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AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Explain the U.S. – Soviet postwar split. Trace how the Soviets.

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Presentation on theme: "AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Explain the U.S. – Soviet postwar split. Trace how the Soviets."— Presentation transcript:

1 AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Explain the U.S. – Soviet postwar split. Trace how the Soviets came to dominate Eastern Europe. Describe U.S. containment of Communist expansion. Define the Cold War. AGENDA: Please begin Warm-up and get focused for class immediately. WARM-UP, Examine Textbook map and questions pp LECTURE / DISCUSSION of homework CH 33, Section 1 ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME: Read CH 33, Sections 3, Complete packet p. 5 REMEMBER your Chapter 32 Homework is DUE Tomorrow! CHAPTER 33, Section 1: The Cold War Two SuperPowers Face Off

2 CH 33: Section 1 – “Former Allies Diverge” Text p. 855; Packet p. 1 Read “Former Allies Diverge” on p. 855 Even before WWII ended, what tensions already existed between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union)? The U.S. was still upset and untrusting of Stalin who had earlier signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler. Stalin was angry at the Allies for delaying their D-Day invasion of western Europe while his Soviet army suffered greatly in the East. Read “A Joint Postwar Plan” on p. 855 Despite these tensions, at the Yalta Conference - Soviet leader Stalin, Britain’s Prime Minister Churchill, and U.S. President Roosevelt (“the Big Three” Allied leaders) came to certain agreements about their postwar plans. What were some of the agreements at the Yalta Conference? to divide Germany into zones of occupation controlled by four Allied nations. to make Germany pay war compensation to the badly damaged Soviet Union. Stalin agreed to join war against Japan after Germany’s defeat Stalin agreed to allow “free elections” in Eastern Europe after the war. T. Loessin / Akins High School

3 August 9, 1941: Roosevelt and Churchill meet secretly on a battleship off the coast of Newfoundland and sign a join declaration called the Atlantic Charter – outlining the basis of the Allied Peace Plan following the war, it upheld the right of free people to choose their own government. And their willingness to defend such people. In the agreement, Roosevelt used the term “United Nations” for the first time referring to the goals of Allied Nations. Prime Minister Winston Churchill and President Franklin Roosevelt aboard the U.S. S. Augusta, off the coast of Newfoundland, August U.S. and Britain become Allies; State their Goals CH 32: Section 1 – “ ” Text p. ; Packet p. T. Loessin / Akins High School

4 Left: The delegates of the Security Council of the new United Nations pose with the UN Charter in the foreground. At right is the United Nations building in New York today. CH 33: Section 1 – “Creation of the United Nations” Text p. 855; Packet p. 1 “In June, 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union put aside their differences. They joined 48 other countries in forming the United Nations – an international organization set up after WWII that intends to keep peace and provide collective security to all its members. The U.N. is led by a Security Council of 11 member nations, 5 of these permanent – they are: Britain, China, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union. T. Loessin / Akins High School

5 Losses in the Second World War T. Loessin / Akins High School

6 CH 33: Section 1 – “Differing U.S. and Soviet Goals” Text p. 856; Packet p. 1 Of the “Big Three” leaders who had met at theYalta Conference, only Stalin held power in his country seven months later; Roosevelt was dead, and Churchill had been voted out of office. Stalin would now have to deal with U.S. President Harry Truman – who would prove to be a much tougher adversary for Stalin. See the Chart in Textbook, p. 856 According to the chart, What U.S. and Soviet aims for Europe were clearly in conflict? Superpower Aims in Europe T. Loessin / Akins High School

7 Wall line between West- and East-Berlin Post – WWII A Germany divided. T. Loessin; Akins High School

8 IRONY: Hitler’s disastrous war helped to bring about the very thing he feared and his NAZI propaganda machine convinced others to fear – the spread of Communism into Eastern Europe by way of the now entrenched Soviet Union who had been forced to enter the war only to help end Hitler’s aggression. Ironic, “By the end of the war, Soviet troops occupied all countries along the Soviet Union’s western border. The Soviets regarded these countries as a necessary buffer and insisted on controlling them. Stalin ignored his agreement at Yalta to allow free elections in these countries, installing Communist governments instead.” - Textbook p. 856 CH 33: Section 1 – “Soviet Union Corrals Eastern Europe” Text p. 856; Packet p. 1 T. Loessin / Akins High School

9 Stalin, Truman, and Churchill meeting at Potsdam. In 1946, Stalin declared: “Communism and Capitalism can not exist in the same world.” Europe was now divided between East and West with Germany being split as the dividing line. Churchill described this division between democratic Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe as the “iron curtain”. Stalin called Churchill’s words a “call to war.” See Map in Textbook, p. 857 CH 33: Section 1 – “Soviet Union Build a Wall of Satellite Nations” Text p. 856; Packet p Meeting at Potsdam, Germany When Truman insisted on free elections in Eastern European nations, Stalin refused and later declared that war between the two new superpowers (U.S. & U.S.S.R.) was certain. T. Loessin / Akins High School

