Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR LOOMS CHAPTER 16 Dictators Threaten World Peace Section 1."— Presentation transcript:
WORLD WAR LOOMS CHAPTER 16
Dictators Threaten World Peace Section 1
At the end of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles caused anger & resentment… New democratic governments, hurt by economic & social problems, floundered & turned to dictatorships.
In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin came to power in 1924. He was a ruthless leader who let nothing stand in his way. Stalin focused on creating a model communist state.
Stalin created a TOTALITARIAN government. (a government w/complete control over its citizens) Individuals had no rights, & the government put down all opposition.
At the same time, Benito Mussolini was creating a totalitarian state in Italy His political movement was called Fascism (Strong, centralized government headed by a dictator which grow out of extreme nationalism.) Mussolini was a passionate public speakerBenito Mussolini and Adolf HitlerAdolf Hitler
Another Fascist party came to power in Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. His political philosophy was called Nazism. He hoped to unite all German-speaking people into a new German empire, or Reich.
In 1932, the Nazi Party gained power. Hitler became chancellor in January 1933. He did away w/the Weimar Republic & set up the Third Reich, or 3 rd German empire.
Hitler believed that Germans- especially blond, blue-eyed “Aryans”- were the master race. According to Hitler, Aryans were meant to have power over all “inferior races”, such as Jews & nonwhites. Hitler believed Germany needed to expand-gain territory- so that the German people could thrive.
“ If I can send the flower of the German nation into the hell of war without the smallest pity for the spilling of precious German blood, then surely I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin..." Adolf Hitler “ If I can send the flower of the German nation into the hell of war without the smallest pity for the spilling of precious German blood, then surely I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin..." Adolf Hitler
Meanwhile, in Asia, military leaders had taken over Japan: They believed Japan needed more land & resources. They believed Japan needed more land & resources. Japan attacked Manchuria, a province of China, in 1931. Japan attacked Manchuria, a province of China, in 1931. The League of Nations protested, but Japan left the League & kept Manchuria. The League of Nations protested, but Japan left the League & kept Manchuria.
This cartoon of 1933, by the British cartoonist David Low, is entitled: 'The Doormat'. It shows a Japanese soldier trampling all over the League, whilst League officials bow down before him and the British Foreign Secretary John Simon powders the League's nose using a 'Face-saving kit'. This cartoon of 1933, by the British cartoonist David Low, is entitled: 'The Doormat'. It shows a Japanese soldier trampling all over the League, whilst League officials bow down before him and the British Foreign Secretary John Simon powders the League's nose using a 'Face-saving kit'.
This cartoon of 1933 shows the Japanese actions destroying international agreements such as the Kellogg Pact and the League of Nations Covenant. This cartoon of 1933 shows the Japanese actions destroying international agreements such as the Kellogg Pact and the League of Nations Covenant.
The League’s failure to stop Japan made Hitler & Mussolini bolder….
Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland & rebuilt the German army. These acts broke the Versailles Treaty.
Mussolini captured the African nation of Ethiopia. The leader of Ethiopia asked the League for help. When the League did nothing, he said, “It is us today, It will be you tomorrow.”
In Spain, General Francisco Franco led a rebellion to overthrow the elected government. Hitler & Mussolini supported Franco w/troops & weapons. When Franco won in ’39, Europe had another totalitarian government.
Q: What 5 major countries were ruled by dictatorships in the 1930’s?
The U.S. responded cautiously to the rise of dictators… “Isolationism” became more popular. Most Americans wanted the U.S. to stay out of foreign conflicts. Protest march to prevent American involvement in WWII
U.S. passed the “Neutrality Acts” These laws banned loans or arms sale to nations at war.
Austria & Czechoslovakia Fall How did Britain & France react to Hitler’s aggression?
Hitler decided that the new living space the German people needed would come from nearby Austria & Czechoslovakia. And he was willing to use force to do it!
In March 1938, German troops marched into Austria. They met no opposition. Germany announced an Anschluss, or “union” w/Austria.
Then Hitler claimed that the Czechs were mistreating German –speaking people in an area called the Sudetenland. He massed troops on the border.
France & Britain promised to defend Czechoslovakia. Their leaders met w/Hitler in Munich, Germany. Hitler promised that the Sudetenland would be his “last territorial demand.” Adolf HitlerAdolf Hitler and Neville Chamberlain after the Munich Agreement which gave Czechoslovakia to HitlerNeville ChamberlainMunich Agreement
Neville Chamberlain was the British prime minister who signed the Munich Pact in September 1938. It gave the Sudetenland to Germany.
