Mobile Technologies Mobile handheld devices are equipped with computer capabilities that often includes wireless connectivity, a mobile phone, a camera and a variety of add-on. These tool potentially creates a spectrum of educational opportunities and a new type of student-technology partnership in learning. Image Source: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/pda.htm
Other devices Tablet PC (e.g., NOVA 5000)NOVA 5000 Ultra-PC (e.g., FlipStartPC)FlipStartPC iPod iPod Gaming Devices (e.g., Sony PSP)Sony PSP E-book readers E-book readers Smart Watches Smart Watches
Mobile Technologies Ericsson and Nokia tell us that there are 1.500.000.000 mobile phones in the world today. The world’s population is 6-7 billion. The number of mobile subscribers in China alone is 200.000.000. This number is increasing at a rate of 2.000.000 per month. More that 525.000.000 web-enabled phones were shipped in 2003. More than 1.000.000.000 wireless internet subscribers. Source: Desmond Keegan, D. Mobile Learning-The Next Generation of Learning. Presentations at the 18th Annual Conference of the Asian Association of Open Universities, Shanghai, 28-30 November 2004
Previous Studies with Handhelds Handhelds for teachers and students to share files (Ray, 2002) Handhelds for students to ask questions, answer polls and give teachers feedback (Ratto, Shapiro, Truong & Griswold, 2003); Handhelds for delivery of courseware and quizzes and as an intelligent tutoring system (Kazi, 2005); Handhelds for dissemination of information and collection of data during field trips (So, 2004); Handhelds as a tool that supports students’ inquiries (Sharples, Corlett & Westmancott, 2002; Clyde, 2004); …Continues on Next Page
Previous Studies with PDA …Continues from Previous Page Handhelds in computer-supported collaborative learning (Roschelle & Pea, 2002; Zurita & Nussbaum, 2004); Handhelds as personal tool for lifelong learning (Sharples, 2000); Handhelds for disadvantaged young adults to improve literacy and numeracy skills (Attewell, 2005); Handhelds for access to resources, as connectivity tool, as capture tool, as representational tool and as special calculator (Churchill & Churchill, 2005).
Limitations The key limitation of handheld technology for is the small display The small screen is a factor that affects the effectiveness of presentations It might negatively impact acceptance of this type of technology in education communities. The small display area is, in fact, a reality of this type of technology, and handheld are going to change further in the future as consumer demands for less bulky devices increases
Literature Recommendations Text needs to be kept short and formatted in a way that provides meta-knowledge about information, images should be reduced in size but not beyond the point of becoming meaningless Minimize or avoid use of graphics and images for decorative purposes as they might unnecessary occupy already limited screen space, Scrolling should be avoided, Greater use of other modalities (in particular visuals) and interactivity over text