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The U.S. in WWII 1942-43. Ernest J. King George C. Marshall Chester W. Nimitz Ernest J. King George C. Marshall Chester W. Nimitz.

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Presentation on theme: "The U.S. in WWII 1942-43. Ernest J. King George C. Marshall Chester W. Nimitz Ernest J. King George C. Marshall Chester W. Nimitz."— Presentation transcript:

1 The U.S. in WWII

2 Ernest J. King George C. Marshall Chester W. Nimitz Ernest J. King George C. Marshall Chester W. Nimitz

3 Japanese Offensives of

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5 The Philippines hold out…

6 …until May 1942 Journey into captivity since known as the “Bataan Death March” Journey into captivity since known as the “Bataan Death March”

7 U.S. Navy raids Japanese bases

8 Battle of the Coral Sea, May 3-8, 1942

9 First Carrier Battle Shoho, Lexington sunk Shoho, Lexington sunk Japanese invasion turned back Japanese invasion turned back

10 Battle of Midway, June 4-5, 1942 Japanese carrier force destroyed Japanese carrier force destroyed Yorktown also sunk Yorktown also sunk

11 Allied Strategic Issues “Germany First”: “Germany First”: What was the best way to knock Germany out of the war? What was the best way to knock Germany out of the war?

12 The British or “Peripheral” Strategy Strategic bombing. Strategic bombing. Aid to the U.S.S.R. Aid to the U.S.S.R. Support subversive activities in occupied Europe. Support subversive activities in occupied Europe. Employ armored, mobile forces on edges of German-controlled territory. Employ armored, mobile forces on edges of German-controlled territory. Avoid direct, large-scale confrontation with Wehrmacht until risk minimal. Avoid direct, large-scale confrontation with Wehrmacht until risk minimal.

13 Strategy of U.S. military planners. Defeat of Germany required large-scale land operation in northwest Europe. Defeat of Germany required large-scale land operation in northwest Europe. Sought to engage and destroy Wehrmacht as soon as feasible Sought to engage and destroy Wehrmacht as soon as feasible Constrained by need to mobilize men and material. Constrained by need to mobilize men and material. Reflected appreciation of...? Reflected appreciation of...?

14 U.S.-proposed operations for Europe. Operation BOLERO: Operation BOLERO: Build-up of U.S. ground and air forces in England starting in Build-up of U.S. ground and air forces in England starting in Operation SLEDGEHAMMER: Operation SLEDGEHAMMER: Emergency invasion in Europe for Emergency invasion in Europe for Operation ROUNDUP Operation ROUNDUP Larger invasion envisioned for Larger invasion envisioned for 1943.

15 Churchill proposes another idea… The invasion of northwest Africa. The invasion of northwest Africa. Reflects British strategy. Reflects British strategy. Assists current Allied operations against Rommel’s Afrika Korps Assists current Allied operations against Rommel’s Afrika Korps

16 The decision for Operation TORCH Roosevelt: committed to engaging U.S. ground troops against German forces in Roosevelt: committed to engaging U.S. ground troops against German forces in British: absolutely opposed to SLEDGEHAMMER British: absolutely opposed to SLEDGEHAMMER

17 The Consequences of TORCH Cross-Channel invasion delayed: Cross-Channel invasion delayed: Partially due to ongoing material shortages. Partially due to ongoing material shortages. Partially due to momentum generated by Allied forces committed to the Mediterranean. Partially due to momentum generated by Allied forces committed to the Mediterranean.

18 But as time goes on… Approach of U.S. military planners comes to dominate Allied strategy. Approach of U.S. military planners comes to dominate Allied strategy. With some help from Stalin. With some help from Stalin. Reflects changing nature of Anglo- American relationship. Reflects changing nature of Anglo- American relationship. U.S. planners at times will threaten to divert more resources to Pacific War. U.S. planners at times will threaten to divert more resources to Pacific War.

19 Mechanisms for Cooperation U.S. creates the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (JCS) U.S. creates the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (JCS) U.S. JCS joins with British counterparts to create the Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS). U.S. JCS joins with British counterparts to create the Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS). British and U.S. create joint and combined commands for particular geographic areas as well. British and U.S. create joint and combined commands for particular geographic areas as well.

