www.winstonchurchill.org Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill grew up as the son of a British noble. He attended private school from age of seven, and entered Harrow in 1888. He was not impressed with his education. Later he entered Sandhurst Royal Military College in 1893 after three attempts to pass the entrance test. He joined the army in 1895.
He was elected to the House of Commons （下议院） as a Conservative in 1900. Then he joined the Liberal Party and became the President of the Board of Trade （贸易大 臣） in 1904.He served as Under Secretary of State for the Colonies （殖民部次官） from 1906 to 1908.He served in the military in France during World War I. He was Secretary of State for War （陆军大 臣） from 1918 to 1921 and Chancellor of the Exchequer （财政大臣） from 1924 to 1929.When World War II broke out, he was nominated as First Lord Of Admiralty （海军大臣）.
He was Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1955, and his widely regarded as Britain ’ s greatest 20th- century statesman. Besides this, he is also a prolific historical writer, and his most famous works are The World Crisis, My early Life, Marlborough, The Second World War, and A History of the English- speaking People. He was knighted for his great contribution to Britain and was awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953 for his The Second World War.
The Art of Public Speaking Types of speeches: Speaking to inform/persuade/ on special occasions/in small groups Elements of public speaking: Speaker / Message/ Channel/ Listener / Feedback/ Interference/ situation Methods: Reading from manuscript/ Reciting from memory/ Speaking impromptu/ Speaking extemporaneously
Text structure Part 1 (para 1) opening remarks in which Churchill summarized the great events that had happened in the world with Great Britain in particular and then talked about the purpose of his visit---to encourage the whole nation to fight against the Nazis.
Text structure Part II (para2-5) it is the body of the speech in which he analyzed the world situation and how other countries looked at Britain and then called on the Britain people not to give in.
Text structure Part III( para6-8) It is the closing remarks in which, by changing a word in the additional verse of the school song, he expressed his conviction that this nation was determined to fight for the victory of this great war.
Paragraph one What was Churchill ’ s intention of singing some of their song? http://www.harrowschool.org.uk/html http://www.harrowschool.org.uk/html Forty years on Not less we praise in darker days/ The leader of our nation/ And Churchill ’ s name shall win acclaim / From each new generation/ For you have power in danger ’ s hour/ Our freedom to defend, Sir!/Though long the fight we know that right/ Will triumph in the end, Sir!
At the initial stage of the Second World War, Great Britain was fighting in isolation against Nazi Fascist. Some British people doubted whether their nation could win the war with their own efforts. Churchill wanted to convey the conviction of the government to the British people through these songs and encourage them not to give in.
Language points Catastrophic: catastrophic hypothesis 灾变说 A potentially catastrophic situation 可能引发严重灾难的形势
A catastrophic illness. 一场灾难性的疾病 A decisive or catastrophic conflict. 决定性的或大规模的战争 Be certain that you are not underinsured against catastrophic illness. 一定要为大病办理充足的保险
Menace: threat(en) vi. Two men menaced him with weapons and forced him to give up his money. menace with one's fist clenched.
n. He spoke with menace in his voice. A careless driver is a menace to all road users. military menace
lull :break calm hush intermission lapse letup pause quiet recess respite rest silence stillnessbreakcalmhushintermissionlapse letuppausequietrecessrespiterest silencestillness vt., vi.(into) The monotonous voice of the movement of the train lulled me to sleep. The wind lulled.
address :abode greeting home speechabodegreetinghomespeech n. home address an address of welcome a man of pleasing address pay one's addresses to a lady
vt. address a meeting address the ball How shall I address you? If your friend did something wrong, you should always address a warning to him.
I have the honor of introducing to you Mr. Smith, who will address you on his recent tour abroad. The letter was addressed to the wrong house. He addressed himself to the task of doing his homework. He addressed her with high compliment.
Liquidate: put an end to; abolish or kill The government made every effort to stabilize the economy by -ting the national debt. Hitler tried to liquidate the Jews in Germany.
Sponge Vt. sponge the mud spots off the car sponge drink Vi. sponge on one's friends
Flinch:cringe draw back recoil shrinkcringedraw backrecoilshrink vi. flinch from danger n. gun flinch
Compliment:commend congratulate flatter praisecommendcongratulateflatter praise n. Your presence is a great compliment. A sincere compliment boosts one's morale. A free sample is enclosed with the compliments of the manufacturer.
Stern: austere exacting firm hard harsh severe strict stringentaustereexactingfirmhard harshseverestrictstringent a stern teacher a stern taskmaster
phrases& expressions Para 1 1.Ups and downs : A mixture of good things and bad things Eg: Sitting beside the window, he recalled the ~ of his parenthood. The organization has experienced ~since it was founded in 1999.
2.the very great improvement: the better armament of the British forces and assistance from the United States 3.position: situation at a particular time Eg: It is time those companies relvealed more about their financial ~. The soccer team is going to be in a very difficult ~if nothing particular shows up.
4.the unmeasured menace of the enemy: the immense or incalculable threat or danger of the enemy attack 5 ….there has been this long lull … : There has been no progress of the war in such a long quiet period
Para2-5 1.What is short and sharp and what is long and tough: difficulties and hardships of any kind, imminent or distant, temporary or long-lasting 2.Noble chance of war: impressive opportunities of war
3.throw our minds back to our meeting here ten months ago: recollecting our meeting at Harrow School ten months ago 4.Apperances are often very deceptive: misleading
5.Meet with: Experience; undergo Eg: Attempts to find civilian volunteers have met with embarrassing failure. Efforts to put the Russian space programme into market have met with little success.
6 … imagination makes things out far worse … : What one imagines leads to be worse than reality … make out: see or understand
7.Pray to be given that extra courage to carry this far-reaching imagination: wish to be equipped with excessive courage to accomplish or realize this effective and influential blueprint
8.convictions of honour and good sense: strong beliefs in honour and good judgement of duty and justice 9.Never yield to the apparently overwhelming might of the enemy: never give in or surrender to the seemingly strong enemy
10.our account was closed … : we were completely defeated by the enemy troops 11. Very different is the mood today. How other nations view Britain and how the British people think and feel about the war is quite different today from ten months ago.
12.Britain … had drawn a sponge across her slate. Britain … was completely wiped out. 13 ….our country stood in the gap. our country shouldered the responsibility in isolation 14 ….we have only to persevere to conquer. We have no choice but to hold on until victory comes.
Para6-8 1.The extra verse written in my honour: Not less we praise in darker days The leader of our nation And Churchill ’ s name shall win acclaim From each new generation For you have power in danger ’ s hour Our freedom to defeat, Sir! Though long the fight we know that right Will triumph in the end, Sir!
2.Each of us according to our stations: Each of us according to our social positions.