3Axis and Allies Plan Strategy The attack on Pearl Harbor brought America into World War IIBritish pilots kept a Nazi invasion from their island and U.S. Navy halted the Japanese at the Battle of Coral SeaAxis Powers did not have a unified effort, Hitler wanted to dominate Europe, Mussolini dreamed of an Italian empire, whileTojo wanted to control the Western pacific and Asia
4Cont.…The Allies shared more unified goals, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin considered Germany the most dangerous enemy due to their resourcesThe allies adopted a “Europe First” policy giving the Pacific a secondary front label
5Turning the Tide in Europe America struck with its “arsenal of democracy.” We produced millions of tons of guns, tanks, and other supplies
6Allies Battle U-Boats in the Atlantic The issue was not production but delivery!“Wolf Packs” of German U-boats patrolled the Atlantic and Caribbean sinking more than 3,500 merchant ships and killing tens of thousands of Allied seamanBy 1943, radar, long-range bombers, convoys, and depth charges began to sink U-boats faster than Germany could manufacture them
7Soviets Turn Back Nazis at Stalingrad Germany attacked Russia in June Leningrad and Moscow and Stalingrad were their objectivesThe Soviets fought back fiercely and theRussian winter stopped the GermanadvancementsHitler began to concentrate on theCaucasus oil fields, but Stalingradlay in the way, this was the turningpoint for the war in Europe
8Allies Drive Germans Out of North Africa The British had been fighting the Germans and Italians in North Africa since 1940Stalin wanted the U.S. and Britain to relieve the Soviet Union by starting a second frontOctober 1942 the British won a major victory at El Alamein in Egypt
9Cont.…Dwight Eisenhower – know as Ike, commanded the allied invasion of North AfricaFebruary 1943, German general Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox) led his men to break through the American lines to Algeria, America soldiers fought back and Rommel was forced to retreat. (supplies)George S. Patton, Jr. – an innovative tankcommander, known as Blood and Guts
10Increasing the Pressure on Germany Germany was now on the defensive, in 1943 Roosevelt and Churchill met in Casablanca, Morocco, they first agreed to increase bombing of Germany and invade ItalyThen FDR demanded that Germany must only accept and unconditional surrender
11Allies Invade ItalyThe Allied forces began their invasion of Italy through Sicily and then drove the Axis troops north.The 38 day campaign resulted in the control of western Mediterranean and the eventual surrender of Italy on September 3rd 1943
12Cont…Mussolini was eventually driven to a mountaintop fortress, where Hitler had to send a small German airborne force to rescue himHitler later made him a puppet head of state in northern Italy
13Cont…The invasion of Italy was a slow because of the terain and rivers, rain and snowTanks and artillery became useless and mules were used to carry supplies
14Bombers Batter Germany Saturation Bombing – inflict maximum damageStrategic Bombing – goal to destroy Germany’s capacity to make war
15Cont.…Tuskegee Airmen – played a key role in the campaign escorting bombers over enemy territory in Europe
16Turning the Tide in the Pacific The “Europe First” strategy did not mean the Pacific theater was left on checked! Though the Japanese seemed unstoppable as they swept through American, British, and Dutch colonies along with the Philippines, Malaya, Dutch East Indies, Hong Kong, Wake Island, Guam and Burma
17Turning Point: Americans Triumph at Midway Admiral Yamamoto, commander of Japanese forces in the pacific knew the U.S. Navy was wounded in Pearl Harbor the U.S. carrier fleet was still a threat
18Cont…Admiral Chester Nimitz – commander of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific knew of Yamamoto’s plans thanks to Navy code breakersTo stop the threat the Japanese posed the U.S. controlled Hawaiian Islands and Aleutians islands off the coast of Alaska Nimitz sent an intercept force to stop him at Midway
22Why it matters…The war effort stirred patriotism and promoted economic recovery while testing civil liberties, and offering new opportunities for women and minorities
23New Economic Opportunities American companies were able to quickly refit to war time productionWith the male work force exhausted women soon filled the gaps, eventually make up on third of the workforce
24Women Work for VictoryWartime pressures created two breaks from women in traditional workforce jobsHeavy Industry, and Marriage ¾ working in wartime industry were married
25African Americans Demand Fair Employment Many African American leaders hoped the war would change the employment opportunities for blacks in America, though jobs provided by the government and military remained segregated“Double V” campaign – victory against fascism abroad, and discrimination at homeA. Philip Randolph – charismatic labor leader asserted that African Americans would no longer accept second-class citizenship
26Cont.…Executive Order 8802 – assured fair hiring practices in any job funded with government money and established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to enforce these requirements
27Workers on the MoveWartime needs encouraged migration as people moved in search of workCalifornia’s population increased by 2 million residents while cities such as Detroit, Gary, and Chicago boomed
28The Population Starts to Shift To lessen the rural population drain, the U.S. partnered with Mexico to operate the bracero program, bringing laborers from Mexico, eventually several hundred thousand migrated to the U.S.
