Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Learning about English"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 7 Learning about English Text AThe Glorious Messiness of English
2 Objectives To grasp the main idea and structure of the text To understand some idiomatic English usages mentioned in the unitTo know about the history of EnglishTo master key languages points and grammatical structures in the text
3 Pre-reading tasks Listen to the recorded passage and answer the following questions:What is the passage about?What examples are given to illustrate the messiness of the English language?Are you sure of all the idiomatic usages listed below?
4 Pre-reading tasks--- do you know these idiomatic usages? ship by truck / send cargo by shipnoses that run / feet that smella slim/fat chancea wise guy / a wise manoverlook / overseehot / cold as hellburn up / burn downfill in a form / fill out a formgo off / go on
5 Pre-reading tasks Suggested answers: English is a great language, but it is a crazy language.There is no egg in eggplant, neither pine or apple in pineapple and no ham in a hamburger.3. Omitted. (Refer to page 307 or consult dictionaries for better understanding of the idioms mentioned in the passage.)
7 Messiness of English Sweetmeats are __________. candy Sweetbreads are __________.People drive on a ___________.People ________ on a driveway.candymeatparkwaypark
8 Messiness of English visible invisible start end When stars are out they are ________.When lights are out they are _________.I wind up my watch to ________ it.I wind up my speech to ________it.visibleinvisiblestartend
9 Messiness of EnglishFor example, a group of letters that is pronounced one way in one word cannot be depended on to be pronounced the same way in other words."-ough-""thought," "though," "through," and "enough"
10 Introductory remarks As we discover from the previous exercise, an English word may have multiple meanings.Likewise, several different words may bepronounced in the same way. For example, Iknew a student who, upon hearing the title ofHelen Keller’s famous essay Three Days to See,translated it into 《海边三日》. Considered inthis perspective, English is really messy.However, according to Text A, this is also amajor merit of English.
11 Text organization --- switch in tense Scan the first sentence of each paragraph in the text to find out where the present tense is switched to the past tense and where the present tense is resumed.Para 4 How did the language of a small island off the coast of Europe become the language of the planet…?Para 17 That tolerance for change also represents deeply rooted ideas of freedom.
12 Text organization --- grasping the main idea(Ex.1, P.214) Paras1-3 Massive borrowing from other languages is a major feature of the English language.Paras4-16 Tells about the history of the English language from the Indo- European parent language to modern English.Paras17- Tolerance, love of freedom,19 and respect for the rights of others --- these qualities in the English-speaking people explain the richness of their language.
13 Cultural Notes--- History of English The roots of EnglishEnglish began as awest Germanic languagewhich was brought toEngland by the Saxonsaround 400 A.D. OldEnglish was the spokenand written language ofEngland between 400 and1100 A.D.
15 Cultural Notes--- History of English Many words used today come from OldEnglish, including man, woman, king,mother, etc. But Old English was verydifferent from modern English and only afew words can be easily recognized.In the 9th and 10th centuries, whenVikings invaded England, Old Norse words,e.g. sky, take and get and many placenames, entered the language.
16 Cultural Notes--- History of English From the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 12th century English was replaced as the official language by Norman French, though English was still used by the lower classes.
17 Cultural Notes--- History of English English from about 1300 to 1500 isknown as Middle English. It was influencedby French and also Latin in vocabulary andpronunciation. French brought many wordsconnected with government, e.g. sovereign,royal, court, legal and government itself.Latin was the language of religion andlearning and gave to English words such asminister, angel, master, school and grammar.
18 Cultural Notes--- History of English Literature beganagain to be writtenin English duringthis period. One ofthe most famousMiddle Englishworks is Chaucer’sThe CanterburyTales.
19 Cultural Notes--- History of English The development of Modern EnglishModern English developed from the MiddleEnglish dialect of the East Midlands and wasinfluenced by the English used in London, where aprinting press was set up by William Caxton in 1476.English changed a great deal from this time until theend of the 18th century.During the Renaissance, many words wereintroduced from Greek and Latin to express new ideas,especially in science, medicine and philosophy. Theyinclude physics, species, encyclopedia and hypothesis.
