2SS5H6 The student will explain the reasons for America’s involvement in World War II. b. Describe major events in the war in both Europe and the Pacific; include Pearl Harbor, Iwo Jima, D-Day, VE and VJ Days, and the Holocaust.c. Discuss President Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.d. Identify Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill, Hirohito, Truman, Mussolini, and Hitler.e. Describe the effects of rationing and the changing role of women and African- Americans; include “Rosie the Riveter” and the Tuskegee Airmen.f. Explain the U.S. role in the formation of the United Nations.I created the ABC book over World War Two so that students can see this information presented in a different way, other than in a textbook or from a teacher’s lecture.
3A is for Adolf HitlerAdolf Hitler was the leader of Germany from 1933 to He believed that Germans were supposed to rule over other people. This belief led to World War II. He also believed that there was no place in the world for Jewish people and that led to the Holocaust."Any alliance whose purpose is not the intention to wage war is senseless and useless" - Adolf Hitler, "Mein Kampf"
4B is for the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Hiroshima was the first city to be bombed on August 6th. Nagasaki followed on August 9th. The main reasoning behind the bombings was to force the Japanese to surrender.Top picture: Nagasaki after the bomb. Bottom picture Hiroshima after the bomb.
5C is for the Coral SeaThe Battle of Coral Sea took place between May 4th and May 8th of The surface ships did not exchange a single shot. Carrier planes did the “attacking”. This battle was the first major setback for the Japanese.
6D is for D-DayOn June 6, 1944, over 130,000 troops from the United States, Britain, Canada, and France stormed the coastline of Normandy, France. The troops took the occupying Germans by surprise. This attack was the largest single-day invasion of all time.
7E is for EinsteinAlbert Einstein became a United States citizen in Einstein encouraged FDR to create an atomic bomb before the Nazis built one themselves.
8F is for FoxholeAfter the Battle of Kasserine Pass, U.S. troops increasingly adopted the modern foxhole, a vertical, bottle-shaped hole that allowed a soldier to stand and fight with head and shoulders exposed. The foxhole widened near the bottom to allow a soldier to crouch down while under intense artillery fire or tank attack. Foxholes could be enlarged to two-man fighting positions, as well as excavated with firing steps for crew-served weapons or sumps for water drainage or grenade disposal.
9G is for GuadalcanalThe Battle of Guadalcanal was one of the most important battles of World War II. The assault on the Japanese-occupied island of Guadalcanal by the Allied navies and 16,000 United States troops on 7 August, 1942, was the first offensive by US land forces in the Pacific Campaign.
10H is for the HolocaustThis was the purposeful killing of the Jewish people who were living in Europe at this time. This purpose was nearly fulfilled—out of an estimated 9.5 million Jews living in Europe before the war, about 6 million were killed.
11I is for Iwo JimaThe Battle of Iwo Jima took place during World War II between the United States and Japan. It was the first major battle of World War II to take place on Japanese homeland. The island of Iwo Jima was a strategic location because the U.S. needed a place for fighter planes and bombers to land and take off when attacking Japan.
12J is for Joseph StalinOne of the most ruthless dictators of modern times was Joseph Stalin, the despot who transformed the Soviet Union into a major world power.“History has shown there are no invincible armies.” ― Joseph Stalin
13K is for Kamikaze Pilots Japanese Kamikaze pilots are legendary for their willingness to sacrifice their lives for their emperor and country during World War II. These pilots intentionally crashed their planes into Allied forces.
14L is for Land mineOne of the most destructive weapons used in the war was the land mine, millions of which were placed throughout Europe, North Africa, and the Pacific islands. Every participant in the war used mines, and they came in dozens of shapes, sizes, and designs.
15M is for MidwayOn June 3–6, 1942, two American naval task forces and land-based planes from Midway Island intercepted 160 Japanese ships west of Midway. In a pitched air-sea battle the Japanese were repulsed, losing four carriers, two heavy cruisers, three destroyers, and 330 planes. This decisive defeat stopped the Japanese eastward advance in the Pacific. It is considered the turning point of the war in that theater.
