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The Gathering Storm Section 12.2 London being bombed and damaged in 1940.

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Presentation on theme: "The Gathering Storm Section 12.2 London being bombed and damaged in 1940."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Gathering Storm Section 12.2 London being bombed and damaged in 1940

2 Agenda for Today 12.2 Slide Show Homework Read 12.2

3 Objectives At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: Describe the invasion of Poland and use of Blitzkrieg Describe the Maginot Line and its effectiveness Explain the importance of Dunkirk Define the Blitz and list ways in which the RAF were able to overcome it (Blitz) Define and describe the platforms of the isolationists and the interventionists Describe the Lend-Lease program and how it drew the US closer to war List America’s responses to Japan’s aggression

4 Hitler Attacks Capture from clip on the invasion of Poland

5 Describe the Invasion of Poland. German forces = over 1 million Blitzkrieg (lightning war) –Combined armored divisions, supported by Luftwaffe (air force) USSR invades from East (9/17) –Took Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Finland, Eastern Poland Poland fell within 1 month Then all was quiet “Phony War” –Where were the English and the French? Background: German soldier throws a grenade

6 What was the Maginot Line? Did it work? Called the French Wall of China System of heavily armed steel/concrete bunkers Believed to be impenetrable Flanked in north by Ardennes –Thick forest believed to be impenetrable to tanks Hitler bypassed Maginot Line and marched through Ardennes Germany invaded Low Countries (Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium) on May 10, 1940 Hitler crossed Ardennes through Lux and cut off Allied force in Belgium France is at Hitler’s mercy Above: Map of the Maginot Line; Below: a bunker (part of Maginot Line)

7 What happened at Dunkirk? British and French forces (330 thousand) were trapped by German forces Hitler had a chance to win the war Operation Dynamo –Motley collection of civilian and military vessels evacuated whole army back to British Isle (6/4/1940) This saved the Allies and Great Britain (and possibly the US) Above: Soldiers await rescue; Below: Allies must abandon all vehicles and artillery

8 Why did Roger Langeron, chief of the Paris police write in his diary (on Friday, June 14, 1940) that a “terrible thing” had befallen France? German soldiers entered Paris French generals had agreed night before to surrender Paris without a fight –Did not want to see “City of Lights” destroyed France surrendered 6/14/1940 Above: French man cries over surrender to Hitler; Below: Hitler and top Nazis pose with Eiffel Tower in background

9 Describe the Battle of Britain and the Blitz. Hitler planned to invade Great Britain in summer of 1940 British Advantages –RAF (Royal Air Force) had better planes – pilots more skilled than Luftwaffe –Radar and the Code Breaking (Enigma) also helped Churchill: “never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” –Referring to RAF saving England Blitz –nighttime raids by German bombers over GB From Sept. 1940-May 1941 Leveled entire cities (Coventry) and killed thousands (20 thousand in London alone) Above: Poster honoring RAF with Churchill’s words; Below: Enigma code breaker

10 Hitler’s Road to War 19181921192319281931 1933193819391941 Hitler leads unsucessful Coup -NAZI party gains seats in Reichstag -Wall Street Crashes (1929) Hitler appointed Chancellor -Becomes Fuehrer when Hindenburg dies -Germany signs Non Aggression Pact with USSR -Hitler invades Poland -WW I Ends -Treaty of Versailles German economy in hyperinflation -Mein Kamf General Franco seizes power from Socialists in Spain -Hitler later sends military aid Hitler takes Austria and Sudentenland Munich Pact brings “Peace for our time.” NOT Hitler invades Russia

11 Clip on London Blitz: capture shows double- decker bus and traffic in London

12 Describe the Interventionist and Isolationist programs. Interventionists Wanted to give support to GB but not declare war of Germany William Allen White formed Committee to Defend America Promoted US support of GB Isolationists Wanted to stay out of Europe’s business Committee to Defend America First Supported by pacifist, socialists, Democrats, and Republicans Members included Hoover, Frank Lloyd Wright, Charles Lindbergh Top: Lindbergh addresses America First Committee; Below: AFC emblem

13 In the 1940 election FDR said, “Your president says this country is not going to war!” What actions had FDR taken during that same year that contradict this quote? Sept. 1940 FDR transferred 50 old destroyers to GB (in return for naval bases) Sept. 1940- FDR signed Selective Training and Service Act Fist peacetime draft in US history FDR claimed that through strength he would keep us out of war Row upon row of destroyers bound for England

14 Capture from clip on invasion of France

15 What was Operation Barbarossa (June 22, 1941)? Hitler invaded Russia Sought –Oil of Caucasus region –Wheat of Ukraine –Lebensraum for Germans 3 million Germans forces fought Within 25 miles of Moscow Laid siege to Leningrad Top: Map showing Hitler’s spread-out objectives in Russia; Below: Hitler and Stalin prance arm in arm, each with a pistol behind their back

16 Capture from clip on invasion of Russia, June 1941

17 Describe the Lend-Lease Act and how it drew the US closer to war. Gave president right to sell, lend, lease weapons –‘If a neighbor’s house were on fire, you would loan that person your garden hose without worrying about the price.’ $50 billion to Allies Controversial when applied to USSR –Lindberg- preferred alliance with Nazi Germany Called USSR “the godlessness and barbaric” –Churchill- “If Hitler invaded Hell, I would at least make a favorable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons” Top and bottom: American weapons being readied for shipment to England

18 Describe the Atlantic Charter and its goals. Agreement between FDR and Churchill plan for the post war world Influenced by Wilson’s Fourteen Points Supported national sovereignty, right to be free from fear and aggression Planned to form international organization to protect security of others (UN) FDR and Churchill aboard ship in the North Atlantic, working out the Atlantic Charter

19 How did FDR respond to Japan’s aggressiveness in Asia? Japan formed alliance with Italy and Germany in Sept. 1940 (Axis Powers) FDR applied economic pressure –Placed an embargo on scrap metal, aviation fuel, chemicals, machine parts (for their military machine) –Froze Japanese assets in US and ended all trade (July of 1941) FDR headshot

20 The late Peter Jennings introduces clip on our troubles with Japan

21 What did Japan hope to gain by attacking Pearl Harbor? Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto Developed plan to deliver sudden knockout punch to America’s fleet Would force America to resume trade Free up Japan’s rear for further expansion into Asia Above: Yamamoto in admiral’s uniform

22 Quaint December scene from a small U.S. town, the morning the Pearl Harbor attack destroyed our tranquility and broke our isolation

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