3At the end of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles caused anger & resentment… New democratic governments, hurt by economic & social problems, floundered & turned to dictatorships.
4In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin came to power in 1924. He was a ruthless leader who let nothing stand in his way.Stalin focused on creating a model communist state.
5Individuals had no rights, & the government put down all opposition. Stalin created a TOTALITARIAN government. (a government w/complete control over its citizens)Individuals had no rights, & the government put down all opposition.
6At the same time, Benito Mussolini was creating a totalitarian state in Italy Benito Mussolini and Adolf HitlerMussolini was a passionate public speakerHis political movement was called Fascism (Strong, centralized government headed by a dictator which grow out of extreme nationalism.)
7His political philosophy was called Nazism. Another Fascist party came to power in Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler.His political philosophy was called Nazism.He hoped to unite all German-speaking people into a new German empire, or Reich.
8In 1932, the Nazi Party gained power In 1932, the Nazi Party gained power. Hitler became chancellor in January 1933.He did away w/the Weimar Republic & set up the Third Reich, or 3rd German empire.
9Hitler believed that Germans- especially blond, blue-eyed “Aryans”- were the master race. According to Hitler, Aryans were meant to have power over all “inferior races”, such as Jews & nonwhites. Hitler believed Germany needed to expand-gain territory- so that the German people could thrive.
10“If I can send the flower of the German nation into the hell of war without the smallest pity for the spilling of precious German blood, then surely I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin ..." Adolf Hitler
11Meanwhile, in Asia, military leaders had taken over Japan: They believed Japan needed more land & resources.Japan attacked Manchuria, a province of China, in 1931.The League of Nations protested, but Japan left the League & kept Manchuria.
12This cartoon of 1933, by the British cartoonist David Low, is entitled: 'The Doormat'. It shows a Japanese soldier trampling all over the League, whilst League officials bow down before him and the British Foreign Secretary John Simon powders the League's nose using a 'Face-saving kit'.
13This cartoon of 1933 shows the Japanese actions destroying international agreements such as the Kellogg Pact and the League of Nations Covenant.
14The League’s failure to stop Japan made Hitler & Mussolini bolder….
15Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland & rebuilt the German army. These acts broke the Versailles Treaty.
16Mussolini captured the African nation of Ethiopia. The leader of Ethiopia asked the League for help. When the League did nothing, he said, “It is us today, It will be you tomorrow.”
17In Spain, General Francisco Franco led a rebellion to overthrow the elected government. Hitler & Mussolini supported Franco w/troops & weapons.When Franco won in ’39, Europe had another totalitarian government.
18Q: What 5 major countries were ruled by dictatorships in the 1930’s?
19The U.S. responded cautiously to the rise of dictators… Protest march to prevent American involvement in WWII“Isolationism” became more popular. Most Americans wanted the U.S. to stay out of foreign conflicts.
20U.S. passed the “Neutrality Acts” These laws banned loans or arms sale to nations at war.
21Austria & Czechoslovakia Fall How did Britain & France react to Hitler’s aggression?
22And he was willing to use force to do it! Hitler decided that the new living space the German people needed would come from nearby Austria & Czechoslovakia.And he was willing to use force to do it!
23In March 1938, German troops marched into Austria. They met no opposition. Germany announced an Anschluss, or “union” w/Austria.
24He massed troops on the border. Then Hitler claimed that the Czechs were mistreating German –speaking people in an area called the Sudetenland.He massed troops on the border.
25France & Britain promised to defend Czechoslovakia France & Britain promised to defend Czechoslovakia. Their leaders met w/Hitler in Munich , Germany.Adolf Hitler and Neville Chamberlain after the Munich Agreement which gave Czechoslovakia to HitlerHitler promised that the Sudetenland would be his “last territorial demand.”
26It gave the Sudetenland to Germany. Neville Chamberlain was the British prime minister who signed the Munich Pact in September 1938.It gave the Sudetenland to Germany.
28Churchill predicted that appeasement would eventually lead to war. Another British leader, Winston Churchill, disagreed. He called the Pact dishonorable appeasement.Churchill predicted that appeasement would eventually lead to war.
29Hitler did not keep the promise he made at Munich. In March of ’39, he conquered the rest of Czechoslovakia.
30Many thought Hitler would never attack Poland. Then Hitler began to claim that Germans living in Poland were being persecuted.Many thought Hitler would never attack Poland.They thought he would be afraid that the Soviet Union, on Poland’s eastern border, would then fight Germany.
31But Germany & Soviet Union signed a “nonaggression pact”, an agreement not to fight each other. In a secret part of this treaty, Hitler & Stalin also agreed to divide Poland b/w them.
