2 World War II Vocabulary AppeasementHolocaustLend-Lease ActWomen’s Auxiliary Army CorpA. Philip RandolphManhattan ProjectWar Production BoardD-DayNuremberg trialsGI Bill of RightsInternment
3 Questions for Video:What was America’s position regarding WWII prior to the spring of ’40? What events changed that?What happened on Dec. 7, ’41?What was D-Day?When & where was the atomic bomb dropped?How did Americans help with the war effort?What happened to Japanese Americans in California after Pearl Harbor?Describe post-war America.Who was Jackie Robinson?Who were Mussolini, Hirohito, and Hitler?What kind of relationship did FDR & Churchill form?
4 1940-1949 Video Who was Dwight D. Eisenhower? Who was Douglas MacArthur?How did entertainers aid the war effort?Who was the most famous entertainer during the war?What was the most awesome technological achievement of the decade?What roles did women play during the war?Describe the fashions of the ’40s.Define “baby boom.”
5 Yalta Conference What did Stalin hope for Germany after the war? Divided into occupation zones; Germany to punished harshly!2. Why did Roosevelt act as a mediator between Stalin and Churchill? 1. help in fighting Japan 2. wanted Soviet Union to join the UN (peace keeping organization)List the compromises made at the Yalta Conference.*** Germany divided into 4 areas (US, SU, Britain, France)
6 Navajo Code TalkersRead “Historical Spotlight: Navajo Code Talkers” on page 785 (red Americans), and answer the questions below:What was the American code that baffled the Japanese?What was the job of the code talkers?Why do you think it took 27 years for the code talkers to be recognized for their service?
7 Causes of World War II The terms of the Treaty of Versailles fail Dictators take control of Europe and AsiaThe appeasement of Germany failsPearl Harbor attacked by Japan
8 Treaty of Versailles violated Germany was upset by the terms of the treaty (especially the “war guilt” clause), and it rearmed.Many of the war-torn nations in Europe looked to dictators to rule rather than starting democracies (totalitarian governments)
9 Dictators take control Joseph Stalin replaced Lenin as the leader of the Soviet Union (former Russia).He was a Communist dictator.
10 Benito Mussolini took control of Italy as a totalitarian ruler. He was Fascist (stressed nationalism; placed interests of the nation over individuals; one dictator).
11 Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935; Hitler offered to help him. The League of Nations condemned the invasion, but did not force Italy out of Ethiopia.
13 Adolf Hitler took control of Germany. He established the Nazi Party (extreme nationalism) with the hopes of creating a German empire through military expansion and racism.
14 Hitler took advantage of the German people’s resentment caused by WWI. He was known as the “Fuhrer” (leader, or guide).His new government was called the Third Reich.
15 Hideki Tojo was the military leader & prime minister of Japan. The Japanese military invaded Manchuria (part of China) to obtain more resources the nation needed.
16 Hitler preached that the Germans deserved additional Lebensraum, or living space. Hitler was an emotional speaker who had a mesmerizing effect on those who listened.By 1938, he had amassed the best-equipped, best-trained army in the world.
17 Other Key World Leaders Franklin Roosevelt: United StatesCharles DeGalle: FranceWinston Churchill: Great Britain
18 Italy (later in the War) ALLIESUnited StatesFranceBritainSoviet UnionItaly (later in the War)AXISGermanyJapanItaly (switched to theAllies)
19 American NeutralityAmerican chose to stay out of the European conflict for the following three reasons:The devastation of WWIIsolationismConcerns about the Great DepressionCongress passed the Neutrality Act of 1935 prohibiting the sell of weapons to warring nations.
20 German Aggression Hitler moved troops into the Rhineland in 1936. Fearing another war, Britain and France did nothing.Hitler then annexed Austria to Germany (healso wanted to annex the Sudetenland &Czechoslovakia).
21 Munich PactEven though Italy & Germany displayed aggression in Europe, France & Britain chose to follow a policy of appeasement.Appeasement is a policy that states by giving in to an aggressor’s demands, the aggressor will be satisfied and future conflicts can be avoided.They solidified this policy in the Munich Pact.This pact allowed Hitler to take of the Sudetenland, if he would claim no other land.
