Presentation on theme: "British Colonialism Origins of british Empire (1497-1583) “First british Empire” (1583-1783) Rise of the “Second British Empire” (1783- 1815) Britain’s."— Presentation transcript:
British Colonialism Origins of british Empire ( ) “First british Empire” ( ) Rise of the “Second British Empire” ( ) Britain’s imperial century ( ) World wars ( ) Decolonisation and decline ( )
In 1496 John Cabot made landfall on the coast of newfoundland(mistankely believing that he had reached Asia like Cristopher Columbus five years earlier did)
The period starts in The first british colonies were created in North America during the 17 th century by groups of colonists who settled there to escape from religious persecutions. In this period they also established the English East India Company.
In 1607 Captain John Smith founded the first permanent settlement in America, in Jamestown. Slavery was the basis of the British Empire in the West Indies. Until the abolition of the slave trade Britain was responsable for the transportation of 3.5 millions African slaves to Americas
In 1714 the British Empire was enlarged by gaining Minorca and Gilbratar. Gibraltar became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the Mediterranean. Minorca was returned to Spain in 1802 and Spain ceded the Asiento to Britain.
During the 1760s and 1770s, relations between the 13 colonies and Britain become more strained, because of the resentment of British Parliament’s attempts to govern and tax American colonists without their consent. The historians define this event as the tansactions between the “first” and the “second” Empires. Tensions between the two Nations escalated during the Napoleonic Wars, as Britain tried to cut off American trade with France.
Since 1718, transportation to American colonies has been a penalty for the Transport, so Britain decided to find alternative locations: Australia and New Zeeland.
The Napoleonic Wars were therefore ones in which Britain invested large amounts of capital and resources to win. Colonies were attacked and occupied and than in 1810 were annexed by Napoleon. Britain was again the beneficiary of peace treaties.
Britain in 1807 abolished slave trade in the Empire. The slavery abolition,passed in 1833, made not just the slave trade but slavery itself illegal.
Between 1815 and 1914 during the imperail century the british Empire expanded. Britain had a dominant position in world trade and controlled counties such as China, Argentina and Siam.
India was seen as Britain’s most important colony. India was also used for an opium export trade in China This trade helped the imbalances from the british imports of tea and the british export of silver to China The end of the company was due to the tensions caused by british attempts to westernise India and also to the India rebellion.
. Britain and Russia both wanted the control of the power left by Ottoman, Persian and Quing Chines empires. This period in known as “The Great Game”
The dutch east company has founded the Cape colony in Africa Is was a station for ships travelling to and from East Indies. Britain acquired the company so, british immigration began to rise. The suez canal was at first oppsed by the british but afert it was recognised. In 1904 the canal became neutral territory but control was exerced by britain whose forces occupied the area until 1954.
The path to indipendence for the white colonies of the British Empire began in 1839: This began with the creation of the province of Canada, Australia and New Zeland. Ireland was part of United Kingdom since Ireland never reach the same steps of Canada, even if Ireland try to be indipendent.
The important contributions of the Dominions in the war with Germany was recognised in 1917 by the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George when invited each of the Dominions Prime Ministers to join an Imperial War Cabinet to coordinate Imperial Policy
The Irish Republican Army began a guerrilla war against the British administration. The Anglo-Irish war ended in 1921 with the sign of the Anglo–Irish treaty.
In 1941 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill successfully lobbied president Franklin Roosevelt for military aid from United States. Churchill and Roosevelt signed the Atlantc Charter in In December 1941 Japan launched attacs on British Malaya, the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor and Hong Kong.
India’s two indipendence movements had been fighting for indipendence for years, but disagreed as to how it should be implemented. In 1946 Attlee promise indipendence no later than 1948 but when the urgency of the situation and risk of civil war became apparent to lord Mountbatten indipendence was brought in 1947.
In 1951 the Conservative party was returned to power in Britain, under Winston Churchill. He and the conservatives believed that Britain’s position has a world power relied on the continued existence of the Empire with the base at the suez canal.
The Age of the Empire gradually came to an end. Nowadays, British sovereignity of overseas territories is disputed by their geographical neighbours. The English language is the primary language of over 300millios of people. British colonial architecture continues to stand in many cities that were once part of the British Empire. Ball Games that were developed in Victorian Britain (Football, cricket rugby, tennis, golf) were exported as the convention of diriving on the left hand side of the road. British settlement of Ireland has left its mark in the form of divided Catholic and Protestant communities.
American neo-colonialism The Cold War and the "hemispheric defense" doctrine (1940–1960) The Cuban Revolution and the U.S. response (1960) Democratization and Washington consensus ( ) Democratic socialism (2000)
The '70s and '80s saw a shift of power towards corporations, and a polarization of the political election systems of many of the Latin American nations. Several left-wing parties have gained power through elections. Left-wing governments in nations such as Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay are more moderate. Governments in Peru and Colombia have closer relations with the U.S.
Officially started in 1947 with the Truman doctrine theorizing the "containment" policy, the Cold War had important consequences in Latin America, considered by the United States to be a full part of the Western Bloc, called "free world", in contrast with the Eastern Bloc, a division born with the end of World War II and the Yalta Conference
The cuban revolution lead by Fidel Castro in 1959 was one of the first defeats of the U.S in Latin America After several economic reforms us trade imposed to cuba restrictions: in fact the usa stopped buying Cuban sugar and this created devastanting effects on Cuba's economy. Fidel Castro accused United States because of same deathes in Cuba, the same month there was a guerrilla force over Castro. Cuba consolided trade relations with the Sovietic Union. Later the US began a new plas, known as "Cuban Project" that was a sabotage. In plus, there were lots of tentatives to killa Castro by US forces.
In 1981 Ronald Reagan was elected. The democratization of the South of America started. Washington starded to pursue the "war on drugs" wich included the invasation of Panama and than of Colombia. Falklands started a war against Argentina. This changed the relations between Washington and Buenos Aires which had been helping Reagan.
The political context evolved in 2000, with the elections in lots of South American countries. · One sign of the US setback has been the OEA 2005 Secretary General election.
In 2003 troops of Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua joined Spaniard forces to form The Plus Ultra Brigade in Iraq. These Brigades dissolved in 2004, when Spain retired his army from Iraq.