE AND ENTERED SOUTH KOREA.
A. THE KOREAN WAR THE COLD WAR TURNED “HOT” HERE FROM , AFTER WORLD WAR II KOREA HAD BEEN DIVIDED AT THE 38TH Parallel. AMERICA OCCUPIED THE SOUTH WHILE THE SOVIET ARMY OCCUPIED THE NORTH. IN JUNE 1950, NORTH KOREA CROSSED THE LINE AND ENTERED SOUTH KOREA. 13

17 A U.N. FORCE HEADED BY GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR PUSHED THE NORTH KOREANS TOO CLOSE TO CHINA AND SOON CHINESE FORCES BECAME INVOLVED. OUR TROOPS WERE PUSHED BACK. TRUMAN ENDED UP FIRING MACARTHUR. STILL, THE COMMUNISTS WERE PUSHED BACK BEHIND THE 38TH PARALLEL; THEY WERE “CONTAINED.” 14

18 THE KOREAN WAR INCREASED DEFENSE SPENDING-- BY 1960 WE HAD A STRONG MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX EMPLOYING MILLIONS. THE FIGHTING RESULTED IN A RETURN TO PREWAR BORDERS. SOME PEOPLE SAW THIS AS A FAILURE. 15

19 IKE ENDS WAR… EISENHOWER WAS ELECTED IN 1952 WITH A PROMISE TO GO TO KOREA AND END THE WAR. -HERO OF WORLD WAR II/ SEEN AS CREDIBLE --HIS POLICY IS “MASSIVE RETALIATION” -THE THREAT OF THE BOMB IS THERE… -STALIN DIES… 16

20 KOREA 17 -FIRST LIMITED WAR OF NUCLEAR AGE
-FIRST ATTEMPT TO ENFORCE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT -TRUMAN INTEGRATES THE ARMED FORCES(exec order 9981) 17

21 M*A*S*H M*A*S*H WAS ABOUT KOREA (NOT VIETNAM)!!! 18

22 THE COLD WAR CONTINUES 1. MCCARTHYISM CONTINUED FEAR OF COMMUNIST EXPANSION LED MANY PEOPLE TO BELIEVE CLAIMS BY SENATOR JOSEPH MCCARTHY THAT COMMUNISTS HAD INFILTRATED THE GOVERNMENT. MCCARTHY MADE LOTS OF ACCUSATIONS, BUT NEVER ANY PROOF… 19

23 HE WENT TOO FAR WHEN HE ACCUSED THE ARMY AT HEARING THAT WERE TELEVISED AND WATCHED BY MILLIONS OF AMERICANS. 20

24 2. BRINKMANSHIP EISENHOWER CONTINUED TRUMAN’S POLICY OF CONTAINMENT AND LED THE U.S. IN AN ARMS RACE FOR SUPERIOR WEAPONRY. USING A POLICY KNOWN AS BRINKMANSHIP, HE WENT TO THE EDGE OF WAR TO PROTECT OUR INTERESTS. THE U.S. TESTED THE SOVIET UNION IN A STANDOFF TO SEE WHO WOULD “BLINK” FIRST. “MASSIVE RETALIATION” 21

25 WE BEGAN MASSIVE EDUCATIONAL PUSHES IN MATH AND SCIENCE.
3. SPUTNIK WHEN THE SOVIET UNION LAUNCHED SPUTNIK, THE FIRST ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE TO ORBIT THE EARTH, THE U.S. REALIZED THE EXTENT OF SOVIET TECHNOLOGY. ONCE AGAIN, AMERICANS FREAKED OUT… WE BEGAN MASSIVE EDUCATIONAL PUSHES IN MATH AND SCIENCE. 22

26 4. U-2 INCIDENT OUR ATTEMPTS TO SPY ON THE SOVIETS LED TO WHAT BECAME KNOWN AS THE U-2 INCIDENT. OUR SPY PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN OVER SOVIET TERRITORY. WE COULD NOT DENY IT—THEY HAD OUR PILOT (FRANCIS GARY POWERS) AS PRISONER. 23

27 BAY OF PIGS INVASION HAD BEEN IN 1961
SPONSORED BY CIA KENNEDY SENDS NO HELP 6-7

28 5. CUBAN MISSLE CRISIS IN 1959, A COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT WAS ESTABLISHED IN CUBA. WE FEARED COMMUNISM WOULD SPREAD THROUGHOUT LATIN AMERICA. WHEN WE DISCOVERED SOVIETS SECRETLY BUILDING BASES FOR NUCLEAR MISSILES IN CUBA (AIMED AT THE U.S.) WE FREAKED OUT. 24

29 PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY IMPOSED A NAVAL BLOCKADE AROUND CUBA
PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY IMPOSED A NAVAL BLOCKADE AROUND CUBA. AFTER SEVERAL TENSE DAYS AND WIDE-SPREAD PANIC OVER IMPENDING NUCLEAR WAR (OCT 1962), SOVIET LEADER NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV WITHDREW THE MISSLES (WE PROMISED NEVER TO INVADE CUBA & REMOVED SOME MISSILES FROM GREECE AND TURKEY). 25

30 C. THE SYMBOL OF THE COLD WAR
BY THE END OF THE FIFTIES, IT WAS CLEAR THAT THE PEACE WE WANTED AFTER WORLD WAR II WAS GONE. THE MOST VISIBLE SYMBOL OF THE DIVISION BETWEEN THE U.S. AND THE SOVIET UNION WOULD BE THE BERLIN WALL WHICH WENT UP DURING THE SIXTIES AND DID NOT COME DOWN UNTIL 1989. 26


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