MAP OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA SHOWING THE SUDETENLAND
Another British leader, Winston Churchill, disagreed. He called the Pact dishonorable appeasement. Churchill predicted that appeasement would eventually lead to war.
Hitler did not keep the promise he made at Munich. In March of ’39, he conquered the rest of Czechoslovakia.
Then Hitler began to claim that Germans living in Poland were being persecuted. Many thought Hitler would never attack Poland. They thought he would be afraid that the Soviet Union, on Poland’s eastern border, would then fight Germany.
But Germany & Soviet Union signed a “nonaggression pact”, an agreement not to fight each other. In a secret part of this treaty, Hitler & Stalin also agreed to divide Poland b/w them.
Soviet Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov signs the German-Soviet nonaggression pact; Joachim von Ribbentrop and Josef Stalin stand behind him. Moscow, August 23, 1939, from Patch-NA
On September 1, 1939, Hitler launched World War II by attacking Poland.
Soviet and German soldiers meeting after the invasion of Polandinvasion of Poland
The Germans used a new strategy called a “blitzkrieg”, or lightning war. They used tanks & planes to take the enemy by surprise & crush them quickly. German troops dismantle a Polish border checkpoint, September 1, 1939, as World War II begins. September 11939World War II
Here a Nazi unit is en route to Poland at the end of September, 1939. Handwritten on the side of the train car is, "We are going to Poland to thrash the Jews." Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydów Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 26.
Britain & France declared war on Germany! Poland fell to the Germans in a month…
Meanwhile, the Soviets attacked Poland from the east, & grabbed some of its territory.
For the next few months, not much happened. This was called the “phony war.” French & British troops gathered on the French border. German troops also waited.
Meanwhile, Stalin seized regions that the Soviet Union had lost in WWI. He took the Baltic states in September & October ‘39 Finland resisted, & was conquered only after fierce fighting in March 1940.
In April, Hitler launched surprise invasions of Denmark & Norway. Then in May, he quickly took the Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg.
Germany attacked France in May 1940. Meanwhile, Italy joined the war on Germany’s side. The Italians attacked France from the south. France surrendered quickly.
The Germans occupied the northern part of France while a Nazi-controlled puppet government, called the Vichy government, ruled the southern part of France. Presidential flag of Vichy France
The French general Charles de Gaulle set up a French government in exile in England. He promised to free France from the Nazis. General de Gaulle reviewing troops General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC during the war.BBC
Hitler now made plans to invade Britain. He began with air raids over England. Nazi GermanNazi German LuftwaffeLuftwaffe BritishBritish Royal Air Force and alliesRoyal Air Force
The Germans bombed London night after night in August 1940. The British air force (RAF) defended Britain against these attacks. They used a new technology called radar, & shot down hundreds of German planes.
This air war was called the Battle of Britain. The new prime minister, Winston Churchill, rallied the spirits of the British people & declared that Britain would never surrender. Hitler gave up the idea of invading Britain. Dec. 29, 1940 - St. Paul's Cathedral emerges from the flames during one of the most devastating raids
THE HOLOCAUST Section 3
Part of Hitler’s plan for Germany was to make the country racially pure. In 1933, Hitler ordered all non-Aryans out of government jobs. Then Hitler began an organized persecution of non-Aryans, particularly of Jews.
A dog lies on a park bench which is marked "Nur fuer Arier!" [Only for Aryans] Date: Mar 1938 Locale: Vienna, Austria Credit: USHMM, courtesy of Unknown Provenance Copyright: USHMM
Civilians ride a streetcar in Belgrade that is marked "Fuer Juden Verboten" (Forbidden to Jews). Date: 1941 - 1942 Locale: Belgrade, [Serbia] Yugoslavia; Serbia; Belehrad; Bilehrad; Nandorfehervar Credit: Copyright: Agency Agreement (No Fees)
This resulted in the HOLOCAUST…. The systematic murder of over 11 million people across Europe. Over half of the murdered people were Jews. Studio portrait of a prewar Belgian-Jewish family.
Anti-Semitism had a long history in Germany & in other parts of Europe… For a long time, Germans had used Jews as a scapegoat. Therefore, when Hitler blamed Jews for Germany’s defeat in WWI, many agreed. When Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany’s economic problems, many Germans supported him.
Persecution of Jews increased under Hitler…. In 1935, new laws took away Jews’ civil rights & their property. Jew were forced to wear yellow stars of David on their clothing.
