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The Good War Western Civilization in the Balance 1939-1945.

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Presentation on theme: "The Good War Western Civilization in the Balance 1939-1945."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Good War Western Civilization in the Balance

2 The Atlantic Charter August Defense of Liberal Internationalism No territorial gains National self-determination Global economic / social welfare “Freedom from want and fear” Postwar disarmament Ideological Conflict

3 A. Paralyzed democracy Depression Division Isolation Salvador Dali

4 1. Polarization in France - Depression cancels out reform - anti-Semitism, fascism Lèon Blum

5 2. British drift - Maintaining Empire - British Union of Fascists Edward VIII

6 3. U.S. & the New Deal : New Deal Coalition - Leftward expansion - Groundwork for prosperity FDR

7 4. Totalitarian Europe

8 B. Appeasement 1. Rhineland ’36 - Hitler’s gamble Heinz Guderian 2. Anschluss ’38 - Greater Germany

9 3. Munich Agreement ’38 - Sudetenland - “Peace in our time” Neville Chamberlain

10 II. War for the Enlightenment If we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. - Winston Churchill

11 A. Early struggles 1. Fall of France Summer Vichy Regime Marshall Pétain Collaborationists

12 2. Battle of Britain - Churchill May the “Blitz” Fall 1940

13 Nazi-Occupied Europe

14 B. U.S. as global power 1. Lend-lease March Atlantic War

15 2. Revolution in American Civil Society - War for Idealism - global commitment - FDR’s 4 Freedoms - Liberal Internationalism/ mulit-lateralism 3. United Nations Charter - June

16 C. Domestic liberalism - civil rights - women’s rights - social welfare - Anti-imperialism

17 III. The New Crusade World War II and the Foundations of the Cold War

18 “Crusade” against Totalitarian ideologies, not states

19 A. Stalinization 1. Totalitarianism - mind and body - v. Trotsky

20 2. Forced industrialization - 5-Year Plans - Collectivization Liquidation of the kulaks

21 3. Comintern 4. Great Purges, “Gulag Archipelago” Solzhenitsyn

22 5. Stalin’s foreign policy - Treaty of Rapallo, Mutual Non-Aggression Pact, 1939

23 1. Stalin’s “Animal Farm” - ideology v. humanity - NKVD “Black Ravens” - Socialist dictatorship 2. Left in crisis George Orwell

24 B. The Devil You Know 1. War in Russia Battle of Stalingrad, 1942 Battle of Kursk, 1943

25 2. Second Front - D-Day

26 3. Yalta Conference January 1945

27 C. The Iron Curtain 1. Winston Churchill 1946

28 D. Indirect opposition – Truman Doctrine 2. Marshall Plan

29 3. “Atomic Diplomacy”

30 IV. Life in the Atomic Age

31 A Turning point a – Berlin Airlift b – China “lost” c – Russian bomb d – Korean War

32 B. Idealism to paranoia 1. McCarthyism - HUAC 2. Containment - George F. Kennan - NATO Joseph McCarthy

33

34 C. War by Proxy 1. Deterrence / “MAD” Berlin Wall 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis

35 2. Vietnam - Dien Bien Phu flexible response JFK

36 3. “Our Son-of-a-Bitch” - Cordell Hull Augusto Pinchet Shah of Iran Fulgencio Batista Chiang Kai-shek

37 D. Détente and divisions 1. “Monolithic” Communism - Mao Zedong 2. Suez Crisis 1956

38 3. Test Ban / Proliferation Treaties 4. Nixon in Moscow / China 1972 Cold War as permanent condition

39 V. End of the Cold War

40 A. Unrest 1. Unruly East - Hungary “Prague Spring” Poland & Solidarity 1980s - Afghanistan 2. Economic woes - stagnation, not starvation

41 B. Neo-Conservatism Reagan / Thatcher military strength hostility to “socialist” domestic policies unabashed patriotism

42 The end of the Cold War is “the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.” The End of History and the Last Man - Francis Fukuyama 1992

43 C. Fall of the Soviet “Empire” 1. Mikhail Gorbachev Glasnost = openness Perestroika = economic / administrative reform – Lifting the Iron Curtain - Hungary elections - “Velvet” Revolution in Czechoslovakia - Fall of the Berlin Wall

44 4. Power and principle - revolution sacrificed for party discipline - standard of living sacrificed for military preparedness Marxian Revolution never pans out - pragmatism - capitalism

45 North-South Divide 1. Population / resources

46 New ideological conflict? - Islamic Nationalism neo-colonialism / Israeli-Palestinian conflict - “Islamists” rejection of “secular” values Gulf (Iraq) Wars


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