20 Manpower & Selective Service 1942: all males required to register. 1942: all males required to register. Upper limit ultimately dropped to 38. Upper limit ultimately dropped to 38. During war, 36 million men registered During war, 36 million men registered 10 million inducted into military 10 million inducted into military 6.4 million rejected (mostly for medical reasons) 6.4 million rejected (mostly for medical reasons)

21 How many served? 16 million, between Dec and Dec million, between Dec and Dec At war’s end, 12 million people in uniform. At war’s end, 12 million people in uniform. 1/6 of U.S. male population served. 1/6 of U.S. male population served. Army creates only 90 divisions. Army creates only 90 divisions.

22 Labor and the war The induction of so many young adult men, combined with war demands, created labor needs filled by other groups: The induction of so many young adult men, combined with war demands, created labor needs filled by other groups: Women Women African Americans African Americans Agricultural laborers Agricultural laborers Retirees Retirees

23 Labor demand spurred migration Workers came from Southern & Prairie states. Workers came from Southern & Prairie states. Went to factories in North & East, parts of Midwest, and the Pacific coast. Went to factories in North & East, parts of Midwest, and the Pacific coast.

24 Industrial Mobilization Goes smoother, more efficient than WWI. Goes smoother, more efficient than WWI. Problems with competing needs, multiple demands for resources. Problems with competing needs, multiple demands for resources. Agencies created to centralize mobilization policy: Agencies created to centralize mobilization policy: War Production Board (1942) War Production Board (1942) Office of War Mobilization (1943) Office of War Mobilization (1943)

25 Harnessing Science Government agencies contracted with university and industrial labs to pursue war-related research & development products. Government agencies contracted with university and industrial labs to pursue war-related research & development products.

26 The Intelligence War ULTRA: highest classification of intelligence gained from breaking Axis codes. ULTRA: highest classification of intelligence gained from breaking Axis codes. Much came from British breaking German Enigma codes. Much came from British breaking German Enigma codes. MAGIC: intelligence gained from U.S. ability to break Japanese “Purple” codes. MAGIC: intelligence gained from U.S. ability to break Japanese “Purple” codes.

27 Important use of intelligence: The Battle of the Atlantic

28 Defeat of the U-boats stemmed from: Building merchant ships Building merchant ships Building escorts Building escorts Convoys Convoys Better air cover Better air cover Intelligence Intelligence Technology Technology

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31 Guadalcanal: August 1942 – February 1943 Campaign encompasses ground, sea & air combat. Campaign encompasses ground, sea & air combat. 7 major naval battles 7 major naval battles

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37 Meanwhile, in New Guinea… Australian & U.S. troops stop a Japanese overland advance towards Port Moresby (July-Sept. 1942). Australian & U.S. troops stop a Japanese overland advance towards Port Moresby (July-Sept. 1942).

38 MacArthur’s forces drive Japanese troops back Take Buna on north coast by end of Take Buna on north coast by end of 1942.

39 Pacific Commanders William Halsey William Halsey Douglas MacArthur Douglas MacArthur

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42 Operation CARTWHEEL: June 1943-March 1944

43 Germany First? Into 1943, U.S. sends about same number of ground troops & planes to Europe and Japan. Into 1943, U.S. sends about same number of ground troops & planes to Europe and Japan. Most ships deployed to Pacific. Most ships deployed to Pacific.

44 Operation TORCH: November 8, 1942

45 Allied forces stymied in Tunis Will hook up with Montgomery’s British 8 th Army in March. Will hook up with Montgomery’s British 8 th Army in March.

46 U.S. troops routed at Kasserine Pass, February 1943

47 Strategy Conference: Casablanca, January 1943 Invasion of Sicily approved. Invasion of Sicily approved. Operation HUSKY Operation HUSKY Churchill proposes invasion of Italy Churchill proposes invasion of Italy Cross-Channel invasion to be delayed to Cross-Channel invasion to be delayed to 1944.

48 Sicily: July-August, 1943

49 July 1943: Mussolini overthrown Germans react quickly. Germans react quickly. Italians don’t want to fight for the Allies. Italians don’t want to fight for the Allies.

50 Allied forces land in September

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52 Italy 1944: Anzio & Cassino

53 Images of Monte Cassino

54 Rome captured June 4, 1944

55 Tehran Conference: November-December, 1943 Western Allies commit to cross-Channel invasion in Western Allies commit to cross-Channel invasion in Operation OVERLORD Operation OVERLORD Also agree to an invasion of southern France. Also agree to an invasion of southern France.


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