22 German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact Hitler set his sights on the Soviet Union, but signed a non-aggression pact with Stalin promising not to invade .Hitler wanted to invade France first so he wouldn’t have to fight on two fronts.Meanwhile, Stalin started getting prepared for war with Germany.
23 Jewish HolocaustHitler created the concept of a “Master Race” of pure Germans, which he called Aryans.Hitler wanted to eliminate the Jews; he accused them of causing the German economic depression.Hitler conducted a systematic genocide of the Jews in Germany & surrounding nations, known as the Holocaust.
24 Germany invades Poland Hitler invaded Poland and conducted a type of warfare called blitzkrieg, which means “lightning war.”Germany used air power and tanks to strike hard and fast, moving rapidly into PolandPoland fell within a month.Britain & France declared war on Germany.
26 Germany conquered Denmark, Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Germany took control of Paris, France.
27 The Battle of Britain The Battle of Britain Hitler didn’t include Britain in its plan to obtain more “living space”.Because Britain would not make peace with Germany, Germany began bombing British citiesThe Battle of Britainlasted three months &Hitler gave up hisplans of invadingGreat Britain by land.
28 The Lend Lease ActRoosevelt knew neutrality would not last and proclaimed “If Great Britain goes down, all of us in the Americas would be living at the point of a gun… We must be the great arsenal of democracy.”In 1941, Congress passed the Lend Lease Act, which sent aid (money, weapons & supplies) to any nation whose defense was considered vital to U. S. national security.
29 The Atlantic CharterRoosevelt met with Churchill in 1941 to create the Atlantic Charter...They agreed oncommon principlesaimed a guaranteeingthe freedom andwelfare of countriesafter the war.This documenteventually served asthe basis for thefounding the United Nations.
30 Japanese Aggression Japan decided to bomb After Japan invaded China, America placed an embargo (refusal to ship products to a nation) on oil & steel on Japan.In need of these resources, Japan decided it would take what it needed by force from other islands in the Pacific.Japan decided to bombthe U. S. military base atPearl Harbor so it couldtake control of the Pacific.
31 Bombing of Pearl Harbor On December 7, 1941, the Japanese bombed the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.12 ships & 200 warplanes were destroyed; 3000 people killed or wounded.The next day, Congress declared war against Japan, then Germany & Italy.The U. S. had entered World War II.
44 World War II European Battles DatesDescribeSignificance/OutcomeStalingradNorth AfricaItalyD-Day (Invasion of France)Battle of the Bulge
45 Invasion of the Soviet Union In June of 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union.The Germans were especially brutal to the Soviets, raping women, burning homes, & executing civilians.The Soviets held their position at Stalingrad.
46 The Battle of Stalingrad The city was in shambles, but the Soviets held off the German advance.As winter approached, the Russians regained strength as the Germans froze!The German troops surrendered.
47 War in North AfricaBy the time America had entered the war, Germany had invaded the Soviet Union.Stalin hoped America & Britain would go into France to relieve some of his troops.America & Britain, however, focused their attention in North Africa.Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower (commander of the American forces in Europe) successfully led the Allies against the Axis powers.This was the first major victory of the Allies & showed that the Allied victory of the war was possible.
49 Casablanca Conference During the fighting in North Africa, Churchill &Roosevelt met in Casablanca, Morocco .They agreed on the following:Italy should be invaded next;It was time to launch an offensive against Japan; andThey would only accept an unconditional surrender (the victors set all the conditions of surrender with the losers having no say) from the enemy.
50 Invasion of ItalyThe Allied invasion of Italy was led by Gen. George Patton.The fighting was fierce and lasted almost 2 years with 190,000 American casualties (September May 1945).
51 Tehran ConferenceRoosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in Tehran, Iran in December 1943.Stalin wanted the Allies to invade France to create a second front against Hitler.Gen. Dwight Eisenhower was named commander of Operation Overlord, the invasion of France.The Allies began by bombing French railroads to cut off German supply lines.
52 Dwight Eisenhower General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the supreme commander of Allied forces, meets with paratroopers at an airfield inEngland on June 5, 1944, the eve of the D-Day invasionof Normandy, France.
