Teaching Objectives Practice reading, writing, listening and talking, and translating about WWII; Learn information about Winston Churchill.
Pre-reading Questions What do you know of Winston Churchill? What do you know of WWII?
Pre-reading Questions From what sources (e.g. books, movies, documentaries etc.) do you know of WWII? Give one example.
Global Reading Winston Churchill is a world-renowned orator as well as a successful statesman and a writer. What devices did he apply in this speech to achieve his goal to encourage his people to fight?
What kind of person do you think Winston Churchill is? Try to describe him with a list of adjectives.
Paragraph 1 Questions: How did Churchill compare the present-day situation with that ten months ago when he paid the first visit to the school as Prime Minister? What was the purpose of this comparison?
Language work: catastrophic adj. 1. Of, relating to, or involving a catastrophe. a catastrophic illness derived words: catastrophe n. 1. A great, often sudden calamity 2. A complete failure The food was cold, the guests quarreled — the whole dinner was a catastrophe.
Ups and downs: fluctuations Sino-US relations have experienced many ups and downs since 1979 when China and the US established formal diplomatic relations. misfortune: n. 1. Bad fortune or ill luck 2. The condition resulting from bad fortune or ill luck wanted to help those in misfortune
Position: In the position of : from the perspective of, on the part of You ought to think more ~ others/ in others ’ position, which would help solve the problem. Put oneself in sb ’ s position: think in others ’ position In a/no position to do sth: be (not) able to do sth, can (not) possibly do sth. He is in no position to support himself as he ’ s still a child. In position: in place The athletes are all in position for the race.
lull: n. 1. A relatively calm interval, as in a storm 2. An interval of lessened activity a lull in sales also as vt. 1. To cause to sleep or rest; soothe or calm The monotonous voice of the movement of the train lulled me to sleep. 2. To deceive into trustfulness that honeyed charm that he used so effectively to lull his victims. (S.J. Perelman)
Turn up: To make an appearance; arrive Several old friends turned up at the reunion. Other meanings: to be completed by yourself
Paragraph 2-5 Comprehension Questions: What lesson had the British learnt from the experience of the past ten months, as Churchill put it? In Churchill ’ s perceptions, what does it take to win the war?
Language work Bring up: To introduce into discussion; mention Noble: 1.Having or showing qualities of high moral character, such as courage, generosity, or honor 2. Proceeding from or indicative of such a character; showing magnanimity What poor an instrument/May do a noble deed! (Shakespeare)
Put through: To bring to a successful end put the project through on time throw one ’ s mind back to: bring the memory to
deceptive: tending to mislead derived words: deception; deceive; deceit triumph: A noteworthy or spectacular success impostor: n. One who engages in deception under an assumed name or identity
Just the same: exactly the same About the same: almost the same The two brothers have about the same educational background, though, they have chosen totally different way of life.
Far-reaching: widely applicable, having much impact put forward ~ proposals for the blueprint of the city construction The proposals are of ~ significance.
Address oneself to sb: direct the speech to sb. Address oneself to sth.: be busy with sth. It ’ s time we addressed ourselves to the business in hand. Address sth: make a speech to; deal with ~ the meeting ~ the poverty problem, ~ the public concern of health care
petty: adj. Of small importance; trivial a petty grievance conviction: firm belief; assurance I speak in my full conviction that the cause we are pursuing is just. When he summoned up his courage to propose to her, he had done it without any ~.
Also: The judgment of a jury or judge that a person is guilty of a crime as charged. In this sense, its verb is “ convict ” e.g. The jury convicted the defendant of manslaughter.
overwhelming (adj.) having such a great effect on you that you feel confused and do not know how to react. overwhelming numbers/majority/odds :very large numbers etc. an overwhelming force an overwhelming majority of votes The temptation was overwhelming.
overwhelm v. 1)if sb is overwhelmed by an emotion, they feel it so strongly that they cannot think clearly. be overwhelmed with excitement 2)surprise sb; defeat He took 45%of the ballots and overwhelmed his two main rivals. 3) if a problem overwhelms sb or sth, it has such a great effect that nothing can be done to deal with it. Decades of war and natural catastrophes had overwhelmed the city ’ s finances.
Might: n. power, force, strength, influence Derived words: Mighty adj. Open / close an account in / with a bank 开立 / 结清账户
Make out: to see or understand Liquidate: v. (corresponding to “ account was closed ” ) 1) To pay off (a debt, a claim, or an obligation); settle. 2) To put an end to; abolish. 3) To put to death; kill.
Slate: n. 1. A fine-grained rock that splits into thin, smooth-surfaced layers 2. A piece of this rock cut for use as roofing or surfacing material or as a writing surface. 3. A record of past performance or activity starting with a clean slate to wipe the slate clean of past mistakes
stand in the gap: to expose one's self for the protection of something; to make defense against any assailing danger; to take the place of a fallen defender or supporter. flinch: avoid doing or becoming involved in something unpleasant or difficult through fear or anxiety
Have only to: have no choice but to Faced with violent oppositions from all sectors of society, the policymakers had only to review the policy.
Persevere: vi. (~ at / in) To persist in or remain constant to a purpose, an idea, or a task in the face of obstacles or discouragement. Derived words: Perseverance: to display / show ~
Para 6-8 Question: Why did Churchill alter the word “ darker ” in the verse to “ sterner ” ?
In one ’ s honor: in honor of sb., in memory of sb. Washington Memorial was built ~ George Washington. On one ’ s honor: on one ’ s reputation for telling the truth
Venture to: go so far as to, dare to May I ~ ask about your age? I ~ suggest that we recruit some part- time staffs to assist our work.
Stern adj. 1) Hard, harsh, or severe in manner or character a stern disciplinarian 2) Grim, gloomy, or forbidding in appearance or outlook. 3) Firm or unyielding; uncompromising Station: n. Social position; rank
Extended knowledge More phrases with “ stand in ” : stand in one ’ s way (= stand in the way of) 妨碍, 阻住... 的路 stand in sb. ’ s light 挡住他人光线 stand in the background 处于隐蔽地位 不出面 stand in the breach 首当其冲 stand in the gap 挺身阻挡 stand in the shoes of sb. 处于某人的境地
Post-reading practice I. Word derivation 1.Peace talks were held between the two parties to bring out the ceasefire and avoid the _________(catastrophic) of war. 2.There was a trace of ________ (triumph) look in his eyes when he finished his words. 3.The US president has certain judicial powers to pardon ________ (convictions) in federal criminal cases.
4.The uncle seized the throne by lying and__________. (impostor/imposter) 5.Great works are performed not by strength but by ____________. (persevere)
IIPhrasal verbs 1.His appeal for aid met ______ a firm refusal. 2.At the meeting, they brought _______ (bring) many problems and discussed them one by one.
3.He is to have a concert __________ the invitation of the British Council. 4.They have finally managed to put the project __________ on time. 5.A banquet was held __________honour of the visiting president.
IIIGrammar exercises Put the verbs in brackets into the –ing participle or the infinitive: 1.Don’t omit ______________ (do) this week’s homework. 2.This problem demands _________________ (look into). 3.He can’t endure _____________ (watch) all the violence they show on television. 4.The manager intends ____________ (double) the advertising budget.
5.I must remember to _________ (remind) him that the garden needs _________ (water). 6.I regret ________ (tell) you that the entry for the exam is closed. 7.It ’ s silly ________ (risk) _________ (get) your feet wet.
8.I remember ____________ (allow) them __________ (play) in my garden without fist __________ (ask) for permission.