Presentation on theme: "Origins of the Cold War Lecture One"— Presentation transcript:
1Origins of the Cold War Lecture One Devastation of Second World WarOrigins of Cold War
2Simple introduction from Internet BBC BitesizeGoogle searchOrigins of Cold War
3How Cold War Began What is “Cold War” Cold War is state of affairs marked by mutual hostility and fears of each other, namely USA (and its Western Allies ) on one side and USSR and its satellite states on the other sideNo actual fightingHow did it start?Before end of Second World War
4Before the Cold WarDuring the Second World War, Russia, Britain and US were friendsCommon enemy: Nazi GermanyApril 1945: Germany was defeatedBritain and the US began to worry about motives of RussiaThe Red Army interested in territorial expansion into Eastern Europe?Cold War emerged during Yalta Conference in 1945
5How Cold War BeganSecond World war : horrible social and economic consequencesCivilian casualties (in millions)Germany: 2.35USSR: 6.7Decision: “No more world wars, definitely not a Third World War”Keeping peace most importantBegan before end of War – Yalta Conference
6Yalta Conference: February, 1945 Who were the ‘Big Three?Primary sources for CW: The Avalon ProjectYalta Conference:
7Young Stalin: A student’s essay Stalin was born on December 21, 1879, in the GeorgiaHis father was a very poor and very unsuccessful shoemakerHe was an alcoholic and constantly beat his son.Stalin's mother, was a washer womanAT 14, he earned a full scholarship to the Tbilisi Theological Seminary.
8Winston Churchill: Student’s essay Sir Winston Churchill was born in 1874Soldier, statesman, historian, writer, and reporterGraduated from the Royal Military College in Sandhurst in 1894Very stubborn and courageous leaderPrime Minister of Great Britain during World War II
9FDRFDR in 1900FDR holding his dog, Fala at Hyde Park. After FDR was striken with Polio in 1921at the age of 39
10Yalta Conference: Feb 1945Yalta: in the Crimea, southern part of Soviet Union (SU)Decisions made at YaltaSet up UNGermany to be dismemberedDeclaration: Liberation of Europe based on Atlantic Charter
11What is the Atlantic Charter Aim: establishment of a just societyNegotiated at the Atlantic Conference in August 1941Signed by : Franklin D. Roosevelt (F.D.R), American President and British P.M., Winston S. Churchill
12Yalta Conference: Feb 1945 Stalin was in a strong negotiating position He ‘acted’ tough (assertive)Aim of Roosevelt and Churchill : to restrict Soviet influence in Eastern EuropeNot easy for themThey only managed to get Stalin to ‘promise” free elections in Eastern EuropePoland posed a big challenge in the negotiations
13Always an attack from Poland! Poland was the main debating pointWhenever Russia was attackedIt was through PolandPoland was ‘corridor’How to make Russia safe from Poland?
14Making Russia safe So Stalin decided: “Poland must have strong government’Poland should have a pro-Communist governmentImportant: issue of national securityOther issues at Yalta?
15“I was there” account by William Leahy in I Was There (1950) Stalin …brought up the question of reparations…Germany ‘must pay’Perhaps “forced labour”?What would you recommend?Reparations were complicated issue
16Germany must pay!Reparations to include factories, plants, communication equipment, investments abroad, etcTo be spread over ten yearsTotal value of reparations: 10 billion dollarsWould you object?Who objected?
17Disagreements at Yalta Views of Churchill and Rooselvelt 10 billion-dollar is too much !We should have a reparations committee to study the issueWe must not make the same mistakes as the Versailles Treaty
18Views of Churchill and Rooselvelt France should be allotted a zone of occupation in Germany”Stalin’s view of France ?
19Stalin did not think much of France France should not play any role in controlling Germany…Oh maybe, just a tiny role, for the sake of face!