10 See Map in Textbook, p. 857 CH 33: Section 1 – “United States Counters Soviet Expansion” Text p. 857; Packet p Policy of containment Designed to stop the spread of Communism, this policy led the U.S. to begin assisting weak countries to resist Soviet advances. 3. Truman Doctrine U.S. financial support for those countries that rejected Communism only worsened the diplomatic hostility between the 2 superpowers (U.S. and U.S.S.R.) “Our way of life is based upon the will of the people…free elections…and freedom from oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the people. It relies upon terror and oppression…fixed elections, and suppression of personal freedoms. I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” ~ President Harry S. Truman, 1947 T. Loessin / Akins High School

11 CH 33: Section 1 – “The Marshall Plan” Text p. 858; Packet p. 1 U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall was the Army’s Chief of Staff during WWII and envisioned helping Western Europe with this 12.5 billion rebuilding program. “Who got U.S. Aid?” See Chart in Textbook, p Marshall Plan By helping Western European nations rebuild, the U.S. hoped to make possible future resistance to Communist expansion in Europe. T. Loessin / Akins High School

12 See Map in Textbook, p. 857 “When Britain, America, and France decided to leave Berlin and allow Germany to return to one newly governed nation, the Soviets decided to hold East Berlin hostage and cut off all supplies to Berlin’s western zones hoping to prevent reunifying Germany.” CH 33: Section 1 – “The Berlin Airlift” Text p. 858; Packet p Blockade of Berlin Led to the Berlin Airlift and Soviet admission of defeat. T. Loessin / Akins High School

13 “When Britain, America, and France decided to leave Berlin and allow Germany to return to one newly governed nation, the Soviets decided to hold East Berlin hostage and cut off all supplies to Berlin’s western zones hoping to prevent reunifying Germany.” CH 33: Section 1 – “The Berlin Airlift” Text p. 858; Packet p Blockade of Berlin Led to the Berlin Airlift and Soviet admission of defeat. See Map in Textbook, p. 857 In 277,000 flights, pilots brought in 2.3 tons of supplies to grateful Berliners until Stalin admitted defeat. T. Loessin / Akins High School

14 CH 33: Section 1 – “The Cold War and a Divided World” Text p. 859; Packet p. 1 All of these conflicts were the beginnings of the Cold War – a state of diplomatic hostility that existed (for about 45 years) between the world’s two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. T. Loessin / Akins High School

15 The Core Treaties of the Cold War 6. Formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): This defensive military alliance formed by Western democratic nations prompted Soviet and Eastern Communist leaders to form their own alliance called the Warsaw Pact. CH 33: Section 1 – “The Cold War and a Divided World” Text p. 859; Packet p. 1 See Textbook, p. 859 What countries joined NATO? Which Communist countries joined the Warsaw Pact? T. Loessin / Akins High School

16 CH 33: Section 1 – “Nuclear Threat” Text p. 859; Packet p. 1 “As the world divided into the two alliances – democratic or communist – the Cold War threatened to heat up enough to destroy the world. The United States already had atomic bombs and in 1945 showed it was willing to use them! By 1949, the Soviets had exploded its own atomic weapon. The two Superpowers were now both nuclear powers.” ~ read Nuclear Threat, textbook p. 859 US hydrogen bomb test, 11 megatons, 1954 Tsar Bomba was the biggest nuclear bomb ever built by anyone, and was a fusion bomb with a yield of 100 megatons. It was not a realistic weapon of war, but was part of sabre-rattling between the Soviet Union and United States during the Cold War. It was hot enough to induce third degree burns at 100 miles. T. Loessin / Akins High School

17 CH 33: Section 1 – “Nuclear Threat” Text p. 860; Packet p. 1 Dwight D. Eisenhower became the U.S. President in 1953 and appointed the staunchly anti-Communist John Foster Dulles as his Secretary of State. If the Soviet Union attacked U.S. interests anywhere in the world, Dulles threatened, he United States would retaliate instantly, by means and at places of our own choosing. This willingness to go to the brink, or edge, of war became known as the dangerous policy of brinkmanship in the Cold War. DullesEisenhower 7. Policy of Brinkmanship Brought the two superpowers closer to the edge of war. T. Loessin / Akins High School

18 CH 33: Section 1 – “Cold War in the Skies” Text p. 860; Packet p. 1 "Sputnik" was the first satellite in space. It was launched in 1957 by the USSR. The launch spurred a math and science revolution in the United States which lagged behind in the race now to reach space. See “The Space Race” in Textbook, p. 861 The United States government was not so much concerned that the Soviets had launched a satellite into space as they were concerned about the missile used to launch it – a missile that could shoot into space could also be used as an ICBM (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile) and could possibly have a nuclear warhead mounted to it. T. Loessin / Akins High School

