22 types of questions (skills) Idea Relationships (writing patterns)Sequence PatternList patternCompare-Contrast PatternCause – Effect PatternDefinition / example patternDrawing Conclusions/Making Inferences
3Definition- the way the author organizes his or her information. Writing patternsDefinition- the way the author organizes his or her information.
4Sequence (time) Pattern- The ideas presented by the author must be in order. List (addition) Pattern -In this pattern, the author organizes his/her information by making a list.This list need not be in any order.Definition/Example (illustration ) Pattern -In this pattern, the author defines a particular term, idea, or concept then follows it with examples.Cause – Effect Pattern -The author explains the reason why something happened or the results of something. (the cause happens first!)Compare-Contrast Pattern -This pattern shows how two things are alike (compare) and how they are different (contrast), or both.
5Transitional words help you identify the author’s pattern Transitions are words or phrases (like another) that show relationships between ideas. They are “bridge” words, carrying the reader across from one idea to the next:See pages 181 and 182 in textbook.
9Compare-Contrast Pattern Comparison: how 2 things are alikeContrast: how they are different
101Psychologists use several theories to explain different sides of human behavior. 2Best-known is the psychoanalytic theory, which holds that people are driven largely by needs and desires that they are not aware of—the so-called “subconscious” mind. 3Another theory, behaviorism, suggests that people’s actions are based largely on past experiences of reward and punishment. 4We do things that brought us pleasant results in the past and avoid things that brought unpleasant results. 5Yet another theory, “gestalt” psychology, emphasizes the role of overall patterns in our thinking. 6For example, we find it much easier to remember a tune than a series of unconnected musical notes.
111Insomniacs may envy those who have no problem sleeping 1Insomniacs may envy those who have no problem sleeping. 2However, too much sleep is also a sleep disorder. 3There are a couple of major causes of sleeping too much. 4One major cause of this problem is apnea, a condition associated with breathing difficulties during the night. 5In severe cases, the victim actually stops breathing after falling asleep. 6When the level of carbon dioxide in the blood rises to a certain point, apnea sufferers are spurred to a state of arousal just short of waking consciousness. 7Because this can happen hundreds of times in a night, apnea patients typically feel exhausted and fall asleep repeatedly the next day. 8Another cause of too much sleep is narcolepsy, a hereditary condition that causes victims to nod off without warning in the middle of a conversation or other alert activity. 9Narcoleptics will often experience a sudden loss of muscle tone upon expression of any sort of emotion. 10A joke, anger, sexual stimulation—all bring on a feeling of weakness
121One reason tabloids publish untrue stories about celebrities, even though they know the celebrities might sue, is free advertising. 2If there is a lawsuit, it will make the news, and the tabloid gains the publicity. 3Furthermore, in a lawsuit the burden of proof is on the celebrity, not the paper. 4Also, such lawsuits are both expensive and time-consuming. 5A court delay, for example, can prevent a movie star from beginning work on a new project. 6And the chances of collecting a significant amount of damages are slim. 7Finally, tabloids publish untrue stories for the obvious reason: whether it is true or not, people love celebrity gossip—and it sells papers.
131Identical twins such as Jack Yufe and Oskar Stohr share the same genes. 2They were separated at six months of age, when their parents divorced. 3Yufe was raised as a Jew, joined an Israeli kibbutz in his youth, and served in the Israeli navy. 4Stohr was brought up as a Catholic and later became involved in the Hitler youth movement. 5Despite the differences in their backgrounds, when they first met at the airport, both sported mustaches and two-pocket shirts, and each carried a pair of wire-rimmed glasses with him. 6Both read magazines from back to front. 7Both excel at sports and have difficulty with math. 8And both have similar personality profiles as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
14Many students find it difficult to make the transition from high school to college. In high school, teachers often treat students like children. For instance, teachers may require homework to be done in a certain color ink, or they may call parents when children misbehave. On the other hand, college teachers treat students as adults. No one other than the students themselves is expected to take responsibility for learning. Also, adjusting to greater independence can be a challenge for many college freshmen. Students in high school usually live at home. In college, however, many students live on their own and have no one to answer to or depend on but themselves.
15Events leading to alcohol abuse in the United States took place in the 18th century. At that time, developments in agriculture had caused a surplus of grain. Farmers in the Midwest wanted to sell their surplus grain on the East Coast, which was more heavily populated. The cheapest way to do this was to transport the grain in the form of whiskey. As a result, whiskey production rose. And the increase in whiskey led to an increase in its use. Before long, alcohol consumption in the country rose to alarming proportions.
16About 5% of all babies born alive, or 175,000 babies per year, have a significant defect. Such birth defects account for about 15% of deaths among newborns. Recall from the genetics chapters that birth defects may be caused by genetic as well a environmental factors, or by a combination of the two.According to the selection, which of the following is a result of birth defects?Fifteen percent of newborns dieFive percent of babies born alive have significant birth defectsPoor social development results.
17Drawing Conclusions Making Inferences Skill #4, continuedDrawing ConclusionsMaking Inferences
18Making inferences or Drawing Conclusions discovering ideas in writing that are not stated directly.Use hints and clues from the passage to “read between the lines”
19If you have nothing to underline, your answer is wrong! Always make sure to underline the hint or clue that gave you your answer.If you have nothing to underline, your answer is wrong!All answers must be based on what was in the passage!!
21Based on what you read, what do you know is true?
22We can conclude that Churchill….. The British prime minister Winston Churchill was a master of the elegant putdown. At one fancy dinner party, he was seated next to a favorite target- a woman whose political views were opposed to his own. The two argued more or less continually throughout the meal. Totally annoyed, the lady said, “Sir Winston, if you were my husband, I’d put poison in your coffee!”. “Madam,” replied Churchill, “if you were my wife, I’d drink it.”We can conclude that Churchill…..A. Constantly put people downB. Liked to put down his political opponentsC. Was rarely invited to fancy dinner parties
23We can conclude that the author of the passage admires The British prime minister Winston Churchill was a master of the elegant putdown. At one fancy dinner party, he was seated next to a favorite target- a woman whose political views were opposed to his own. The two argued more or less continually throughout the meal. Totally annoyed, the lady said, “Sir Winston, if you were my husband, I’d put poison in your coffee!”. “Madam,” replied Churchill, “if you were my wife, I’d drink it.”We can conclude that the author of the passage admiresA. Churchill’s politicsB. The woman’s politicsC. Churchill’s wit
24Reading a Graph See page 291 in textbook. Can you find the three inferences that are most logically based on the graph to the left?1. The work force of 1900 was very different from the work force of today.2. Before 1900, farmers made up the smallest percentage of workers.3. In 1940, the percentages of farm workers and white-collar workers were about equal.4. In general, as the number of farming and blue-collar workers has decreased, the number of white-collar workers has increased.5. In 1940, blue-collar workers made up about 25 percent of the U.S. work force.6. In the future, most U.S. workers are likely to be white-collar workers.Reading a GraphChanges in U.S. Work Force, 1900–2010See page 291 in textbook.ANSWER: 1, 4, and 6. (The notes for the next slide explain the choices.)Graph copyright Statistical Abstract 2005; James M. Henslin, 2007