20 Cultural Notes--- History of English In the 16th centuryseveral versions of the Biblehelped bring written Englishto ordinary people. TheElizabethan period is alsofamous for its drama, andShakespeare’s plays wereseen by many people.
21 Cultural Notes--- History of English By the 18th century American Englishwas established and developingindependently from British English. Aftercolonists arrived in the US new words beganto be added from Native Americanlanguages, and from French and Spanish.
22 Cultural Notes--- History of English 20th century EnglishDuring the 19th and early 20th centurymany dictionaries and books about languagewere published. New words are still beingadded to English from other languages,including Chinese (fengshui) and Japanese(karaoke). Existing words gain new senses,and new expressions spread quickly throughtelevision and the Internet.
23 Cultural Notes--- History of English English is now an international languageand is used as a means of communicationbetween people from many countries. As aresult the influences on the Englishlanguage are wider than ever and it ispossible that World English will move awayfrom using a British or American standardand establish its own international identity.
25 Cultural Notes---Viking Viking: A member of a people fromScandinavia who attacked parts of northern andwestern Europe, including Britain and Ireland, inthe 8th to 11th centuries. In Britain they were alsoknown as Norsemen. They settled on the Scottishislands and in areas of eastern England, and theDanish king Canute ruled England from 1016.The Vikings were feared as violent and cruel,but they were also noted for their skill in buildingships and as sailors. They had an importantinfluence on English culture and the Englishlanguage.
26 Cultural Notes---Norse Norse: the official language ofNorway. Old Norse was the Germaniclanguage of Norway and its coloniesdown to the 14th century. It is theancestor of the Scandinavianlanguages and is most clearlypreserved in the saga literatureof Iceland.
28 Cultural Notes---Norman Norman: any of the people from Normandyin northern France who settled in England aftertheir leader William defeated the English king atthe Battle of Hastings in The Normans tookcontrol of the country, a process known as theNorman Conquest. They used many of theexisting Anglo-Saxon methods of government ofthe state and the church, but added importantaspects of their own and made government muchmore effective. The language of governmentbecame first Latin, and then Norman French, andthis caused many new words to be added to theexisting English language.
29 Cultural Notes--- Julius Caesar Julius Caesar (100-44BC):the best-known of all theancient Roman leaders,and the first one to land inBritain with an army. He did thistwice, in 55 and 54 BC,although Britain did not becomepart of the Roman Empire untilnearly a hundred years later.
30 Cultural Notes--- William Caxton William Caxton (c ): theman who set up the first printing firm inBritain. He printed his first book in Byprinting books in English, Caxton had astrong influence on the spelling anddevelopment of the language. Many of thebooks he published were French storieswhich he translated himself.
31 Cultural Notes--- Winston Churchill 1965): a politician who isremembered as one ofBritain’s greatest statesman.He was the son of theConservative politician LordRandolph Churchill and hisAmerican wife Jennie. As ayoung man he served as asoldier in India and Egypt,
32 Cultural Notes--- Winston Churchill and as a journalist in South Africa, beforeentering politics.Churchill became Prime Minister andMinister of Defence in His radiospeeches during World War II gave theBritish people a strong determination to winthe war, especially at times of great crisis.Examples of Churchill’s phrases still oftenquoted today are “I have nothing to offerbut blood, toil, tears and sweat”, and “This
33 Cultural Notes--- Winston Churchill was their finest hour”.The Conservative Party led by Churchilllost the election of 1945, but he becamePrime Minister again from 1951 to 1955when he retired, aged 80. When he died inJan.1965 he was given a state funeral.
34 Cultural Notes--- Otto Jesperson Otto Jespersen ( ): Danishphilologist, grammarian, and educationist.He promoted the used of the “direct method”in language teaching with the publication ofhis theoretical work How to Teach a ForeignLanguage (1904). Other books include hisseven-volume Modern English Grammar( ).
