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World War Two. Who’s Who in WWII? Grand Alliance Leaders United States – Franklin D. Roosevelt (Truman - end) Great Britain – Neville Chamberlain, Winston.

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Presentation on theme: "World War Two. Who’s Who in WWII? Grand Alliance Leaders United States – Franklin D. Roosevelt (Truman - end) Great Britain – Neville Chamberlain, Winston."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War Two

2 Who’s Who in WWII? Grand Alliance Leaders United States – Franklin D. Roosevelt (Truman - end) Great Britain – Neville Chamberlain, Winston Churchill France – Eduard Daldier (PM); Marshal Pétain and Pierre Laval in Vichy France; Charles de Gaulle in GB Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin Axis Leaders Italy – Benito Mussolini Germany – Adolf Hitler Japan – Emperor Hirohito & Prime Minister Tojo

3 War in Europe - Alliances 1939: Non-aggression pact b/w Soviet Union and Germany 1939: Non-aggression pact b/w Soviet Union and Japan 1939: Great Britain & Poland w/France 1940: Italy joins Germany vs. France 1941: U.S., France, Great Britain, Soviet Union (Grand Alliance) vs. Axis Powers (Ger, It, Jap) The Soviet Union is invaded, June 1941, changing sides

4 Technology of Warfare Maginot Line – Underground fortress Tanks Particularly German Panzer and Tiger versions Blitzkrieg (Tanks + Air Support) Types of Naval Equipment: Submarines – continuing to advance Battleships – increasingly less useful Destroyers – submarine hunters (Sonar developed) Aircraft Carriers – essential in the Pacific

5 Technology of Warfare Light machine guns Designed for use by one or two people at most New styles of aircraft & techniques of attack German Luftwaffe (air force) Royal Air Force deals with “the Blitz” in the Battle of Britain (Radar developed) Mass bombings of military & civilian sites Atomic bombs U.S. invented & owned = Nagasaki & Hiroshima

6 War in Europe Sept. 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland Sept. 3 – France & GB declare war Sept. 28 – Germany and SU divide Poland Blitzkrieg and Panzer Divisions April 9, 1940 – Germany attacks Denmark & Norway End of the “phony war” May 10 - Germany attacks France, Belgium, & Netherlands – Maginot doesn’t hold up

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8 War in Europe Trapped at Dunkirk Nazis move through Ardennes forest, split Allied troops June 5 Germany attacks Southern France June 10 Italy declares war on France June 22 France surrenders 3/5 go to Germany- Nazi-occupied France 2/5 go to Marshal Henri Petain = Vichy France = authoritarian regime (Nazi puppet government) Charles de Gaulle in GB

9 War in Europe May 10, 1940 Winston Churchill elected PM Aug Luftwaffe invades GB Radar system Ultra intelligence operation End of Sept. = Germany lost Battle of BritainBattle of Britain Hitler focuses in Egypt & Suez Canal (think Napoleon) but Italy inept End of July, 1940 – prepare to invade SU Hungary, Bulgaria & Romania on board Yugoslavia & Greece taken in April 1940

10 War in Europe March 1941 – U.S. Lend-Lease Act June 22, Operation Barbarossa Launch attack along 1,800 mile front against SU Took Ukraine, Leningrad w/in 25 miles of Moscow, early winter, SU resistance = German army halted (1 st time in WWII) Aug – Atlantic Charter U.S. and GB meet to discuss goals for war – Wilson’s 14 Points upheld Dec. 11 Germany declares war on US after US declares war on Japan Grand Alliance = unconditional surrender

11 War in Europe Spring 1942 – Germans capture Crimea Fall 1942, Afrika Korps under Rommel break British defenses, but by May 1943 Germans and Italians surrender Nov., 42 – Feb., 43 Battle of Stalingrad German Sixth Army destroyed SU can’t be beat – How do they do it? (pg. 793) July 5-12, 1943 Battle of Kursk : beginning of end of Eastern Front

12 Battle of Stalingrad

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14 Conference in Tehran Nov. 1943, Tehran, IRAN Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt – what will final phase of WWII look like? Churchill – move from Africa and Italy to indirectly attack Germany through Balkans Stalin & Roosevelt – open a second front in France in spring 1944 North-South divide line through Germany Eastern Europe to be liberated by SU

15 War in Europe – June 6, 1944 Operation Overlord Battle of Normandy amphibious assault lead by Dwight D. Eisenhower the deception of Calais end Aug. 1944, Liberation of Paris Dec. 16, Battle of the Bulge (German counteroffensive = Allied victory) March 1945 – Allied forces cross the Rhine end of April meet Russians at the Elbe

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17 Yalta Conference, Feb Western powers meet in Ukraine Discuss future of Germany Stalin unsure of West’s intentions – wants buffer zone btw. SU and West Roosevelt wants “self-determination” and free elections; asks SU to aid USA against Japan Stalin agrees – receives warm-water ports, Sakhalin & Kurile Islands; railroad rights in Manchuria United Nations - meet in San Francisco, April ‘45

18 The End of WWII in Europe April 28 Mussolini executed April 30 Hitler commits suicide in Berlin May 7 German commanders surrender

19 Potsdam Conference: July, 1945 yFDR dead, Churchill out of office as Prime Minister during conference. Stalin only original. yThe United States has the A-bomb. yAllies agree Germany is to be divided into occupation zones yTruman demands free elections in the East yStalin = free elections would be “anti-Soviet, and that [he] could not allow.” P.M. Clement President Joseph Atlee Truman Stalin

20 The Manhattan Project: Los Alamos, NM Dr. Robert Oppenheimer I am become death, the shatterer of worlds! Major General Lesley R. Groves

21 Tinian Island, 1945 Little Boy Fat Man Enola Gay Crew

22 Hiroshima – August 6, 1945 ©70,000 killed immediately. ©48,000 buildings. destroyed. ©100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.

23 Bombing Hiroshima

24 Nagasaki – August 9, 1945 ©40,000 killed immediately. ©60,000 injured. ©100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.

25 Bombing of Nagasaki

26 The Cold War begins…

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28 Concentration Camps Different types existed Political Camps Labor Camps Death Camps Different Victims Dec. 7, 1941 Night and Fog decree

29 Night and Fog SS Reichsführer Himmler issued the following instructions to the Gestapo. "After lengthy consideration, it is the will of the Führer that the measures taken against those who are guilty of offenses against the Reich or against the occupation forces in occupied areas should be altered. The Führer is of the opinion that in such cases penal servitude or even a hard labor sentence for life will be regarded as a sign of weakness. An effective and lasting deterrent can be achieved only by the death penalty or by taking measures which will leave the family and the population uncertain as to the fate of the offender. Deportation to Germany serves this purpose."

30 “The Final Solution” – Jan 20, 1942 – Wannsee Conference (pg. 330, End of European Era)Wannsee Conference

31 Warsaw Ghetto

32 Auschwitz

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34 Anne Frank: 12 March 1945 at Bergen-Belsen

35 Mass Grave at Bergen-Belsen


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