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WWII Chapter 34: FDR & Shadow of War

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1 WWII 1939-1945 Chapter 34: FDR & Shadow of War
Topic 21: The Second World War Topic 22: The Home Front During The War WWII Chapter 34: FDR & Shadow of War

2 Political Philosophies
1. Democracy – a system of government in which the people have the power to rule, either directly or indirectly through their elected officials 2. Capitalism – an economic system in which private individuals and corporations own and operate most means of production

3 Political Philosophies
3. Socialism – belief that the means of production capital, land, raw materials, factories should be owned and controlled by society 4. Communism – a society without class distinctions or private property (equality?)

4 Road To WWII Totalitarian regimes gain power in Europe 1920’s-1930’s
Totalitarianism – total control over every aspect of citizen’s lives - a form of dictatorship

5 Fascism Political Philosophy based on nationalism and 1 single party system Like communism, state has absolute authority Unlike communism, defends private property and social classes

6 Totalitarian Rulers 1. Benito Mussolini – (Italy) fascist
2. Adolf Hitler – (Germany) gains power 1933 3. Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union (Communist) 4.Japanese Military dictatorship 1930’s

7 Anti-Comintern Pact, 1937 Alliance formed: Germany, Italy, Japan
Pledge to oppose international communism

8 Nazi- Soviet Pact, 1939 Stalin (U.S.S.R.) Signs non- aggression pact with Hitler (Germany)

9 Hitler Invaded… 1.Rhineland, 1936 Region between Germany & France
2. Austria 1938 3. Sudentenland (Czechoslovakia)

10 Hitler Invaded…(Cont’d)
Poland Sept. 1st, 1939 Great Britain & France declare war on Germany WWII officially begins

11 Why Didn’t Anyone Stop Hitler Prior To Sept. 1st 1939?
The “Appeasement” Policy: Allowing aggressors to have what they want… In the hope they will demand no more

12 2 Sides ALLIES: 1. Great Britain 2. France 3. U.S. (joins 1941)
4. Soviet Union (joins After Hitler betrays Stalin) AXIS POWERS: 1. Germany 2. Italy (will switch sides eventually) 3. Japan

13 (1940) Meanwhile, Hitler… Invades and conquers Northern Europe
Denmark, Norway 1940

14 And Conquered France! Germans attack May 10, 1940
France surrenders June 22, 1940 Defeat of France shocks the world

15 Battle of Britain Great Britain bombed Aug. 1940
1 night 70,000 fire bombs dropped Massive destruction Great Britain Defeats Germans …barely

16 Battle of Britain, 1940 Winston Churchill asked American President Franklin Roosevelt for help “Cash & Carry Policy” enacted

17 American “Neutrality” 1939
Neutrality Act of 1939 U.S. neutrality in name, not in deed. Allowed for sale of American weapons/ supplies to European allies on a “Cash-and-Carry” basis

18 “Destroyers for Bases” Deal, 1940
U.S. provided Britain with older naval ships (50) In return, U.S. gained rights to establish military bases in British held Caribbean islands

19 American President FDR
Franklin D. Roosevelt ran for 3rd term (1940) Won 54% of popular vote “better a third term than a third rater”

20 Roosevelt’s Address to Congress (1940)
To Protect “4 Freedoms” 1. Freedom of Speech 2. Freedom of Religion 3. Freedom of Want 4. Freedom of Fear

21 Lend Lease Act, 1941 Allowed Britain to borrow U.S. war materials
FDR & British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met secretly

22 Atlantic Charter (Churchill & FDR), 1941
1. Self determination of people 2. Free trade 3. disarmament The Cornerstones of a world free of fascism

23 Operation Barbarossa, 1941 Hitler Betrayed Stalin!
And invaded the Soviet Union in June! And then winter began…

24 “Big Three” - 1941 Stalin Joined the Allies
“Big Three” = Roosevelt (U.S.), Churchill (Great Britain), Stalin (Soviet Union) Agree to defeating Hitler

