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Topic 21: The Second World War Topic 22: The Home Front During The War.

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Presentation on theme: "Topic 21: The Second World War Topic 22: The Home Front During The War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topic 21: The Second World War Topic 22: The Home Front During The War

2 Political Philosophies  1. Democracy – a system of government in which the people have the power to rule, either directly or indirectly through their elected officials  2. Capitalism – an economic system in which private individuals and corporations own and operate most means of production

3 Political Philosophies  3. Socialism – belief that the means of production capital, land, raw materials, factories should be owned and controlled by society  4. Communism – a society without class distinctions or private property (equality?)

4 Road To WWII  Totalitarian regimes gain power in Europe 1920’s-1930’s  Totalitarianism – total control over every aspect of citizen’s lives - a form of dictatorship

5 Fascism  Political Philosophy based on nationalism and 1 single party system  Like communism, state has absolute authority  Unlike communism, defends private property and social classes

6 Totalitarian Rulers  1. Benito Mussolini – (Italy) fascist  2. Adolf Hitler – (Germany) gains power 1933  3. Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union (Communist)  4.Japanese Military dictatorship 1930’s

7 Anti-Comintern Pact, 1937  Alliance formed: Germany, Italy, Japan  Pledge to oppose international communism

8 Nazi- Soviet Pact, 1939  Stalin (U.S.S.R.) Signs non- aggression pact with Hitler (Germany)

9 Hitler Invaded…  1.Rhineland, 1936  Region between Germany & France  2. Austria 1938  3. Sudentenland 1938 (Czechoslovakia)

10 Hitler Invaded…(Cont’d)  Poland Sept. 1 st, 1939  Great Britain & France declare war on Germany  WWII officially begins

11 Why Didn’t Anyone Stop Hitler Prior To Sept. 1 st 1939 ?  The “Appeasement” Policy:  Allowing aggressors to have what they want…  In the hope they will demand no more

12 2 Sides  ALLIES:  1. Great Britain  2. France  3. U.S. (joins 1941)  4. Soviet Union (joins 1941 After Hitler betrays Stalin)  AXIS POWERS:  1. Germany  2. Italy (will switch sides eventually)  3. Japan

13 (1940) Meanwhile, Hitler…  Invades and conquers Northern Europe  Denmark, Norway 1940

14 And Conquered France!  Germans attack May 10, 1940  France surrenders June 22, 1940  Defeat of France shocks the world

15 Battle of Britain  Great Britain bombed Aug  1 night 70,000 fire bombs dropped  Massive destruction  Great Britain Defeats Germans …barely

16 Battle of Britain, 1940  Winston Churchill asked American President Franklin Roosevelt for help  “Cash & Carry Policy” enacted

17 American “Neutrality” 1939  Neutrality Act of 1939  U.S. neutrality in name, not in deed.  Allowed for sale of American weapons/ supplies to European allies on a  “Cash-and-Carry” basis

18 “Destroyers for Bases” Deal, 1940  U.S. provided Britain with older naval ships (50)  In return,  U.S. gained rights to establish military bases in British held Caribbean islands

19 American President FDR  Franklin D. Roosevelt ran for 3 rd term (1940)  Won 54% of popular vote  “better a third term than a third rater”

20 Roosevelt’s Address to Congress (1940 )  To Protect “4 Freedoms”  1. Freedom of Speech  2. Freedom of Religion  3. Freedom of Want  4. Freedom of Fear

21 Lend Lease Act, 1941  Allowed Britain to borrow U.S. war materials  FDR & British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met secretly

22 Atlantic Charter (Churchill & FDR), 1941  1. Self determination of people  2. Free trade  3. disarmament  The Cornerstones of a world free of fascism

23 Operation Barbarossa, 1941  Hitler Betrayed Stalin!  And invaded the Soviet Union in June!  And then winter began…

24 “Big Three”  Stalin Joined the Allies  “Big Three” = Roosevelt (U.S.), Churchill (Great Britain), Stalin (Soviet Union)  Agree to defeating Hitler

