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THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashes a terrible new weapon, the atomic.

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Presentation on theme: "THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashes a terrible new weapon, the atomic."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashes a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb.

2 Learning Objectives: The War in the Pacific 1. Identify key turning points in the war in the Pacific. 2. Describe the Allied offensive against the Japanese. 3. Explain both the development of the atomic bomb and debates about its use. 4. Describe the challenges faced by the Allies in building a just and lasting peace.

3 NEXT The Allies Stem the Japanese Tide Japanese Advances In first 6 months after Pearl Harbor, Japan conquers empire Gen. Douglas MacArthur leads Allied forces in Philippines March 1942 U.S., Filipino troops trapped on Bataan Peninsula FDR orders MacArthur to leave; thousands of troops remain The War in the Pacific 3 SECTION Doolittle’s Raid April 1942, Lt. Col. James Doolittle leads raid on Tokyo Continued...

4 SECTION 3: THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC The Americans did not celebrate long, as Japan was busy conquering an empire that dwarfed Hitler’s Third Reich Japan had conquered much of southeast Asia including the Dutch East Indies, Guam, and most of China

5 Chapter 17 Section 2 Section 3 MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS A – In what ways were the American victory at Midway and the Japanese triumph at Pearl Harbor alike? –Both were surprise naval attacks that resulted in substantial destruction of the Japanese fleet.

6 NEXT continued The Allies Stem the Japanese Tide Battle of the Coral Sea May 1942, U.S., Australian soldiers stop Japanese drive to Australia For first time since Pearl Harbor, Japanese invasion turned back 3 SECTION The Battle of Midway Admiral Chester Nimitz commands U.S. naval forces in Pacific Allies break Japanese code, win Battle of Midway, stop Japan again Allies advance island by island to Japan

7 BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA The main Allied forces in the Pacific were Americans and Australians In May 1942 they succeeded in stopping the Japanese drive toward Australia in the five-day Battle of the Coral Sea

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9 B – Why was the Battle of Leyte Gulf so crucial to the Allies? –The Battle was a disaster for the Japan. From then on, the Imperial Navy played only a minor role in the defense of Japan.

10 THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY Japan’s next thrust was toward Midway Island – a strategic Island northwest of Hawaii Admiral Chester Nimitz, the Commander of American Naval forces in the Pacific, moved to defend the Island The Americans won a decisive victory as their planes destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and 250 planes

11 NEXT 3 SECTION The Allied Offensive Allied offensive begins August 1942 in Guadalcanal October 1944, Allies converge on Leyte Island in Philippines - return of MacArthur The Allies Go on the Offensive The Japanese Defense Japan uses kamikaze attack—pilots crash bomb-laden planes into ships Battle of Leyte Gulf is a disaster for Japan - Imperial Navy severely damaged; plays minor role after Continued...

12 The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the war – soon the Allies were island hopping toward Japan

13 KAMIKAZE PILOTS ATTACK ALLIES The Americans continued leapfrogging across the Pacific toward Japan Japanese countered by employing a new tactic – Kamikaze (divine wind) attacks Pilots in small bomb- laden planes would crash into Allied ships In the Battle for the Philippines, 424 Kamikaze pilots sank 16 ships and damaged 80 more

14 The War in the Pacific Date and Place Leaders Involved What happened? Bataan;(Douglas) MacArthur; the Allies held out for four months against invading Japanese forces before abandoning the peninsula. Midway; (Chester W.) Nimitz; Americans turned back a Japanese invasion force headed for Hawaii. Guadalcanal:MacArthur;Americans dealt Japan its first defeat on land. Leyte Gulf:MacArthur;Americans retook the Philippines and dealt a devastating blow to the Japanese navy.

15 NEXT 3 SECTION Iwo Jima Iwo Jima critical as base from which planes can reach Japan 6,000 marines die taking island; of 20,700 Japanese, 200 survive continued The Allies Go on the Offensive The Battle for Okinawa April 1945 U.S. Marines invade Okinawa April–June: 7,600 U.S. troops, 110,000 Japanese die Allies fear invasion of Japan may mean 1.5 million Allied casualties

16 IWO JIMA General MacArthur and the Allies next turned to the Island of Iwo Jima The island was critical to the Allies as a base for an attack on Japan It was called the most heavily defended spot on earth Allied and Japanese forces suffered heavy casualties American soldiers plant the flag on the Island of Iwo Jima after their victory

17 THE BATTLE FOR OKINAWA In April 1945, U.S. marines invaded Okinawa The Japanese unleashed 1,900 Kamikaze attacks sinking 30 ships and killing 5,000 seamen Okinawa cost the Americans 7,600 marines and the Japanese 110,000 soldiers

18 INVADE JAPAN? After Okinawa, MacArthur predicted that a Normandy type amphibious invasion of Japan would result in 1,500,000 Allied deaths President Truman saw only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan... The loss of life at Iwo Jima and Okinawa convinced Allied leaders that an invasion of Japan was not the best idea Okinawa

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20 C – Why was Okinawa a significant island in the war in the Pacific? –It was the last island that stood between the Allies and a final assault on Japan. –The battle itself was a foretaste of what the Allies imagined the final invasion of Japan would be.

21 The War in the Pacific Date and Place Leaders InvolvedWhat happened? Iwo Jima:MacArthur;.in a fierce battle, the Allies took the island from Japan Okinawa:MacArthur;the Allies took the island from Japan. Tokyo Bay;Hirohito, MacArthur; Japan formally surrendered.

22 NEXT 3 SECTION The Manhattan Project J. Robert Oppenheimer is research director of Manhattan Project July 1945, atomic bomb tested in New Mexico desert President Truman orders military to drop 2 atomic bombs on Japan The Atomic Bomb Ends the War Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 6, