Presentation on theme: "A2 Historical enquiry: India and the British Empire, 1757-1947."— Presentation transcript:
A2 Historical enquiry: India and the British Empire, 1757-1947
The effect of the second world war Do you agree with Ferguson that ‘Events in India revealed the weakness of the nationalist movement and the resilience of the Raj.’?
Key events 9/39 Linlithgow declared war; Congress resigned 3/40 Jinnah demanded ‘Pakistan’ 8/41: the Atlantic Charter raised Indian hopes of independence, which Churchill quashed 12/40 Fall of Singapore 3/42: Cripps mission offered dominion status after war in return for loyalty during it 8/42 Quit India movement put down using Revolutionary Movement Ordinance 1943 Bengal famine, tackled by Viceroy Wavell with little support from Britain 11/44 Wavell asked the cabinet to put negotiations for withdrawal in place at once 3/45 Churchill finally agreed 8/5/45 VE day – followed by General Election; Labour elected
p.92 Why was Viceroy Linlithgow’s declaration of war so provocative to Indians? Context of promises of autonomy – war announced without warning or consultation with Indian political leaders Irony of ‘dictation of a foreign power’
p.93 What was Jinnah trying to achieve by allowing this resolution to be passed? Lahore Resolution Asking for ‘independent states’ but in reality he was still trying to achieve a federal structure for the whole of India Demanded creation of Pakistan – arguing tactically for far more than he really thought possible or desirable in order to achieve more than a realistic demand would
p.100 Why was the situation which Cripps describes in March 1942 so dangerous for the British? Unrest + hunger = ingredients for revolution
p. 102 Do you see this resolution as similar or different from previous non-co-operation movements? Similar but on a nationwide scale and with bluntly stated objective of Quit India Also similar in that it was called off but this time because of levels of repression used by the British, rather than because Indians resorted to violence
p.103 Is it true that Linlithgow faced as serious a threat to British control as in 1857? In some ways more so, as the movement had organisation, leadership, aim, unity, international sympathy On the other hand the British were prepared for the protest and quickly implemented Revolutionary Movement Ordinance, suppressed it within 4 months
p.103 (Churchill) and p.106 (Wavell bottom of page) How are these sources useful in explaining why the Second World War was a turning point in Britain’s relationship with India? Churchill’s speech shows his lack of understanding of the situation in India – may not be able to keep hold of India Amery’s comment shows Churchill’s lack of appreciation of Indian contribution Wavell/Amery – agree that Churchill deeply misunderstood the situation He mishandled situation by offering too little, too late in 1940 and 1942, failing to respond to Atlantic Charter, failing to alleviate Bengal famine
p.108 Why, despite his own attempts to alleviate the famine, did Wavell think this? Because the British had been so slow to supply relief to the victims
Nationalists successful in forcing British out Other factors caused British withdrawal
Is it a case of Indians forcing the British out or a return to the factors we studied last half term? Britain is under pressure – Quit India campaign isn’t a success on the face of it but it helped to chip away further at British authority
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