Humiliation was a part of the psychological warfare that Nazis used against their enemies. In Poland, a soldier tutors two Jewish men on how to give the Nazi salute correctly. Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydów Polsce 1939-1945. Poland. No. 37.
On November 9, 1938, organized, violent persecution began with Kristallnacht. This is a German word meaning “crystal night”, or night of broken glass.
Many Jews started to flee Germany. Nazis were in favor of this, but other nations didn’t want to accept the Jewish refugees. Some refugees, like Albert Einstein, were allowed into the U.S.
Passengers aboard the “St. Louis”. These Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany were forced to return to Europe after both Cuba & the U.S. denied them refuge. (May or June, 1939) United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
HITLER’S “FINAL SOLUTION” In 1939, there were only about ¼ of a million Jews left in Germany. But other countries that Hitler occupied had millions more Jews. Hitler’s ultimate goal was to get rid of all of Europe’s Jews.
In addition to Jews, the Nazis rounded up political opponents- Communists, Socialists, liberals- and other groups including Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, the disabled & the terminally ill.
Some Jews were forced into GHETTOS…. Segregated Jewish areas where they were made to work in factories or left to starve. One of the ghetto entrances. The sign reads "Living area for Jews--entrance forbidden." Lodz ghetto, Poland, 1941.
Despite brutal conditions, Jews hung on, resisting the Germans & setting up schools & underground newspapers. Jews captured during the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Warsaw, Poland, April 19-May 16, 1943. __________ National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Md.
AMERICA MOVES TOWARD WAR!! Section 4
According to the Neutrality Act, the U.S. couldn’t enter the war in Europe. However, President Roosevelt asked for a change in the Acts. He suggested a “cash & carry” provision which would allow Britain & France to buy & transport American arms. Congress passed this new Neutrality Act in November 1939.
In 1940, Germany, Italy, & Japan signed a mutual defense treaty. They became the AXIS POWERS.
Roosevelt assured the nation that the U.S. would stay out of war…but he prepared for war. Congress increased spending for natl’ defense. It passed the nation’s 1 st peacetime draft in September 1940.
Then, FDR won an unprecedented 3 rd term in the 1940 election.
After the election, FDR told Americans that the U.S. couldn’t stand by & let Hitler conquer the world. He said that America would become “the great arsenal of democracy.”
Britain could no longer pay for arms & supplies. Roosevelt suggested lending or leasing arms to any nation “whose defense was vital to the U.S.” Congress passed the LEND-LEASE ACT in March 1941.
Meanwhile, Germany invaded its former ally, the Soviet Union. The U.S. gave lend-lease support to the Soviets as well as to Britain.
Nazi submarines called U-boats attacked & sank ships carrying arms across the Atlantic to Germany’s enemies. In June 1941, FDR ordered the U.S. Navy to protect lend-lease ships. He also gave American warships permission to attack German U-boats in self-defense.
On Aug. 1941, FDR met secretly w/British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. FDR didn’t actually commit the U.S. to war, but he & Churchill did sign the …. ATLANTIC CHARTER That was a statement of the goals for fighting WWII. These goals included protecting peoples’ rights to choose their own form of government & building a secure peace.
On September 4, 1941, a German U-boat fired on an American merchant ship. FDR ordered the U.S. Navy to fire on German ships on sight. U-boats responded by sinking several American ships, & American seamen were killed. The Senate finally allowed the arming of merchant ships. Full scale war seemed inevitable.
What brought the U.S. into conflict with Japan?
In Japan, expansionists had long dreamed of creating a huge empire. Japan was now acting on this dream. It began seizing Asian territory held as colonies by European nations. The U.S. also owned islands in the Pacific.
When Japan invaded Indochina, the U.S. cut off trade w/Japan. Japan needed American oil to run its war machine.
The new prime minister of Japan was a militant general named Hideki Tojo. He started peace talks w/the U.S., but he also prepared for war.
On December 7, 1941, during the peace talks, Japan attacked the main U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
A photo taken from a Japanese plane during the attack shows vulnerable American battleships, and in the distance, smoke rising from Hickam Airfield where 35 men having breakfast in the mess hall were killed after a direct bomb hit.
The USS Shaw explodes during the Japanese air raid. (Photo credits: U.S. National Archives)
Dousing the flames on the battleship USS West Virginia, which survived and was rebuilt. (Photo credits: U.S. National Archives)
The battleship USS Arizona after a bomb penetrated into the forward magazine causing massive explosions and killing 1,104
On December 8, 1941, Roosevelt addressed Congress asking for a declaration of WAR against Japan.