2 The Origins of Communism Versus Capitalism Learning Objectives:To gather an understanding of differences in the political ideologies ofCommunism and Capitalism.To understand why Capitalism and Communism feared each other so muchand how this was portrayed in political actions
3 A Clash of Ideologies- Before 1945 The Cold War is often dated from 1945 and the end of World War II. However, its origins go much further back. It started with the success of the Bolshevicks, led by Lenin, when they seized power in Russia in October This revolution greatly worried most Western countries, which were capitalist democracies. This was because the Bolshevicks believed in Communism and wanted to destroy the capitalist system. Check out the following hyperlinks to find out information on the Russian Revolution.Russian Revolution (1917)Russian Revolutionaries:
4 Years of SuspicionSuspicion deepened throughout the 1920s and the 1930s. Distrust was made clear in a number of ways.The leaders of Russia were not invited to the 1919 Paris Peace Settlement. In addition they were not allowed to join the League of Nations.It was not until 1924 that the British government officially recognised the Soviet regime as Russia’s government. The US did not until 1933.During the 1930s Britain and France were still so suspicious of Russia that they failed to form an alliance with Russia against Nazi Germany.
5 What are the main differences between Communism and Capitalism?
6 Russia under StalinJoseph Stalin, who succeeded Lenin as leader of Russia, was well aware of the West’s desire to destroy communism. The policies that followed aimed to ensure that the USSR would be able to protect itself if the capitalist countries attacked.
7 Stalin began a series of Five Year Plans to ensure that the Russian economy would be ready to fight a war against the West.When Britain and France failed to agree an alliance with Russia against Hitler, Hitler signed a Non-Aggression Pact with the Nazis in August Stalin knew that Hitler wanted to destroy communism, but it suited Stalin to delay the war for a while until the USSR were ready to fightWhat do the following two sources tell us about the agreement?
8 Fighting a Common Enemy When Hitler finally invaded Russia in June 1941 Stalin joined forces with the Allies. This was not because they now agreed with each other, but because they had a common enemy in Nazism. However, Stalin remained suspicious of the West and claimed that the fact D-Day did not happen until June 1944 proved the Allies had wanted to see Russia destroyed by Germany. Stalin was determined, therefore, that once the war was over he would make sure his country could never be invaded again.
9 TasksRefer back to our learning objectives. Answer the two learning objectives in two short paragraphs.Answer questions 1 & 2 on page 159 of your CCEA text book.Read pages 9-12 of Super power rivalry and answer questions 1-4 of page 12.Finish all work for homework.
10 Yalta ConferenceLearning Objectives: To gain an understanding of the aims of the ‘Big Three’ in the Yalta Conference.To learn the outcomes of the Yalta Conference.Yalta- In February 1945 the leaders of Britain (Winston Churchill), the United States (Franklin D Roosevelt) and the USSR (Stalin)- known as the ‘Big Three’- met at Yalta in Russia. Although war was not yet over, it was clear that the Allies were gong to win, and so the aim of the meeting was to reach agreement on what would happen in Europe when the conflict was over. Each leader was hoping to achieve something different from the meeting:
11 YALTA (in the USSR)Date: Feb 1945Present: Churchill,Roosevelt and Stalin
14 Improve your knowledge Yalta was the the penultimate of the wartime allied conferences. It dealt mainly with the settlement of post-war Europe. Allegedly FD Roosevelt was too ill to withstand Stalin’s demands, and his successor, Harry S Truman, took a tougher line. By by the time of the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, the West had the bomb and were anxious to restrict Russia.
15 ChurchillChurchill wanted to ensure the survival of the British Empire; however, he also saw the USSR as a danger to the West that had to be stopped. This was because the Red Army was pushing the Germans back into Western Europe, it was gaining control of countries such as Poland and Hungary.
16 RooseveltRoosevelt was not so keen on a revival of the British Empire. He sought the creation of a free world that would be protected by the United Nations, a new peace-keeping body. He wanted Russia to join the UN and was prepared to work with Stain to ensure that this happened.
17 Hyperlink: Yalta Conference StalinStalin sought the creation of a ‘buffer zone’ between Western Europe and Russia as a way of protecting Russia from attack. To ensure that the countries making up this zone would be friendly towards the USSR, Stalin wanted them to be controlled by communist governments.Hyperlink: Yalta Conference
18 TasksRead sources three and four from the Spartacus website and answer the following questions.Read source three. What does this tell us about Stalin’s character and negotiation skills?Read source four. How did the Soviets profit from Roosevelt’s outlook, according to Anthony Eden?
19 Agreements Made at Yalta Germany would be divided into four zones to be occupied by the armies of Britain, France, Russia and AmericaBerlin would be divided in a similar fashion.Germany would be forced to pay reparations.The USSR would declare war on Japan.The United Nations Organisation was to be established.Agreement over new borders for post-war Poland (Although no agreement was made on the type of government that would be put into place.)An agreement that Eastern Europe would come under Soviet influence. However, it was also agreed that there would be democratic elections in these countries to allow the people of Eastern Europe to choose their own governments.LEARN THE AGREEMENTS MADE AT YALTA. YOU WILL BE TESTED ON THEM IN THE NEXT HISTORY LESSON
20 Learning IntentionsTo gather an understanding of why Potsdam was known as the first ‘drop in temperature’ of the cold war.To know the agreements made during the Potsdam conference and why the changes of 1945 played a significant role.
21 POTSDAM CONFERENCEBy the time the big three met again in Potsdam in Germany in July 1945, several important changes took place.Roosevelt had died in April 1945 and was replaced by Truman.The war in Europe had ended and Hitler was deadLabour’s Clement Atlee was soon to replace Churchill. Although he was still Prime minister for the discussions.American and US attitudes towards the USSR were hardening as they saw Germany being stripped of resources and saw ‘puppet governments’ being set up in several Eastern European countries.
22 POTSDAM (Germany)Date: July 1945Present: Churchill,Truman and Stalin
24 Study the following source. What is the source trying to convey?
25 PotsdamThe meeting was, therefore, much less friendly. In addition, Stalin had a fear of the West. This was due to America’s development of the Atomic Bomb and their refusal to share the technology with the USSR.Check out the following website. There are some brilliant sources.Potsdam Conference
26 Potsdam- The Decisions Made How Germany was to be divided and occupiedHow Austria was to be divided and occupied in the same wayThat each power could take reparations from its own zone, although not so much as to endanger the lives of ordinary Germans. Russia could also take some reparations from the British and US zones in return for supplies of food, fuel and raw materials.Learn these decisions off for the next lesson. You will be given a short test at the beginning of the next lesson.
29 The Significance of Potsdam Potsdam has been identified as the first ‘drop in temperature’ of the Cold War. The common enemy of Nazism had been defeated and the war time alliance was breaking up. The suspicion of the Soviet Union’s intentions was growing amongst those in the West.
30 Tasks Answer questions 4 and 5 of page 161 of the CCEA textbook. Refer back to your learning intentions- Have we met our targets? Please write a short answer for each of them.Research task-I want you to write a short profile on Harry Truman.Pay particular attention to his beliefs and his view on the USSR.Why was his outlook significant, on the Cold War?Find out any interesting information and do up a short profile that will be presented to the class in the next lesson.The following websites are useful