Presentation on theme: "GESTAPO: the Secret State Police GESTAPO: the Secret State Police SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of."— Presentation transcript:
GESTAPO: the Secret State Police GESTAPO: the Secret State Police SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east Wehrmacht : German army Wehrmacht : German army HJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth HJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth Einstazgruppen : Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing units Einstazgruppen : Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing units Volk: all inclusive concept of nation, people and race, implying the superiority of German culture and race; led to policy of Volksgemeinschaft (idea of a harmonized racial Nazi community in government policies and programs) Volk: all inclusive concept of nation, people and race, implying the superiority of German culture and race; led to policy of Volksgemeinschaft (idea of a harmonized racial Nazi community in government policies and programs)
Enemies of the State Communists Social Democrats Jews Trade Unionists Homosexuals Gypsies Germans who bought from Jews Radical Christian Organisation Anyone who criticised Hitler or the Nazi Party
What led to the beginning of World War 2???
Lebensraum “Living Space”: Appeasement:Munich Pact: Who What Where When Why How
Lebensraum: Means “Living Space” Who: Adolf Hitler What: The desire for the Nazis to expand into other countries to provide living space for the growing German race. Hitler tried to expand as far west in Europe as he could, without anyone stopping him. When: Began early regained Saar Valley (the region between French and German border) took over Austria. Where: Germany (Rhineland), Austria Why: To make up for the disgrace of the Treaty of Versailles and land lost. How: Germany rearmed without anyone stopping them and moved their troops into the Rhine.
Hitler’s Ambitions Hitler defied the terms of the Treaty of Versailles by stopping reparation payments and re-manning and re-arming the military forces. In March, 1936, Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland (ending French occupation).
The Rhineland was never to be occupied by German troops again for fear of France being attacked. He told his Generals to retreat if the larger French army attacked but they did nothing!
1938 – Hitler breaks his promise to respect the rights of Austrian independence. German troops marched into Austria in a forced take over called the Anschluss. This was the union of the two countries. Austria ceased to exist and the German population grew by 6 million.
Cheering crowds welcome the Nazis in Vienna, Austria
Appeasement: Who: Neville Chamberlain (PM of Great Britain), Hitler, Mackenzie King (PM of Canada) What: Appeasement means giving in to someone provided their demands are seen as reasonable. A policy of giving into Hitler’s demands of wanting more territory When: 1930s Where: Europe Why: Everyone was afraid a new war would begin if they didn’t give in. How: During meetings, leaders would give into Hitler’s wants. They did this because they thought Hitler would stop after he got what he wanted.
British P.M. Chamberlain
Who did not support Appeasement? British politician Winston Churchill (future British P.M.) was not fooled by Hitler. He believed that Hitler would continue to increase his demands. Churchill warned leaders that Hitler’s plans were a program of aggression being unfolded stage by stage…..
Hitler then turned to Czechoslovakia, a neighbouring country to Germany. 3 million German-speaking people lived in a part of Czechoslovakia called the Sudetenland.
Hitler demanded that this become part of Germany. The Munich Agreement – France and Britain agreed to give this land to Germany if Hitler promised not to invade the whole country. Under pressure the Czech. gov’t agreed to these terms.
(L-R) at the Munich Agreement: Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini
Munich Pact: Who: Neville Chamberlain (PM Great Britain), Hitler What: A meeting When: 1938 Where: Munich, Germany Why: Chamberlain thought that by agreeing to this, he would bring “peace in our time” How: Chamberlain agreed to give Hitler the Sudetenland (German-speaking part of Czechoslovakia)
Neville Chamberlain returned home with a signed agreement declaring, “I believe it is peace for our time”
Czechoslovakia was left defenseless and under siege. March 1939 – Hitler marched the Nazi troops into the rest of Czechoslovakia and it ceased to exist as an independent country
German invasion of Czechoslovakia in March 1939
All of these policies did not work and on September 1, Hitler sent troops into Poland, for his Blitzkrieg attack (speedy, “lightening” attack).
AXIS Powers Germany – Adolf Hitler - Nazi dictator of Germany ( ), planned and started World War 2 Italy – Benito Mussolini, was the prime minister and facist dictator of Italy ( ). Japan – General Hideki Tojo - Prime minister of Japan (October July 1944). formed the Fascist party, whose ideology, Fascism, called for a one-party state, total obedience, patriotic nationalism, and aggressive militarism. The ideology and its implementation in Mussolini's Italy influenced Adolf Hitler's own ideology
Allied Powers Britain – Winston Churchill kept warning of the Nazi danger in pre-war years. He was elected prime minister of Great Britain after the total collapse of the appeasement policy of his predecessor Neville Chamberlain. France – Edouard Daladier, Paul Reynaud, Charles De Gaulle USSR – Joseph Stalin was the very brutal Communist dictator of Russia ( ). The Soviet Union was initially part of the Axis Powers but switched sides By 1945, almost the whole world were at war with the Axis.
USA - Franklin Delano Roosevelt, president of the United States of America ( ) Canada - prime minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, joined World War 2 beside Great Britain when the war started.