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Origins of the Cold War Lecture One

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1 Origins of the Cold War Lecture One
Devastation of Second World War Origins of Cold War

2 Simple introduction from Internet
BBC Bitesize Google search Origins of Cold War

3 How Cold War Began What is “Cold War”
Cold War is state of affairs marked by mutual hostility and fears of each other, namely USA (and its Western Allies ) on one side and USSR and its satellite states on the other side No actual fighting How did it start? Before end of Second World War

4 Before the Cold War During the Second World War, Russia, Britain and US were friends Common enemy: Nazi Germany April 1945: Germany was defeated Britain and the US began to worry about motives of Russia The Red Army interested in territorial expansion into Eastern Europe? Cold War emerged during Yalta Conference in 1945

5 How Cold War Began Second World war : horrible social and economic consequences Civilian casualties (in millions) Germany: 2.35 USSR: 6.7 Decision: “No more world wars, definitely not a Third World War” Keeping peace most important Began before end of War – Yalta Conference

6 Yalta Conference: February, 1945
Who were the ‘Big Three? Primary sources for CW: The Avalon Project Yalta Conference:

7 Young Stalin: A student’s essay
Stalin was born on December 21, 1879, in the Georgia His father was a very poor and very unsuccessful shoemaker He was an alcoholic and constantly beat his son. Stalin's mother, was a washer woman AT 14, he earned a full scholarship to the Tbilisi Theological Seminary.

8 Winston Churchill: Student’s essay
Sir Winston Churchill was born in 1874 Soldier, statesman, historian, writer, and reporter Graduated from the Royal Military College in Sandhurst in 1894 Very stubborn and courageous leader Prime Minister of Great Britain during World War II

9 FDR FDR in 1900 FDR holding his dog, Fala at Hyde Park. After FDR was striken with Polio in 1921at the age of 39

10 Yalta Conference: Feb 1945 Yalta: in the Crimea, southern part of Soviet Union (SU) Decisions made at Yalta Set up UN Germany to be dismembered Declaration: Liberation of Europe based on Atlantic Charter

11 What is the Atlantic Charter
Aim: establishment of a just society Negotiated at the Atlantic Conference in August 1941 Signed by : Franklin D. Roosevelt (F.D.R), American President and British P.M., Winston S. Churchill

12 Yalta Conference: Feb 1945 Stalin was in a strong negotiating position
He ‘acted’ tough (assertive) Aim of Roosevelt and Churchill : to restrict Soviet influence in Eastern Europe Not easy for them They only managed to get Stalin to ‘promise” free elections in Eastern Europe Poland posed a big challenge in the negotiations

13 Always an attack from Poland!
Poland was the main debating point Whenever Russia was attacked It was through Poland Poland was ‘corridor’ How to make Russia safe from Poland?

14 Making Russia safe So Stalin decided:
“Poland must have strong government’ Poland should have a pro-Communist government Important: issue of national security Other issues at Yalta?

15 “I was there” account by William Leahy in I Was There (1950)
Stalin …brought up the question of reparations… Germany ‘must pay’ Perhaps “forced labour”? What would you recommend? Reparations were complicated issue

16 Germany must pay! Reparations to include factories, plants, communication equipment, investments abroad, etc To be spread over ten years Total value of reparations: 10 billion dollars Would you object? Who objected?

17 Disagreements at Yalta Views of Churchill and Rooselvelt
10 billion-dollar is too much ! We should have a reparations committee to study the issue We must not make the same mistakes as the Versailles Treaty

18 Views of Churchill and Rooselvelt
France should be allotted a zone of occupation in Germany” Stalin’s view of France ?

19 Stalin did not think much of France
France should not play any role in controlling Germany… Oh maybe, just a tiny role, for the sake of face!