25 Holocaust 1941 – extermination of Jews, people of color, Gypsies, Clergy, disabled Gestapo = secret police arrest opponents of Hitler

26 Concentration Camps 1942- transported to concentration camps
6 million Jews Killed, 6 Million Non- Jews Killed

27 Persecution of Gypsies
Roma People From various parts of Europe 250,000 – 500,000 Die in the Holocaust

28 Japan 1. Conquered Manchuria 1931 2. Invaded China 1937
Nanking- 200,000 Chinese citizens killed 3. Invaded Indo- China (Vietnam)

29 Tripartite Pact 1940 An Alliance between Germany, Japan, Italy

30 President Roosevelt, In response to Japanese Aggression…
Froze Japanese assets in U.S. Restricted oil exports to Japan Placed embargo on sale of scrap iron to Japan

31 Japanese Leader General Hideki Tojo planned secret attack on the U.S. Pacific fleet

32 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii December 7, 1941
Japanese planes attacked American fleet 2,400 die 1,200 wounded

33 Statistics 8 Battleships sunk 10 other ships damaged
Including the U.S.S. Arizona 200 planes destroyed

34 Why Pearl Harbor? Key American military base in the Pacific
Dec. 8 : President Roosevelt declared war on Japan Dec. 11: Germany & Italy declared war on U.S.

35 Pearl Harbor… “Yesterday, December 7th,1941, a date which will live in infamy” - FDR

36 Chapter 35: America in WWII

37 Executive Order 9066 Feb 19, 1942 100,000 people of Japanese descent (Nisei) On West Coast Removed from homes Placed in “relocation camps” More 60% were U.S. citizens 1/3 under the age of 19

38 Korematsu vs. United States (1944)
RE: Japanese Internment Supreme Court decided that in times of war, the curbing of civil rights is justified. 1988 U.S. government formally apologized paid surviving families $20,000

39 Japanese Internment Camps

40 Manzanar

41 Santa Anita Racetrack Assembly Center

42 Economic Impact of War in U.S.
1. War Industry/ Defense Jobs 8 million people moved West of the Mississippi African Americans Moved West 2. “Bracero Program” ,000 Mexican farm workers recruited to work in fields (temporarily)

43 Economic Impact of the war
The end of the Great Depression Defense jobs American factories bombarded the enemy with the production of weapons, goods, supplies

44 Native American “Code Talkers”
Every military branch used Native American “code talkers” to encode & decipher secret messages Using Native Am. Languages

45 “Rosie the Riveter” Recruitment campaign
women in defense/ “male” jobs: Toolmakers, machinists, crane operators, shipyard workers, weapons manufacturing 6 million entered workforce

46 260,000 Additional Women Joined…
Signed up for… 1.Women’s Army Corp (WACs) 2.Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service (WAVES)

47 260,000 Additional Women Joined…
3.Women’s Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFs) Female pilots Team of 28 Transported soldiers, light aircraft

48 260,000 Additional Women Joined…
4. U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps 20 nursing schools in the country Government paid training

49 “Rosie” at Work…

50 Wartime Migrations Wartime Jobs caused population shifts
California grew by 2 million 1.6 million African Americans moved west and north

51 Naval Battles, 1942 Battles in the Pacific
1. Battle of Coral Sea (May) 2. Battle of Midway (June)

52 Kamikazes Japanese suicide bombers
Crashed into American aircraft carriers in the Pacific

53 “Operation Overlord” – “D-DAY”, 1944
Turning point in war 176,000 Allied Soldiers British, Canadian, American Troops 600 warships, 10,000 aircraft Landed in… Normandy, France

54 “D-Day” Launched “amphibious” offensive against German army
June 6, 1944 Allies won – Germans forced to retreat August. 25