25 Holocaust  1941 – extermination of Jews, people of color, Gypsies, Clergy, disabled  Gestapo = secret police arrest opponents of Hitler

26 Concentration Camps  transported to concentration camps  6 million Jews Killed, 6 Million Non- Jews Killed

27 Persecution of Gypsies  Roma People  From various parts of Europe  250,000 – 500,000 Die in the Holocaust

28 Japan  1. Conquered Manchuria 1931  2. Invaded China 1937  Nanking- 200,000 Chinese citizens killed  3. Invaded Indo- China (Vietnam)

29 Tripartite Pact  1940 An Alliance between Germany, Japan, Italy

30 President Roosevelt, In response to Japanese Aggression …  Froze Japanese assets in U.S.  Restricted oil exports to Japan  Placed embargo on sale of scrap iron to Japan

31 Japanese Leader  General Hideki Tojo planned secret attack on the U.S. Pacific fleet

32 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii  December 7, 1941  Japanese planes attacked American fleet  2,400 die  1,200 wounded

33 Statistics  8 Battleships sunk  10 other ships damaged  Including the U.S.S. Arizona  200 planes destroyed

34 Why Pearl Harbor?  Key American military base in the Pacific  Dec. 8 : President Roosevelt declared war on Japan  Dec. 11: Germany & Italy declared war on U.S.

35 Pearl Harbor…  “Yesterday, December 7 th,1941, a date which will live in infamy” - FDR

36 APUSH Chapter 35: America in WWII

37 Executive Order 9066  Feb 19, 1942  100,000 people of Japanese descent (Nisei)  On West Coast  Removed from homes  Placed in “relocation camps”  More 60% were U.S. citizens  1/3 under the age of 19

38 Korematsu vs. United States (1944)  RE: Japanese Internment  Supreme Court decided that in times of war, the curbing of civil rights is justified.  1988 U.S. government formally apologized paid surviving families $20,000

39 Japanese Internment Camps  - -

40 Manzanar

41 Santa Anita Racetrack Assembly Center

42 Economic Impact of War in U.S.  1. War Industry/ Defense Jobs  8 million people moved West of the Mississippi  African Americans Moved West  2. “Bracero Program” ,000 Mexican farm workers recruited to work in fields (temporarily)

43 Economic Impact of the war  The end of the Great Depression  Defense jobs  American factories bombarded the enemy with the production of weapons, goods, supplies

44 Native American “Code Talkers”  Every military branch used Native American  “code talkers” to encode & decipher secret messages  Using Native Am. Languages

45 “Rosie the Riveter”  Recruitment campaign  women in defense/ “male” jobs:  Toolmakers, machinists, crane operators, shipyard workers, weapons manufacturing  6 million entered workforce

46 260,000 Additional Women Joined…  Signed up for…  1.Women’s Army Corp (WACs)  2.Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service (WAVES)

47 260,000 Additional Women Joined…  3.Women’s Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFs)  Female pilots  Team of 28  Transported soldiers, light aircraft

48 260,000 Additional Women Joined…  4. U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps  20 nursing schools in the country  Government paid training

49 “Rosie” at Work…

50 Wartime Migrations  Wartime Jobs caused population shifts  California grew by 2 million  1.6 million African Americans moved west and north

51 Naval Battles, 1942  Battles in the Pacific  1. Battle of Coral Sea (May)  2. Battle of Midway (June)

52 Kamikazes  Japanese suicide bombers  Crashed into American aircraft carriers in the Pacific

53 “Operation Overlord” – “D- DAY”, 1944  Turning point in war  176,000 Allied Soldiers  British, Canadian, American Troops  600 warships, 10,000 aircraft  Landed in…  Normandy, France

54 “D-Day”  Launched “amphibious” offensive against German army  June 6, 1944  Allies won – Germans forced to retreat August. 25