19 CH 33: Section 1 – “Cold War in the Skies” Text p. 860; Packet p. 1 "Sputnik I" was the first satellite in space. It was launched in 1957 by the USSR. The launch spurred a math and science revolution in the United States which lagged behind in the race now to reach space. 8. Launching of Sputnik I Such missile capabilities frightened the United States and led to a rivalry between the two superpowers in science and education as well as the race to put man in space. The Soviet Union rejected a U.S. proposal for an “open skies” policy that would have allowed the U.S. and U.S.S.R. to fly freely over each other’s territories to guard against surprise nuclear attacks. In response, the U.S.’ C.I.A. Began to do so anyway using a highly secret high- altitude spy plane, the U-2. In 1960, the Soviets shot down U-2 pilot Gary Powers, put him on trial, and sentenced him to prison. He was released after 19 months but the incident only brought further mistrust between the two superpowers.

20 “While Soviet Communists were squaring off against the United States, Communists in China were fighting an internal battle for control of that country.” ~ textbook p. 859 T. Loessin / Akins High School

21 AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Analyze the Civil War between the Nationalists and the Communists in China. Explain how China split into two nations. Describe how Mao’s Marxist regime transformed China AGENDA: Please begin Warm-up and get focused for class immediately. WARM-UP, Read HistoryMakers, “Mao Zedong” p. 864 LECTURE / DISCUSSION of homework CH 33, Section 2 ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME: Read CH 33, Sections 3, Complete packet p. 5 CHAPTER 33, Section 2: Communists Triumph in China

22 CH 33: Section 2 – “Civil War in China” Text p. 862; Packet p Who? Who was Mao Zedong? Who was Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek)? Leader of the Communists. Leader of the Nationalists. Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi 2. When? When did the civil war in China resume? When would the civil war end? At end of World War II in When? What advantages did Nationalist forces have? What advantages did Communist forces have? A large national army that had U.S. aid. An army skilled in guerilla warfare that had the popular support. See Chart “Chinese Political Opponents” in Textbook, p. 863

23 “In 1949, Mao Zedong and his Communists had gained control of the country. He proclaimed it to be the new People’s Republic of China. Jiang and other Nationalist leaders retreated to the island of Taiwan and proclaimed themselves to be Nationalist China.” ~ textbook p. 863 CH 33: Section 2 – “Civil War in China” Text p. 862; Packet p Where? Where is Nationalist China located? Where is the People’s Republic of China located? On the island of Taiwan. On mainland China. 5. How? How did the superpowers react to the existence of two Chinas? The U.S. helped Nationalists set up a democratic government and enlarged America’s sphere of influence in Asia. The Soviets provided Communist China financial, military, and technical aid. T. Loessin / Akins High School

24 “Many in the United States viewed the Communist takeover of China as proof of a Communist campaign to conquer the world. Such Americans also believed this further justified the official U. S. policy of containment.” ~ textbook p. 863 CH 33: Section 2 – “Civil War in China” Text p. 862; Packet p How? How did the superpowers react to the existence of two Chinas? How did Mao transform the economy of China? - The U.S. helped Nationalists set up a democratic government and enlarged America’s sphere of influence in Asia. - The Soviets provided Communist China financial, military, and technical aid. Mao transformed China’s economy by giving land to peasants, and then copied Stalin’s policies in the USSR - forming collective farms and nationalizing all the industries. T. Loessin / Akins High School

25 “The Communists claimed to have a new ‘Mandate from Heaven’ and aimed to restore China to a powerful nation of 550 million people.” ~ textbook p. 864 CH 33: Section 2 – “Civil War in China” Text p. 862; Packet p Why? Why did Mao’s “Great Leap Forward” program fail? Why did Mao launch the Cultural Revolution? Poor planning, inefficient industries, lack of work incentive, crop failures and famine. Hoping to revive the Marxist revolution he had begun. T. Loessin / Akins High School B. To extend the economic success of the five-year plan to agriculture as well, Marx created large communes where the Chinese peasants lived in strictly controlled communities. In response to Mao’s call to revive the Marxist revolution (which dreamed of a society where peasants and workers were equal and intellectuals were considered dangerous) Chinese students formed militia units called Red Guards who targeted and reported on citizens they considered “dangerous” to the Communist ideology.

26 The Cold War Take a Quiz:

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28 AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Mr. Loessin; Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Analyze the Civil War between the Nationalists and the Communists in China. Explain how China split into two nations. Describe how Mao’s Marxist regime transformed China AGENDA: Please begin Warm-up and get focused for class immediately. WARM-UP, Read HistoryMakers, “Mao Zedong” p. 864 LECTURE / DISCUSSION of homework CH 33, Section 2 ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME: Read CH 33, Sections 3, Complete packet p. 5 CHAPTER 33, Section 2: Communists Triumph in China


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