2 The most commonly reported nail conditions, seen by podiatrists, are: Onychocryptosis, 26%Onychauxis & onychogryphosis 22.8%Onychophosis 18.8%Onychomycosis 8.3%Nail Matrix DisordersNail Fold DisordersNail Bed DisordersNail Plate Disorders
3 ONYCHIAan inflammation of the matrix (surrounding tissue) of the nail with formation of pus and shedding of the nail. Onychia results from the introduction of microscopic pathogens through small wounds.
4 Onychocryptosiscommonly known as "ingrown nails" (unguis incarnatus), can affect either the fingers or the toes.
5 Onychogryposisalso called "ram's-horn nail", is a thickening and increase in curvature of the nail. It is usually the result of injury to the matrix.
6 OnychorrhexisSpontaneous longitudinal splitting or breaking of the nails.
7 PsoriasisNail plate appears course, ridged surface with pitting.
8 Demotophyte infection Yellowish brown discolouration and crumbling of the nail plate which starts at the free edge and spreads proximally.
9 Onycholysisa loosening of the exposed portion of the nail from the nail bed, usually beginning at the free edge and continuing to the lunula.
10 Onychomadesisseparation and falling off of a nail from the nail bed.
11 Plicatured NailA transverse curvature of the nail plate, which may appear natural but can become acutely, curved into the sulci. Comes in three types: tile shaped describes an oblong nail flanged with symmetrical curvature into the sulci. Plicatured nails remain flat in the central part with either one side (uni) or bilateral (both sides) curvature to the sulci. Omega nails present extreme curvature of the nail plate.
12 Leukonychia StriataLeukonychia describes localised hyperkeratosis, which causes the middle nail plate to separate from the ventral nail plate or the nail plates complete from the nail bed. This gives the appearance of white spots within the nail plate.
13 OnychauxisNail plate hypertrophy usually as a result of traumatic damage to the nail matrix.
14 Onychomycosisalso known as tinea unguium, is a contagious infection of the nail caused by the same fungal organisms which cause ringworm of the skin.
15 Onychoschizialayering of the free edge of the nail e.g. brittle nails. Often associated with repeated episodes of wetting and drying and hence affects the fingernails more than toe nails.
16 OnychitisOnychitis is shedding of the nail plate.
23 Onychophosisgrowth of horny epithelium in the nail.Can be the result of overzealous pedicure persistent micro trauma from tight shoes or presence of overlying nail.
24 Pyogenic granulomatumours often caused by trauma to the nail
25 Onychoptosiswhich literally means "falling nail" in Greeksheddng of one or more nails, in whole or part.
26 Origin: onycho-+ G. Stroma, bedding Synonym: nail bed.Origin: onycho-+ G. Stroma, bedding
27 <psychology> Habitual nailbiting. Origin: onycho-+ G. Phago, to eat
28 Complete shedding of the nails, usually associated with systemic disease. Origin: onycho-+ G. Madesis, a growing bald, fr. Madao, to be moist, (of hair) fall off
29 Origin: onycho-+ G. Krypto, to conceal Synonym: ingrown nail.Origin: onycho-+ G. Krypto, to conceal
30 Synonym: gryposis unguium, onychogryphosis. Enlargement with increased thickening and curvature of the fingernails or toenails.Synonym: gryposis unguium, onychogryphosis.Origin: onycho-+ G. Gryposis, a curvature
31 Marked overgrowth of the fingernails or toenails. Origin: onycho-+ G. Auxe, increase
32 Abnormal brittleness of the nails with splitting of the free edge. Origin: onycho-+ G. Rhexis, a breaking
33 Swelling or hypertrophy of the nails. Origin: onycho-+ G. Phyma, growth
34 Any disease of the nails. Synonym: onychonosus, onychosis.Origin: onycho-+ G. Pathos, suffering
35 Paronychiabacterial or fungal infection where the nail and skin meet.
37 Subungual hematoma“Bruised Nails”trauma to the nail results in a collection of blood under the nail
38 ReferencesAlbert SF 1996 Disorders of the nail unit In Harkless LB Clinics in podiatric medicine and surgery 13: Baran R, de Berker D, & Dawber R 1997 Manual of nail disease and surgery Oxford Blackwell Science. Beaven D W, Brooks S E 1993 A Colour Atlas of The Nail in Clinical Diagnosis. London: Wolfe Medical Publications, Bodman MA 1994 Pedal nails and skin problems In Robbins JM Primary Podiatric Medicine Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co Hunter JAA 1995 Diseases of the skin In Edwards CRWW et al (eds) Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine (17th edition) Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Johnson M 2002 The human nail and its disorders In Lorimer D et al (eds) Neal’s disorders of the foot: Diagnosis and management Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Rayner VR 1973 An investigation into nail hypertrophy The Chiropodist 28: Sammon P D 1995 The nails in disease (5th ed.) London: Heinemann Medical. Butterworth-Heinemann. Springett K & Merriman L Assessment of the skin and its appendages In Merriman L & Tollafield DR (eds) Assessment of the lower limb. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Therapeutics Guidelines: Dermatology Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited Version