20Actually I am a reasonable man! Actually, I am in favor of France being given a zoneBut I cannot forget …You know, France opened the gates to the enemy!And de Gaulle might even demand to attend our (the Big Three's)Conferences
21Disagreements at Yalta Okay, Okay!But French zone must be from German territories allotted to both of youActually, France is not entitled to it.”Only because I am kind to France
22Disagreements at Yalta Churchill to Stalin at Yalta"The peace of the world depends on the friendship us three great powers…Our desire is to serve the world (not to rule it)We must not have another horrible world war
23Disagreements at Yalta "I would like to have this document to studyIt is difficult to just hear it being read(Dumbarton Oaks )
24The Dumbarton Oaks Conference: 1944 Where UN was formulatedAlso known as Washington ConversationsDiscussed which states to be invited as members of UN
25Stalin to Churchill, “And who are you referring to as …” Also, I would like to ask Mr. Churchill to name the power which may intend to dominate the world. I am sure Great Britain does not want to dominate the world. I am sure the United States does not wish to do so.Are you implying it is us, the Soviets?Picasso’s drawing Stalin
26Winston Churchill: We will not live forever A new generation who did not experience the horrors of war may forget …We need long lasting peaceSo that our future generations will not quarrel among themselvesYet there was distrust among the leaders
27Anthony Eden wrote about Yalta in his autobiography, Memoirs (Roosevelt disliked colonialism)“I wonder what the British Empire intends here…Must make sure that Stalin knows I am not ‘ganging with Britain against Russia.”We must ensure that all former colonies become politically and economically dependent the United StatesPotsdam Conference too encountered problems
28Potsdam Conference : July 1945 Establishment of a council of foreign ministersDivision of Germany and Austria into four occupation zonesDivision of Berlin and Vienna into four zones.Prosecution of Nazi war criminalsPrinciples to govern Germany in the initial periodEstablishment of a council of foreign ministersDivision of Germany and Austria into four occupation zonesDivision of Berlin and Vienna into four zones.Prosecution of Nazi war criminalsPrinciples to govern Germany in the initial periodEstablishment of a council of foreign ministersDivision of Germany and Austria into four occupation zonesDivision of Berlin and Vienna into four zones.Prosecution of Nazi war criminalsPrinciples to govern Germany in the initial period
29Highlights of Potsdam Conference in 1945 I like the manChurchill to Eden, the British Foreign Secretary, meaning who?
30Eden’s reply The Soviets will try to gain access to the Mediterranean. It will place Constantinople under their control.It will subjugate TurkeyDo you still like Russia?
31Truman’s view of Stalin Truman noted in his diary''I can deal with Stalin. He is honest - but smart as hell."
32After Potsdam Conference Churchill lost election and was succeeded by Attlee as PMAnd Cold War beganNumber of causes
33Causes of Cold War (in brief) The history of U.S.-Soviet relationsDifferent national objectivesOpposed ideologiesPersonalities of decision makersDifferent perceptions of international environmentSpecific post-World War II actions of powers
34Mutual distrust due to contrary perceptions US feared spread of CommunismFor the Soviet Union – importance of defence of western bordersFor Americans – that was deliberate expansionistic policy into EuropeUS emphasized free elections and free tradeFor Soviet Union: the United States had an expansionistic political-economic system
35Post World War II Europe Warsaw Pact CountriesNato MembersNon Aligned countries
36View of USSRCapitalist democracy is a threat to our very survival as a state
37View of USACommunism is an expansionistic, dictatorial and militaristic form of social organizationPersonalities caused problems in perception on both sides too
38Personalities of the leaders Winston Churchill, British PM, was a realistPower was important for himHe did not trust both the SovietsHe did not trust the Americans
39Personalities of the leaders Stalin was a paranoid about British and American intentionsAt least Stalin and Franklin Roosevelt used to respect each other grudginglyBut not the new U.S. president, Harry TrumanHarry did not trust Stalin at all
40Suspicions of the S.USoviet Union became dominant power in Eastern EuropeChurchill’s Fulton, Missouri Iron Curtain SpeechTight political grip over Eastern Europe: Poland, BulgariaFailure of Yalta and Potsdam conferencesTwo foreign ministers conferences in London and Moscow in
41Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech “…from Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe - Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Belgrade … From what I have seen of our Russian friends …there is nothing they admire so much as strength…”So who should be blamed for the CW?