16N is for the Nazi PartyThe Nazi Party was a political group that ruled Germany between 1933 and “Nazi” is a short form of the official name. In English the official name is the National Socialist German Workers' Party. Under Adolf Hitler's leadership, the Nazis started World War II. They also carried out the Holocaust—the murder of about 6 million Jewish people.
17O is for OkinawaThe battle of Okinawa, also known as Operation Iceberg, took place in April-June It was the largest amphibious landing in the Pacific theater of World War II. It also resulted in the largest casualties with over 100,000 Japanese casualties and 50,000 casualties for the Allies. This article gives an account of the 80 day plus battle for the Island of Okinawa which some have described as the "typhoon of steel".
18P is for Pearl HarborThe Imperial Japanese Navy made its attack on Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, was aimed at the Pacific Fleet of the United States Navy and its defending Army Air Corps and Marine air forces. This attack was the reason the United States declared war on Japan, and ultimately, joining World War Two.FDR speech about Pearl Harbor to Congress:“Yesterday, Dec. 7, a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan…”
19Q is for Q-ShipsThese were heavily armed merchant ships designed to lure submarines out of water so they could attack. They were used by the United States as a counter-measure for German U-boats and Japanese submarines.
20R is for Rosie the Riveter Rosie the Riveter is a cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories during World War II, many of whom produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military. Rosie the Riveter is commonly used as a symbol of feminism and women's economic power.
21S is for SeabeesThe Navy created Construction Battalions (from which the abbreviation "C.B." became Seabees). They went around building bases and completed other construction jobs for the military. These people were not armed and had to rely on the Navy for protection.
22T is for the Tuskegee Airmen The Tuskegee Airmen were the first African-American military aviators in the United States armed forces. During World War II, African Americans in many U.S. states were still subject to the Jim Crow laws. The American military was racially segregated, as was much of the federal government. The Tuskegee Airmen were subjected to racial discrimination, both within and outside the army.
23U is for the United Nations The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the UN Charter had been ratified by a majority of the original 51 Member States. The purpose of the United Nations is to bring all nations of the world together to work for peace and development, based on the principles of justice, human dignity and the well-being of all people. It affords the opportunity for countries to balance global interdependence and national interests when addressing international problems.
24V is for VE and VJ daysV-E Day stands for Victory in Europe Day, and V-J Day stands for Victory over Japan Day. After the German surrender, a treaty was signed in Reims, France, the headquarters of U.S. general Dwight D. Eisenhower. In the early hours of May 7, 1945, U.S. President Harry S Truman declared May 8 V-E Day, the end of World War II in Europe. The war did not reach a final conclusion until the surrender of Japan on August 14, September 2, 1945, was declared the official V-J Day because Japan signed the terms of surrender on that date aboard the battleship USS Missouri, anchored in Tokyo Bay.
25W is for Winston Churchill Winston Churchill was the British Prime Minister during World War Two. He was the one who sent commando units to disrupt the German forces. He met with many different wartime leaders while he was in office.“Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that if the British Empire and Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, This was their finest hour.”-Winston Churchill
26X is for X-DayX-Day as in the name for the D-day of the invasion of the Japanese home islands. X-Day would have marked the beginning of the invasion of the Japanese home islands with the invasion of Kyushu.
27Y is for YamamotoIsoroku Yamamoto was the Japanese naval commander during the war. He planned the attack on Pearl Harbor. He believed that he needed the time after the attack to build up his fleet without American interference.“I fear all we have done is awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve.”- Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, upon learning of the success of the attack on Pearl Harbor
28Z is for ZhukovGeorgy Zhukov is known as the most successful Russian general in World War Two. Zhukov effectively led the attack on Berlin in April/May 1945 and throughout the whole Russian campaign was known as the ‘man who did not lose a battle’.“The longer the battle lasts the more force we’ll have to use!”-Georgy Zhukov