29Migration Triggers Conflict In 1943 wartime migration led to racial violence, the worst was in Detroit, Michigan. Riots erupted with 34 deaths. Housing for blacks was at the root of the eruption.
30Cont.…Los Angeles also saw rioting in 1943 against the “zooters” or Mexican American youths dressed in baggy pants and long jackets. Police arrested the victims and not the attackers
31A Challenge to Civil Liberties The Pearl Harbor attack caused fear across the U.S.The Federal government drafted policies against those immigrants for Axis nations, they were fingerprinted and registered and list affiliations
32Aliens Face Restrictions German, Italian, and Japanese aliens were subject to arrest or deportation if deemed dangerous to national securityCamps, curfews or travel restriction were place on Germans and Italians until FDR removed the restrictionsJapanese aliens and citizens were believe to inherently disloyal
33Cont.…With Executive Order 9066 FDR designated areas as war zones from which anyone might be removed for any reason100,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the west coastLack of political clout, smaller numbers, and racism attributed to the main movementsbut not in Hawaii were one thirdof the population were JapaneseAmericans
34Japanese Americans Are Interned Internment – temporary imprisonment of members of specific group (Primary Source pg. 477)Korematsu v. United States – the Supreme Court upheld the governments wartime policy (1988) pg. 479422nd Regimental Combat Team – fought in the Italian campaign and became the most decorated military unit in American history
35Supporting the War Effort The war cost $330 billion which was double the amount of money the U.S. had spent since the founding of the nationThe national debt went from $42billion to $269billionTaxes and war bonds helped to cover some of the costs?
36The Government Manages the Economy Increased war production led to a shortages in consumer products with increase pricesRationing – coupon books were issued that limited the amount of certain goods, such as butter, tires, gas etc.....
37Media Boosts MoraleOffice of War Information (OWI) – worked closely with the media to encourage support of the war effort
39Why it MattersIn 1942 and 1943, the Allies turned back the Axis advances. The U.S. attacked Germany from the west and east and began to advance across the Pacific
40Planning Germany’s Defeat Up until 1943 the Soviet troops had taken on the brunt of the fighting in EuropeRoosevelt, Churchill and Stalin debated the role of whom would start the second front Churchill recalled the slaughter of British troops in WWI and wanted to ensure the troops would be well trained and supplied
41Cont…FDR sided with Stalin and Churchill reluctantly agreed to make a cross-channel invasionAfter years of war the Brits and Americans would start their march to push back Hitler starting in France, six months later “Operation Overlord” was a reality (Primary Source pg. 483)
42D-Day Invasion of Normandy Overlord involved the most experienced Allied officers in Europe, General Dwight D. Eisenhower served as Supreme Commandeer while British General Bernard Montgomery served as commander of the ground forces
43Eisenhower Plans the Invasion Overlord involved landing 21 American divisions and 26 British, Canadian, and polish divisions along a 50 mile stretch of beaches in Normandy. The fleet was the largest ever assembled with more then 4,400 ships and landing craftPatton was put in charge of an elaborate “paper army” to make the Germans think the Allies would cross the channel from Calais
45Heroes Storm the Beaches June 6th 1944 is known as D-Day11,000 planes were used destroy German communication and transportation networksMost of the landings were lightly opposed but at Omaha one of the Americans two beaches the Germans offered strong defensives
47Liberation of EuropeAfter D-Day, Germany faced a hopeless two-front warLittle by little Soviet soldiers forced Germany to retreat back through lands they once overrode, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary, losing not only land but natural resources
48Allies AdvanceIn 1944 the Allies liberated Paris, Hitler had ordered his generals to destroy the French Capital, but they disobeyed himAs a feeling of hopelessness fell over Germany, Rommel and other leading generals plotted to overthrow Hitler, on July 20th 1944 a bomb was planted at his headquarters but Hitler survived
49Germany Counterattacks In December 1944 Hitler ordered a counter attack at ArdennesThe counterattack was known as Battle of the Bulge, the Allies were caught by surprise and bad weather kept them from using their air superiorityAt Bastogne a small Belgian town, Americans forces held despite frostbite and brutal German assaults
50Allies Push to VictoryBy January the Soviet Army had reached the Oder River outside BerlinThe Allies had advanced through Italy, Mussolini tried to flee to Switzerland but was captured and executedThe U.S. and British had crossed the Rhine River into Germany
51Cont…Hitler by now was a physical wreck: shaken by tremors, paranoid from drugs and kept alive by dreams of victoryOn April 30 he and a few of his closest associates committed suicideOn May 7th in France Germany surrendered and America celebrated V-E day, FDR died just weeks beforeHarry S. Truman – would see the nation through to the end of the war
53Advancing in the Pacific While the war was still playing out in Europe the American forces in the Pacific were leaping forwardIsland Hopping – strategy, capturing some Japanese-held islands and ignoring others in a steady path toward Japan