42Who should be blamed for the Cold War? Three basic types of viewsTraditionalist (Orthodox): Due to an aggressive Russia, she instigated the CWRevisionist: United States was the primary cause of the Cold War, because it possessed nuclear weaponsPost-revisionist: dual responsibility of the United States and the Soviet Union – both countries to share the blameWe examine the Traditionalist view first
43Traditionalist (Orthodox) from 1940s-60s Believers were American diplomats such as W. Averell Harriman and George F. KennanView: Soviet Union was hostile and expansionist, a threat to the worldSU desired ‘absolute authority ‘ over the worldShe aimed to impose communist ideologies on EuropeTo spread communism
44Traditionalist (Orthodox) In 1917, the Bolshevik Revolution was successful in RussiaThe Marxist theory is that the conflict with capitalism is inevitable.Conflict will continue until one conquers the other.Lenin
45Why the West feared Russia and communism Repressive nature of Lenin and Stalin’s dictatorshipRussia established the Comintern to promote communist world-wideMarxist ideology challenged concepts of liberalism and capitalism that formed the basis of Western society and governmentThe increasing military power of Russia under Stalin’s leadership
46Revisionist View (1960s-70s) Historians - Appleman, Kolko, LaFeber, McCormickThe United States itself was expansionistUS was a capitalist stateCapitalism requires access to markets, investment opportunitiesSo communist type of states cannot be allowedSo Americans tried to throttle communist revolutions throughout the worldAmerican perception of USSR was wrongWhy?
47Revisionist View: Stalin was wronged Stalin did not aim to ‘export’ communismBy 1928, he had abandoned world revolutionary goalsInstead he emphasized ‘socialism on one country.’Stalin disbanded the Comintern in 1943Soviet Union was ‘defensive’Paterson’s conclusion “American policy had assumed a communist monolith that did not exist.”
48Revisionist ViewThe Atlantic Charter of 1941 was an attempt at a Pax AmericanaStalin was not an expansionistHe was merely defending the SU against US policiesThe Atlantic Charter was based on Wilsonian aims of a democractic world and ‘open-door’ economicsThese liberal principles were alien to the Soviets
49Revisionist View Fact: USA had become a super-power at end of War It wanted ‘open markets’ for its own benefitIt suspended the Lend-Lease payment to the Soviet UnionIt was reluctant to endorse reparations to compensate the SU for the cost of the warThis was ‘economic blackmail’.USA had the monopoly of nuclear weaponsThreat of nuclear weapons used to force Soviet compliance with the Atlantic Charter
50Post-revisionist View John Lewis Gaddis examined Soviet archivesCold War was the product of ‘authoritarianism in general and Stalin in particular’Due to the ruthless totalitarian nature of the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe
51Post-revisionist View John Lewis Gaddis: both the orthodox and revisionist interpretations of the Cold War are inconsistentThe Cold War was a misjudgement of both the Soviet Union and the United StatesStalin had misjudged the nature of Western democracy and the restrictions it placed upon Churchill and Roosevelt to strike dealsTruman and Churchill had misjudged Stalin’s sense of insecurity and need to financial assistance to restore the Soviet Union.Roosevelt alone could broker peace, but he died in April 1945
52Post-revisionist View It was Truman’s faultOn 12th March 1947 he announced the Truman Doctrine to defend Greece and Turkey against ‘totalitarianism’Everyone knew that he meant communism
53Joseph Stalin chokes on his pipe when President Harry S Joseph Stalin chokes on his pipe when President Harry S. Truman's program is stuffed in it.
54Truman DoctrinePost-War, a civil war raged between the royalist government supported by Great Britain and communist insurgents supported by communist Yugoslavia.In early 1947, London told Washington it cold no longer help Greece or Turkey economically
55Turkey and Greece could fall to communism Truman feared that without American help, the Turkish government might accede to Soviet demands.Without military aid, the Greek government would fall to the insurgents.On March 12, 1947, President Truman delivered a speech to Congress in which he outlined how the United States should respondThis was the Marshall Plan
56Marshall Plan…every nation must choose between alternative ways of life….One way of life is based upon the free will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, and freedom of speech and religion and freedom from political oppression.The second way of life …relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedom
57Marshall PlanI believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their destinies in their own ways.
58Truman DoctrineTruman's declaration: "it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure" became known as the Truman Doctrine.USA provided aid to the tune of $400 million for Greece and Turkey.The U.S. tradition had abandoned its “isolationist policy except during wartime”
59Amount of aid given in Marshall Plan : more than $13 billion provided to European states to rebuildIt did help economic recovery in EuropeAnd supposedly prevented communist parties from winning elections throughout Western Europe.