53 D-DayOn June 6, 1944, a force of about 120,000 Allied soldiers stormed the beaches of Normandy in northern France.D-Day, as it was called by the Allies, was the largest seaborne invasion in history.The invasion at Normandy took the Germans by surprise, but they fought the invasion fiercely.By August of 1944, the Allies had made it to Paris & liberated the city from four years of German occupation.
55 Battle of the BulgeOnce in France, the Allies were able to push toward Germany.The Battle of the Bulge was the last German offensive of World War II.It was launched at the end of 1944 in an attempt to divide the British and American forces and retake Belgium.The German attack failed… overall German defeat was expected.
56 Yalta ConferenceExpecting German defeat, the Big Three (Roosevelt, Stalin & Churchill) met in Feb in Yalta.They discussed military strategies and postwar policies.
57 V-E DayOn April 30, 1945 (two months after the Yalta Conference), Hitler committed suicide because he knew German defeat was certain.One week later, Germany surrendered unconditionally ending the war in Europe (V-E Day = Victory in Europe Day).
58 Japanese AdvancesJapan had taken over Hong Kong, French Indochina, Malaya, Burma, Thailand, Dutch East Indies, Guam, Wake Island, the Solomon Islands, islands in the Aleutian chain (Alaska) and much of China.
59 Gen. Douglas MacArthurGen. MacArthur was in charge of the American Pacific forces.When the Japanese invaded the Philippines, MacArthur was forced to leave but pledged to return.
60 Battle of MidwayThe Allies succeeded in stopping the Japanese at the Battle of Midway.This battle is considered the turning point of the Pacific War.After this, Allies began the strategy of “island hopping,” winning island by island until they won land from the Japanese and eventually reached Japan.
62 The Japanese used kamikazes (suicide planes) to attack Allied ships (sunk 16 ships and damaged 80).
63 Iwo JimaAfter retaking the Philippines, the Allies went to take over the island of Iwo Jima.This was the bloodiest battle of the Pacific to that point (6000 Marines died).It held an important strategic location for an Allied base.
64 Battle for OkinawaWhen the Allies invaded Okinawa, Japan, the kamikazes unleashed almost 2000 attacks.This was a VERY bloody battle, but it opened the way for an invasion of Japan.The Allies knew that many lives would be lost as the Japanese tried to defend their homeland.
65 Atomic Bomb Ends the War Rather than risking so many American lives, Pres. Harry S. Truman decided to use a new weapon to defeat Japan, the atomic bomb.The Manhattan Project (the name of the development of the atomic bomb) was led by J. Robert Oppenheimer.The Allies bombed Hiroshima, then Nagasaki.Emperor Hirohito surrendered on September 2, 1945 (V-J Day).World War II was over!
68 Japanese OccupationJapan was then occupied by U.S. forces under the command of Gen. MacArthur.Several government officials were tried and put to death.Japan’s economy & government were reshaped during the seven year occupation.
69 Nuremburg TrialsTwenty-four Nazi leaders were put on trial for the atrocities of the Holocaust (Nuremburg Trials).Twelve were sentenced to death, and many other were found guilty of war crimes and placed in jail.Significance: Individuals are responsible for their actions during war and cannot claim they were “following orders”.
70 African American Migration Another African American migration occurred betweenAfrican Americans moved to northern cities and to California in search of work.The rapid growth of war industries led the nation out of the Great Depression.
71 GI Bill of RightsAfter the war, Congress passed the GI Bill of Rights, providing education and training for veterans paid by the federal government.Approximately 7.8 million veterans attended college under the GI Bill.Veterans were also given loans to buy home and farm and start new businesses.
72 Japanese Internment Camps Fear and prejudice of Japan, led America to establish internment (confinement) camps for Japanese Americans (Nisei) during the war.Roosevelt approved this as a way to ensure national security.
74 WWII Study GuideCauses of the war in Europe & Pacific (dictators, terms of T of V, appeasement- Munich Pact- fails because Germany invades Poland)European battles/Pacific battles & significance of eachSoviet non-aggression pact; Yalta Conference; Nuremburg Trials, what happens to Germany & Japan?Eisenhower, MacArthur“living space,” blitzkrieg, kamikaze, island hoppingAmerican neutrality (Neutrality Act of 1935) is repealed in the Lend Lease ActPurpose 4 freedomsWar effort at home (women, African Americans, Navajo code talkers)