20 Actually I am a reasonable man!
Actually, I am in favor of France being given a zone But I cannot forget … You know, France opened the gates to the enemy! And de Gaulle might even demand to attend our (the Big Three's) Conferences

21 Disagreements at Yalta
Okay, Okay! But French zone must be from German territories allotted to both of you Actually, France is not entitled to it.” Only because I am kind to France

22 Disagreements at Yalta
Churchill to Stalin at Yalta "The peace of the world depends on the friendship us three great powers… Our desire is to serve the world (not to rule it) We must not have another horrible world war

23 Disagreements at Yalta
"I would like to have this document to study It is difficult to just hear it being read (Dumbarton Oaks )

24 The Dumbarton Oaks Conference: 1944
Where UN was formulated Also known as Washington Conversations Discussed which states to be invited as members of UN

25 Stalin to Churchill, “And who are you referring to as …”
Also, I would like to ask Mr. Churchill to name the power which may intend to dominate the world. I am sure Great Britain does not want to dominate the world. I am sure the United States does not wish to do so. Are you implying it is us, the Soviets? Picasso’s drawing Stalin

26 Winston Churchill: We will not live forever
A new generation who did not experience the horrors of war may forget … We need long lasting peace So that our future generations will not quarrel among themselves Yet there was distrust among the leaders

27 Anthony Eden wrote about Yalta in his autobiography, Memoirs
(Roosevelt disliked colonialism) “I wonder what the British Empire intends here…Must make sure that Stalin knows I am not ‘ganging with Britain against Russia.” We must ensure that all former colonies become politically and economically dependent the United States Potsdam Conference too encountered problems

28 Potsdam Conference : July 1945
Establishment of a council of foreign ministers Division of Germany and Austria into four occupation zones Division of Berlin and Vienna into four zones. Prosecution of Nazi war criminals Principles to govern Germany in the initial period Establishment of a council of foreign ministers Division of Germany and Austria into four occupation zones Division of Berlin and Vienna into four zones. Prosecution of Nazi war criminals Principles to govern Germany in the initial period Establishment of a council of foreign ministers Division of Germany and Austria into four occupation zones Division of Berlin and Vienna into four zones. Prosecution of Nazi war criminals Principles to govern Germany in the initial period

29 Highlights of Potsdam Conference in 1945
I like the man Churchill to Eden, the British Foreign Secretary, meaning who?

30 Eden’s reply The Soviets will try to gain access to the Mediterranean.
It will place Constantinople under their control. It will subjugate Turkey Do you still like Russia?

31 Truman’s view of Stalin
Truman noted in his diary ''I can deal with Stalin. He is honest - but smart as hell."

32 After Potsdam Conference
Churchill lost election and was succeeded by Attlee as PM And Cold War began Number of causes

33 Causes of Cold War (in brief)
The history of U.S.-Soviet relations Different national objectives Opposed ideologies Personalities of decision makers Different perceptions of international environment Specific post-World War II actions of powers

34 Mutual distrust due to contrary perceptions
US feared spread of Communism For the Soviet Union – importance of defence of western borders For Americans – that was deliberate expansionistic policy into Europe US emphasized free elections and free trade For Soviet Union: the United States had an expansionistic political-economic system

35 Post World War II Europe
Warsaw Pact Countries Nato Members Non Aligned countries

36 View of USSR Capitalist democracy is a threat to our very survival as a state

37 View of USA Communism is an expansionistic, dictatorial and militaristic form of social organization Personalities caused problems in perception on both sides too

38 Personalities of the leaders
Winston Churchill, British PM, was a realist Power was important for him He did not trust both the Soviets He did not trust the Americans

39 Personalities of the leaders
Stalin was a paranoid about British and American intentions At least Stalin and Franklin Roosevelt used to respect each other grudgingly But not the new U.S. president, Harry Truman Harry did not trust Stalin at all

40 Suspicions of the S.U Soviet Union became dominant power in Eastern Europe Churchill’s Fulton, Missouri Iron Curtain Speech Tight political grip over Eastern Europe: Poland, Bulgaria Failure of Yalta and Potsdam conferences Two foreign ministers conferences in London and Moscow in

41 Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech
“…from Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe - Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Belgrade … From what I have seen of our Russian friends …there is nothing they admire so much as strength…” So who should be blamed for the CW?