32Soviet Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov signs the German-Soviet nonaggression pact; Joachim von Ribbentrop and Josef Stalin stand behind him. Moscow, August 23, 1939, from Patch-NA
33On September 1, 1939, Hitler launched World War II by attacking Poland.
34Soviet and German soldiers meeting after the invasion of Poland
35The Germans used a new strategy called a “blitzkrieg”, or lightning war. German troops dismantle a Polish border checkpoint, September 1, 1939, as World War II begins.They used tanks & planes to take the enemy by surprise & crush them quickly.
36Here a Nazi unit is en route to Poland at the end of September, 1939 Here a Nazi unit is en route to Poland at the end of September, Handwritten on the side of the train car is, "We are going to Poland to thrash the Jews." Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydów Polsce Poland. No. 26.
37Britain & France declared war on Germany! Poland fell to the Germans in a month…Britain & France declared war on Germany!
38Meanwhile, the Soviets attacked Poland from the east, & grabbed some of its territory.
39For the next few months, not much happened For the next few months, not much happened. This was called the “phony war.”French & British troops gathered on the French border.German troops also waited.
40He took the Baltic states in September & October ‘39 Meanwhile, Stalin seized regions that the Soviet Union had lost in WWI.He took the Baltic states in September & October ‘39Finland resisted, & was conquered only after fierce fighting in March 1940.
41In April, Hitler launched surprise invasions of Denmark & Norway. Then in May, he quickly took the Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg.
42Germany attacked France in May 1940. Meanwhile, Italy joined the war on Germany’s side. The Italians attacked France from the south.France surrendered quickly.
44The Germans occupied the northern part of France while a Nazi-controlled puppet government, called the Vichy government, ruled the southern part of France.Presidential flag of Vichy France
45The French general Charles de Gaulle set up a French government in exile in England. He promised to free France from the Nazis.General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC during the war.General de Gaulle reviewing troops
46Hitler now made plans to invade Britain. Nazi German LuftwaffeHe began with air raids over England.British Royal Air Force and allies
47The Germans bombed London night after night in August 1940. The British air force (RAF) defended Britain against these attacks. They used a new technology called radar, & shot down hundreds of German planes.
48This air war was called the Battle of Britain. Dec. 29, St. Paul's Cathedral emerges from the flames during one of the most devastating raidsThe new prime minister, Winston Churchill, rallied the spirits of the British people & declared that Britain would never surrender.Hitler gave up the idea of invading Britain.
51Part of Hitler’s plan for Germany was to make the country racially pure. In 1933, Hitler ordered all non-Aryans out of government jobs.Then Hitler began an organized persecution of non-Aryans, particularly of Jews.
52A dog lies on a park bench which is marked "Nur fuer Arier A dog lies on a park bench which is marked "Nur fuer Arier!" [Only for Aryans] Date: Mar Locale: Vienna, Austria Credit: USHMM, courtesy of Unknown Provenance Copyright: USHMM
53Civilians ride a streetcar in Belgrade that is marked "Fuer Juden Verboten" (Forbidden to Jews). Date: Locale: Belgrade, [Serbia] Yugoslavia; Serbia; Belehrad; Bilehrad; Nandorfehervar Credit: Copyright: Agency Agreement (No Fees)
54This resulted in the HOLOCAUST…. Studio portrait of a prewar Belgian-Jewish family.The systematic murder of over 11 million people across Europe.Over half of the murdered people were Jews.
55For a long time, Germans had used Jews as a scapegoat. Anti-Semitism had a long history in Germany & in other parts of Europe…For a long time, Germans had used Jews as a scapegoat.Therefore, when Hitler blamed Jews for Germany’s defeat in WWI, many agreed.When Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany’s economic problems, many Germans supported him.
56Persecution of Jews increased under Hitler…. In 1935, new laws took away Jews’ civil rights & their property.Jew were forced to wear yellow stars of David on their clothing.
57Humiliation was a part of the psychological warfare that Nazis used against their enemies. In Poland, a soldier tutors two Jewish men on how to give the Nazi salute correctly. Photo credit: Meczenstwo Walka, Zaglada Zydów Polsce Poland. No. 37.
58On November 9, 1938, organized, violent persecution began with Kristallnacht. This is a German word meaning “crystal night”, or night of broken glass.
59Some refugees, like Albert Einstein, were allowed into the U.S. Many Jews started to flee Germany. Nazis were in favor of this, but other nations didn’t want to accept the Jewish refugees.Some refugees, like Albert Einstein, were allowed into the U.S.
