Became Popular in the 1920s in Germany “by taking advantage of [the German] people’s anger and suffering.” 1 Economic woes as of the result of the Treaty of Versailles- including high unemployment and loss of land
He was charismatic and an excellent speaker and was able to convince Germans that he could solve their problems and bring Germany back to glory Mein Kampf (My struggle) Book that Hitler wrote while in jail describing Nazi views on politics, government, and racism
In 1921 “became chairman of the National Socialist German Worker’s Party” (NAZI) “Openly racist, Hitler and the Nazis” declared that “the German people” were superior to every other race. 1 They specifically targeted and blamed Jews for the problems that Germany was experiencing. This “anti-Semitism (hatred of Jews) would…lead to” the holocaust. 5
He was elected “chancellor, or chief minister, of Germany in 1933” and he immediately “ended all democracy and established totalitarian rule.” 1
“Hitler claimed that Germany had a right to expand it’s territory” 1 Against the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler had Germany’s military rebuilt. He “formed an alliance with Italy in 1936.” 1
Insert clip of Hitler – 40 seconds to 1:55 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5KPCl9wh1 G4
1883-1945 Developed theories of fascism Also took advantage of Italy’s economic woes to gain power and became Italy’s Dictator in the 1920s He created a fascist party, became Prime Minister of Italy, and then grabbed power from the Italian King in 1926. He thought he was meant to be Italy’s Caesar and meant to “re-create the Roman Empire.” 11
Allied Italy with Germany in 1939 Eventually became Hitler’s puppet.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Vf_gUv PVUU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Vf_gUv PVUU Till 2:44
In Nazi Germany “racial purity” is the most important. 2 Elitism Both systems believe people are unequal, only a few are born with natural talents (intelligence, artistic ability, strength, etc) These few should rule the rest (the weaker).
Tojo Hideki 1884-1948 A military leader in Japan’s army Worked to strengthen and upgrade Japan’s military force. Advocated for forcing China “to collaborate with Japan” through military force 4 “Pushed for alliance with Germany…and Italy” 4 Became Prime minister in Oct 1941 “gave final approval to” attack the US at Pearl Harbor 4
Emperor Hirohito 1901 – 1989 Emperor of Japan from 1926 until 1989 Came to power when Japan had a Constitutional monarch but the power of the military grew After 1932 all Prime Minsters came from the military Appeared to go along with whatever his military advisors planned.
Neville Chamberlain 1869- 1940 “Prime Minister of [GB] from 1937 to 1940” 8 -Pursued the “policy of appeasement towards Nazi Germany” 8 Allowed Hitler to take Czechoslovakia in 1938 by signing the Munich Agreement Was eventually the one to declare war on Germany for his country after GB had entered into a “Mutual Defense Pact with Poland” 8
Chamberlain cont. Sent 300,000 men to Belgium to fight Germany. They lost and had to retreat Forced to resign in May of 1940 when “Germany invaded the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. Winston Churchill became Prime Minister
Winston Churchill 1874 – 1965 Educated at a British military academy; Sand Hurst Was “a soldier and a journalist” 11 By 1900, he was 26, “had published five books,” and was elected to the British Parliament 11 Elected as a Conservative but then became a Liberal Worked for “progressive social reforms: eight-hour workday…minimum wage..public health insurance” 11
Churchill Cont. Became “secretary of the [British] Navy” and created GB’s Air Force (Royal Naval Air Service) prior to WWI 11 After WWI he became a conservative again After becoming Prime Minister in 1940 he spent his time trying “to keep British spirits high” through his “speeches in Parliament and on the radio” 11 “He persuaded [FDR] to provide [GB with] war supplies – ammunition, guns, tanks, planes…before the [US] even entered the war” 11
1878 – 1953 Totalitarian “dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953” 6 Became interested in Communism in his 20s and joined them in overthrowing Russia’s monarchy The USSR was founded in November 1917 with the overthrow of the Czar. “Transformed [the USSR] from a peasant society to an industrial and military superpower” 6 “Ruled by terror” and killed about 20 million people in his own country 6
Totalitarian regime Stalin had history books rewritten, he controlled the media, and pushed his influence on “artwork, literature, and music” at the time. 6 “ a cult of personality” 6 After he and Hitler signed the “non-aggression pact, Stalin [annexed] parts of Poland and Romania, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.” 6 He then invaded Finland. He “ignored warnings from the [US] and the British, as well as his own intelligence agents” that Hitler would eventually invade the USSR.
Verbal review of last week’s notes www.history.com
Split into groups of two and do Quote activity
1. Appleby, Joyce, Alan Brinkley, and James McPherson. The American Journey. New York: McGraw Hill Glencoe, 2005. 2. Baradat, Leon P. Political Ideologies; Their Origins and Impact. 7 th Edition. Upper Saddle Creek River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2000. Print. 3. Central Intelligence Agency. “Japan.” CIA Worldfactbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2012. Web. 16 Aug 2012. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ja.html 4. Cook, Theodore F. Jr. “Tojo Hideki.” History.com A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2012. Web. 15 Aug 2012. http://www.history.com/topics/tojo-hideki 5. Dowswell, Paul. The Usborne Introduction to The Second World War. New York: Scholastic, Inc. 2005. Print. 6. “Joseph Stalin.” History.com A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2012. Web. 15 Aug 2012. http://www.history.com/topics/joseph-stalin 7. "Neville Chamberlain". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 19 Aug. 2012 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/104904/Neville-Chamberlain 8. “Neville Chamberlain." New World Encyclopedia,. 2 Apr 2008, 04:23 UTC. 19 Aug 2012, 23:25. 9. Sullivan, Brian R. “Benito Mussolini.” The Reader’s Companion to Military History. Ed. Robert Cowley and Geoffrey Parker. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 1996. History.com A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2012. Web. 15 Aug 2012. http://www.history.com/topics/benito-mussolini 10. “Tojo Hirohito.” History.com A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2012. Web. 15 Aug 2012. http://www.history.com/topics/hirohito 11. “Winston Churchill.” History.com A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2012. Web. 15 Aug 2012. http://www.history.com/topics/winston-churchill