42 Who should be blamed for the Cold War?
Three basic types of views Traditionalist (Orthodox): Due to an aggressive Russia, she instigated the CW Revisionist: United States was the primary cause of the Cold War, because it possessed nuclear weapons Post-revisionist: dual responsibility of the United States and the Soviet Union – both countries to share the blame We examine the Traditionalist view first

43 Traditionalist (Orthodox) from 1940s-60s
Believers were American diplomats such as W. Averell Harriman and George F. Kennan View: Soviet Union was hostile and expansionist, a threat to the world SU desired ‘absolute authority ‘ over the world She aimed to impose communist ideologies on Europe To spread communism

44 Traditionalist (Orthodox)
In 1917, the Bolshevik Revolution was successful in Russia The Marxist theory is that the conflict with capitalism is inevitable. Conflict will continue until one conquers the other. Lenin

45 Why the West feared Russia and communism
Repressive nature of Lenin and Stalin’s dictatorship Russia established the Comintern to promote communist world-wide Marxist ideology challenged concepts of liberalism and capitalism that formed the basis of Western society and government The increasing military power of Russia under Stalin’s leadership

46 Revisionist View (1960s-70s)
Historians - Appleman, Kolko, LaFeber, McCormick The United States itself was expansionist US was a capitalist state Capitalism requires access to markets, investment opportunities So communist type of states cannot be allowed So Americans tried to throttle communist revolutions throughout the world American perception of USSR was wrong Why?

47 Revisionist View: Stalin was wronged
Stalin did not aim to ‘export’ communism By 1928, he had abandoned world revolutionary goals Instead he emphasized ‘socialism on one country.’ Stalin disbanded the Comintern in 1943 Soviet Union was ‘defensive’ Paterson’s conclusion “American policy had assumed a communist monolith that did not exist.”

48 Revisionist View The Atlantic Charter of 1941 was an attempt at a Pax Americana Stalin was not an expansionist He was merely defending the SU against US policies The Atlantic Charter was based on Wilsonian aims of a democractic world and ‘open-door’ economics These liberal principles were alien to the Soviets

49 Revisionist View Fact: USA had become a super-power at end of War
It wanted ‘open markets’ for its own benefit It suspended the Lend-Lease payment to the Soviet Union It was reluctant to endorse reparations to compensate the SU for the cost of the war This was ‘economic blackmail’. USA had the monopoly of nuclear weapons Threat of nuclear weapons used to force Soviet compliance with the Atlantic Charter

50 Post-revisionist View
John Lewis Gaddis examined Soviet archives Cold War was the product of ‘authoritarianism in general and Stalin in particular’ Due to the ruthless totalitarian nature of the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe

51 Post-revisionist View
John Lewis Gaddis: both the orthodox and revisionist interpretations of the Cold War are inconsistent The Cold War was a misjudgement of both the Soviet Union and the United States Stalin had misjudged the nature of Western democracy and the restrictions it placed upon Churchill and Roosevelt to strike deals Truman and Churchill had misjudged Stalin’s sense of insecurity and need to financial assistance to restore the Soviet Union. Roosevelt alone could broker peace, but he died in April 1945

52 Post-revisionist View
It was Truman’s fault On 12th March 1947 he announced the Truman Doctrine to defend Greece and Turkey against ‘totalitarianism’ Everyone knew that he meant communism

53 Joseph Stalin chokes on his pipe when President Harry S
Joseph Stalin chokes on his pipe when President Harry S. Truman's program is stuffed in it.

54 Truman Doctrine Post-War, a civil war raged between the royalist government supported by Great Britain and communist insurgents supported by communist Yugoslavia. In early 1947, London told Washington it cold no longer help Greece or Turkey economically

55 Turkey and Greece could fall to communism
Truman feared that without American help, the Turkish government might accede to Soviet demands. Without military aid, the Greek government would fall to the insurgents. On March 12, 1947, President Truman delivered a speech to Congress in which he outlined how the United States should respond This was the Marshall Plan

56 Marshall Plan …every nation must choose between alter­native ways of life….One way of life is based upon the free will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, and freedom of speech and religion and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life …relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedom

57 Marshall Plan I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their destinies in their own ways.

58 Truman Doctrine Truman's declaration: "it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by out­side pressure" became known as the Truman Doctrine. USA provided aid to the tune of $400 million for Greece and Turkey. The U.S. tradition had abandoned its “isolationist policy except during wartime”

59 Amount of aid given in Marshall Plan
: more than $13 billion provided to European states to rebuild It did help economic recovery in Europe And supposedly prevented communist parties from winning elections throughout Western Europe.

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