54Japanese Troops Fight to the Death Each island the American forces took they meet unbelievable struggle, Japanese defenders fought to the last manKamikaze - pilots deliberately crashed their planes into American ships (3,000 Japanese airman by the end of the war)MacArthur was able to retake the Philippines
55American Forces Near Japan One of the fiercest battles in the island hopping campaign took place on Iwo Jima, a 5 mile-long island36 days of fighting with 23,000 marines casualties
56Cont…On Okinawa 340 miles from Japan it tooke half a million troops and 1,213 warships and 50,000 casualtiesWith this airbase U.S. B-29 bombers could now reach Japanese factories, military bases and cities
57The Atomic Bomb Ends the War Advances in technology, made planes faster, bombs deadlier, and weapons more accurate, along with the atomic bomb
58The Manhattan Project Develops the A-Bomb Albert Einstein – signed a letter that alerted FDR abouth the need to proceed with atomic developmentManhattan Project - cost billions of dollars and employed tens of thousandsJ. Robert Oppenheimer – was responsiblefor building facilities, acquiring the materialsand recruiting scientist and providing security(Hindu poem: “Now I am become Death, thedestroyer of Worlds”)
59Truman Makes His Decision The decision to use the bomb fell directly on Truman, there was the ethical issue, civilians… would it save lives?Truman’s advisors thought an invasion of Japan might cost 1,000,000 American lives
60Hiroshima and Nagasaki are Destroyed On August 6th 1945 the first of two atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima (Primary Source pg. 491)Within two minutes 60,000 were dead or missing in HiroshimaOn August 9th the Soviets declared war against Japan and the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, killing 35,000On September 2nd Japan officially surrendered aboard the USS Missouri
63Roots of the HolocaustHolocaust – Nazi attempt to kill all Jews under their control.Anti-Semitism – prejudice and discrimination against Jewish peopleNuremberg Laws – denied German citizenship to Jews, banned marriage between Jews and non-Jews, and segregated Jews in all aspects of societyHitler hinted to the future and the “Final Solution”
65Roots of the Holocaust Cont… Kristallnacht (KRIHS tahl nacht) – “Night of the Broken Glass,” secret police and military units destroyed more than 1,500 synagogues and 7,500 Jewish-owned businesses, killed 200 and injured 600 more
66Jewish Refugees Face Obstacles Between 1933 and 1937, about 129, Jews fled Germany and Nazi-controlled Austria. Notably Albert Einstein.More would have left but most countries did not want them!1939 ocean liner St. Louis, was turned away with 900 Jews on board 600 later died in concentration camps
67Nazis Adopt the “Final Solution” Concentration camps – camps used by the Nazis to imprison “undesirable” members of societyLabor leaders, Socialists, communists, journalists, novelists, ministers, priests, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, beggars, drunkards, conscientious objectors, physically disabled, mentally ill
68Millions Are Murdered in Death Camps Death Camps – where prisoners were systematically exterminated
69The Allies and the Holocaust Early response was weak: immigration policies, Great Depression, underestimate Hitler's genocidal plansAmerican government takes action in 1942 by acknowledging that Jews were being taken to Poland and killedWar Refugee Board – worked with the Red Cross to save thousands of Eastern European Jews
74Allies Set Postwar Goals The US was forever changed by WWII, many were determined to extend the ideals of democracy and we became a vital player in world affairs.The Germans and Japanese fought WWII to the bitter end.
75Allies Make Plans at Yalta Yalta Conference – the Big Three – Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed that Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania would hold free election. Stalin later reneged on this promise.
76Truman Faces Stalin at Potsdam While in Potsdam, Germany, Truman learned of the successful test of the atomic bomb. The Big Three formalized the decision to divide Germany into four zones, US, Soviet, British and French. Stalin also agreed to enter the war against Japan.
77A New World Takes ShapeThe differences between the Soviet Union and its former Allies led to the division of Germany into two countries; communist East and noncommunist West Germany.Civil resumed in China between the Nationalists and communistsGeneral Douglas MacArthur supervised the rebuilding of Japan; new constitution, abolished armed forces except for defense, women could vote, democratic reforms, and economic recovery.
78Imperialism Goes Into Decline The aggressive acquisition of territories by Japan and Germany underscored the abuses of imperialism. After WWII Colonialism began to decline
79The Balance of Power Shifts The US and Soviet Union emerged from the war confident and strong, they became known as superpowers because of this strength. The US was clearly stronger because no major battles had been fought on its land except for Pearl Harbor.
80International Cooperation General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) – a 1948 treaty designed to expand world trade by reducing tariffs.United Nations (UN) – an organization that many hoped would succeed where the League of Nations had failed. In 1945 delegates from 50 nations met in San Fran to write a charter and later moved the UN to N.Y.
81Cont.Universal Declaration of Human Right – 1948 (Primary Source pg. 501)
82War Criminal Go on Trial Geneva Convention – an international agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war.Nuremberg Trials – the Allies prosecuted Nazis for war crimes, showed the glaring evils of the Third Reich.“I was following orders”