60Passengers aboard the “St. Louis” Passengers aboard the “St. Louis”. These Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany were forced to return to Europe after both Cuba & the U.S. denied them refuge. (May or June, 1939) United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
61HITLER’S “FINAL SOLUTION” In 1939, there were only about ¼ of a million Jews left in Germany.But other countries that Hitler occupied had millions more Jews.Hitler’s ultimate goal was to get rid of all of Europe’s Jews.
62In addition to Jews, the Nazis rounded up political opponents- Communists, Socialists, liberals- and other groups including Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, the disabled & the terminally ill.
63Some Jews were forced into GHETTOS…. One of the ghetto entrances. The sign reads "Living area for Jews--entrance forbidden." Lodz ghetto, Poland, 1941.Segregated Jewish areas where they were made to work in factories or left to starve.
64Despite brutal conditions, Jews hung on, resisting the Germans & setting up schools & underground newspapers.Jews captured during the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Warsaw, Poland, April 19-May 16, __________ National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Md.
66According to the Neutrality Act, the U. S According to the Neutrality Act, the U.S. couldn’t enter the war in Europe.However, President Roosevelt asked for a change in the Acts. He suggested a “cash & carry” provision which would allow Britain & France to buy & transport American arms. Congress passed this new Neutrality Act in November 1939.
67In 1940, Germany, Italy, & Japan signed a mutual defense treaty. They became the AXIS POWERS.
68Roosevelt assured the nation that the U. S Roosevelt assured the nation that the U.S. would stay out of war…but he prepared for war.Congress increased spending for natl’ defense. It passed the nation’s 1st peacetime draft in September 1940.
69Then, FDR won an unprecedented 3rd term in the 1940 election.
70He said that America would become “the great arsenal of democracy.” After the election, FDR told Americans that the U.S. couldn’t stand by & let Hitler conquer the world.He said that America would become “the great arsenal of democracy.”
71Congress passed the LEND-LEASE ACT in March 1941. Britain could no longer pay for arms & supplies. Roosevelt suggested lending or leasing arms to any nation “whose defense was vital to the U.S.”Congress passed the LEND-LEASE ACT in March 1941.
72Meanwhile, Germany invaded its former ally, the Soviet Union. The U.S. gave lend-lease support to the Soviets as well as to Britain.
73In June 1941, FDR ordered the U.S. Navy to protect lend-lease ships. Nazi submarines called U-boats attacked & sank ships carrying arms across the Atlantic to Germany’s enemies.In June 1941, FDR ordered the U.S. Navy to protect lend-lease ships.He also gave American warships permission to attack German U-boats in self-defense.
74That was a statement of the goals for fighting WWII. On Aug. 1941, FDR met secretly w/British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. FDR didn’t actually commit the U.S. to war, but he & Churchill did sign the ….ATLANTIC CHARTERThat was a statement of the goals for fighting WWII.These goals included protecting peoples’ rights to choose their own form of government & building a secure peace.
75On September 4, 1941, a German U-boat fired on an American merchant ship. FDR ordered the U.S. Navy to fire on German ships on sight.U-boats responded by sinking several American ships, & American seamen were killed. The Senate finally allowed the arming of merchant ships. Full scale war seemed inevitable.
78In Japan, expansionists had long dreamed of creating a huge empire In Japan, expansionists had long dreamed of creating a huge empire. Japan was now acting on this dream.It began seizing Asian territory held as colonies by European nations. The U.S. also owned islands in the Pacific.
80When Japan invaded Indochina, the U. S. cut off trade w/Japan When Japan invaded Indochina, the U.S. cut off trade w/Japan. Japan needed American oil to run its war machine.
81He started peace talks w/the U.S., but he also prepared for war. The new prime minister of Japan was a militant general named Hideki Tojo.He started peace talks w/the U.S., but he also prepared for war.
82On December 7, 1941, during the peace talks, Japan attacked the main U On December 7, 1941, during the peace talks, Japan attacked the main U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
83A photo taken from a Japanese plane during the attack shows vulnerable American battleships, and in the distance, smoke rising from Hickam Airfield where 35 men having breakfast in the mess hall were killed after a direct bomb hit.
84The USS Shaw explodes during the Japanese air raid. (Photo credits: U.S. National Archives)
85Dousing the flames on the battleship USS West Virginia, which survived and was rebuilt. (Photo credits: U.S. National Archives)
86The battleship USS Arizona after a bomb penetrated into the forward magazine causing massive explosions and killing 1,104
87On December 8, 1941, Roosevelt addressed Congress asking for a declaration of WAR against Japan.