35 Language study corrupt (L7): cause errors to appear in -- The Academy ruled that such foreign expressions were not permitted, as they ~ed the language.cause to act dishonestly in return for personal gains-- To gain more profits, the businessman tried every means to ~ the officials in the local government.-- _________________ ~ed Hu Changqing.Power and wealth
36 Language study ban (L8) vt. forbid (sth.) officially ~ sth. ~ sb. from sth. / doing sth.-- Spitting/Smoking is banned in all public places.-- Tom was banned from driving for six months after being caught speeding again.n.~ on sth.-- There is a ban on spitting/smoking in all public…-- Tom received a ban on driving…
37 Language study invent (L9): make or design (sth. that has not existed before); create (sth.)-- Linus Torvalds invented Linux at the age of twenty one.give (a name, reason, etc. that doesn’t exist or is not true)这部小说中的人物都是杜撰出来的。All the characters in the novel are ~ed.Cf.: invent, discover
38 Language study tolerance (15): (followed by of/for) the quality of allowing other people to say and do as they like, even if you don’t agree or approve of it我认为学生之间相互包容尤其必要，因为他们生活和学习都在一起。--I think ~ between students is extremely necessary since they live and study together.他是个极为宽容的人。-- He is a man of great tolerance.
39 Language study the ability to bear sth. painful or unpleasant --Human beings have limited ~ to/of noise.-- People have no ~ for _______.(social injustice, terrorism)zero-tolerance-- People have zero-tolerance for spitting.(violence/corruption)
40 Language study establish (L49): cause to be, set up -- The bank helps people wanting to ~ their business.place or settle sb./oneself in a position, an office, etc.~ sb./oneself as-- They are rapidly ~ing themselves as the market leader.
41 Grammatical structures …so they invent a word, balladeur, which French kids are supposed to say instead… (L9-10)be supposed to :If something is supposed to be done, it should be done because of a rule, instruction, or custom.--You are supposed to report it to the police as soon as possible.我不该跟你谈这件事。--I’m not supposed to talk to you about this.( Refer to pp for more practice.)
42 Post-reading tasks --- identifying important historical events in the development of English Scan paras 4 – 16 and find out events thathave had a great impact on the formation oftoday’s English.Paras 4-9The introduction of the Indo-European language --- ________ language of EnglishParas 10-11____________ came to settle in Britain and brought Anglo-Saxon words --- Old Englishthe parentGermanic tribes
43 Post-reading tasks --- identifying important historical events in the development of English Para 12The Christian religion enriched English with words from _____________Para 13__________ from Scandinavia came with words from ____________Para 14__________________ – French influenceGreek and LatinThe VikingsOld NorseThe Norman Conquest
44 The American revolution Post-reading tasks identifying important historical events in the development of EnglishPara 15The European __________________ and ________________ brought many new words from Latin and GreekPara 16____________________ --- the emergence of a new variety --- American EnglishRenaissancethe printing pressThe American revolution
45 Post-reading tasks--- Rhetorical devices Oxymoron(矛盾修辞法)An oxymoron puts two contradictory terms together to puzzle the reader, luring him/her to pause and explore why. The title “ The Glorious Messiness of English” is one good example.Can you think of another example?a living death / tearful joy
46 Post-reading tasks --- interpretation of the title How do you understand the title The Glorious Messiness of English? How does the author define it in the text?Hint: (Para 3)That happy tolerance, that willingness to accept words from anywhere, explains the richness of English and why it has become, to a very real extent, the first truly global language. (L15-17)
48 Post-reading tasks--- essay questions What do you think has made English “the first truly global language”?How do you understand Jespersen’s remark “The English language would not have been what it is if the English had not been for centuries great respecters of the liberties of each individual…”? Give reasons.
49 Remember to --- SEE YOU! review the text bring your listening book for class next weekget prepared for your quiz on extensive reading.SEE YOU!