55 And… Allies Liberated Paris, France!

56 Battle of the Bulge- December, 1944  Allied Forces continue towards Belgium  Faced defensive attack by German forces

57 Allies in Germany  British & American Air force bombed urban centers  1945

58 Yalta Conference, Feb  “The Big Three”  1. Franklin D. Roosevelt (U.S.)  2. Winston Churchill (G.B.),  3. Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)

59 Yalta Conference, 1945  THE Big Three  Agree to divide Germany into 4 Zones:  1. Soviets will control east  2. U.S., Great Britain, France will control western Germany  Berlin, Germany = joint occupation  Germany to pay $20 billion in war reparations

60 Death of Franklin D. Roosevelt  Died Suddenly April, 1945  V.P. sworn is as President-  Harry Truman

61 May, 1945  Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945  Nazis surrendered May 7, 1945  Was the war over?  Japan did not surrender

62 Manhattan Project  American President Harry S. Truman  considered turning to the top secret “Manhattan project” – Atomic Bomb

63 Atomic Bomb  $2 million top secret American experiment  First A-bomb tested July,  In southwestern desert

64 Truman’s Choice  Orders military to drop A-Bomb on Japan  If they don’t surrender by August 3.  Moral debates ensue

65 August 6, Hiroshima  B-29 bomber airplane called Enola Gay  Dropped 5 ton uranium bomb (“little boy”)  Hiroshima, Japan  80,000 people killed  60,000 more died of radiation poisoning by the end of the year

66 August 9, Nagasaki  Second bomb dropped (“ Fat man”) in  Nagasaki, Japan  Another 60,000 people die  Japan surrenders September 2, 1945

67 Spring, 1945  Allies liberated Concentration Camps

68 WWII Aftermath…  Million People died  Half are civilians (Holocaust, Atomic bomb)  “Crimes against humanity” enters vocabulary – refers to atrocities committed by Nazis  2010 Population in California : 38 Million  2010 Population in Canada: 34 million

69 More about…

70 Effects on American Life  1. Increase in productivity  2. Full employment  3. End of Great Depression

71 Effects on American Life  4. New Technologies:  radar, computers, electronics, rockets, atomic energy

72 Effects on American Life  5. Opportunities for women, minorities  Desegregation of armed forces AFTER the war  Women earned 2/3rds of male pay

73 Effects on American Life  6. G.I. Bill :  “Servicemen’s Readjustment Act”  College scholarships, home loans, small business loans for returning vets

74 Wartime Race Riots in the U.S.  Summer 1943 :  Race riots in Detroit Michigan, Baltimore Maryland, Los Angles California

75 1. Riots in Detroit  June20th- June 21 st, 1943  Public housing for African Americans in “white neighborhood”  Caused protests/riots  Police brutality  6,000 Federal Troops called in  30 dead

76 2. Zoot Suit Riots, Los Angeles  June, 1943  Navy sailors stationed in L.A. & Long Beach  VS.  Mexican American “Zoot Suiters”

77 2. Riots in Los Angeles  Mob of Servicemen  Look for and beat  “Zoot Suiters”  Lasted 10 days

78 Zoot Suit Riots  Riots ended when  Military declared Downtown L.A.  “Out of bounds” for servicemen

79 As A Result of WWII… Impact of our Modern World…

80 1. Two World Powers Emerge  United States  And…  The Soviet Union

81 2. Marshall Plan is Established  1948 “Economic Recovery Act”  U.S. Plan to re-build + re-construct  European countries  Western Europe accepts help = growth & prosperity  Eastern Europe…does not

82 3. United Nations is Formed  Founded 1945  Focus:  1. international law  2. international security  3.economic development  4. social progress  5. human rights

83 4. The Nation of Israel  UN Partition Plan  Divides Palestine into  Jewish & Arab states  Conflict remains to this day

84 5. Eventually Leads to Berlin Wall Berlin, Germany divided amongst Allies  Soviet Union demands removal of Westerners from Berlin  Builds wall 1961  East Germans cut off from rest of the world

85 Berlin Wall Falls,1989


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