55 And… Allies Liberated Paris, France!

56 Battle of the Bulge- December, 1944
Allied Forces continue towards Belgium Faced defensive attack by German forces

57 Allies in Germany British & American Air force bombed urban centers

58 Yalta Conference, Feb. 1945 “The Big Three”
1. Franklin D. Roosevelt (U.S.) 2. Winston Churchill (G.B.), 3. Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)

59 Yalta Conference, 1945 THE Big Three
Agree to divide Germany into 4 Zones: 1. Soviets will control east 2. U.S., Great Britain, France will control western Germany Berlin, Germany = joint occupation Germany to pay $20 billion in war reparations

60 Death of Franklin D. Roosevelt
Died Suddenly April, 1945 V.P. sworn is as President- Harry Truman

61 May, 1945 Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945
Nazis surrendered May 7, 1945 Was the war over? Japan did not surrender

62 Manhattan Project American President Harry S. Truman
considered turning to the top secret “Manhattan project” – Atomic Bomb

63 Atomic Bomb $2 million top secret American experiment
First A-bomb tested July, In southwestern desert

64 Truman’s Choice Orders military to drop A-Bomb on Japan
If they don’t surrender by August 3. Moral debates ensue

65 August 6, 1945 - Hiroshima B-29 bomber airplane called Enola Gay
Dropped 5 ton uranium bomb (“little boy”) Hiroshima, Japan 80,000 people killed 60,000 more died of radiation poisoning by the end of the year

66 August 9, 1945 - Nagasaki Second bomb dropped (“ Fat man”) in
Nagasaki, Japan Another 60,000 people die Japan surrenders September 2, 1945

67 Spring, 1945 Allies liberated Concentration Camps

68 WWII Aftermath… 55-60 Million People died
Half are civilians (Holocaust, Atomic bomb) “Crimes against humanity” enters vocabulary – refers to atrocities committed by Nazis 2010 Population in California : 38 Million 2010 Population in Canada: 34 million

69 More about… American Life, 1940’s

70 Effects on American Life
1. Increase in productivity 2. Full employment 3. End of Great Depression

71 Effects on American Life
4. New Technologies: radar, computers, electronics, rockets, atomic energy

72 Effects on American Life
5. Opportunities for women, minorities Desegregation of armed forces AFTER the war Women earned 2/3rds of male pay

73 Effects on American Life
6. G.I. Bill : “Servicemen’s Readjustment Act” College scholarships, home loans, small business loans for returning vets

74 Wartime Race Riots in the U.S.
Summer 1943 : Race riots in Detroit Michigan, Baltimore Maryland, Los Angles California

75 1. Riots in Detroit June20th- June 21st, 1943
Public housing for African Americans in “white neighborhood” Caused protests/riots Police brutality 6,000 Federal Troops called in 30 dead

76 2. Zoot Suit Riots, Los Angeles
June, 1943 Navy sailors stationed in L.A. & Long Beach VS. Mexican American “Zoot Suiters”

77 2. Riots in Los Angeles Mob of Servicemen Look for and beat
“Zoot Suiters” Lasted 10 days

78 Zoot Suit Riots Riots ended when Military declared Downtown L.A.
“Out of bounds” for servicemen

79 As A Result of WWII… Impact of our Modern World…

80 1. Two World Powers Emerge
United States And… The Soviet Union

81 2. Marshall Plan is Established
1948 “Economic Recovery Act” U.S. Plan to re-build + re-construct European countries Western Europe accepts help = growth & prosperity Eastern Europe…does not

82 3. United Nations is Formed
Founded 1945 Focus: 1. international law 2. international security 3.economic development 4. social progress 5. human rights

83 4. The Nation of Israel UN Partition Plan Divides Palestine into
Jewish & Arab states Conflict remains to this day

84 5. Eventually Leads to Berlin Wall
Berlin, Germany divided amongst Allies Soviet Union demands removal of Westerners from Berlin Builds wall 1961 East Germans cut off from rest of the world

85 Berlin Wall Falls ,1989

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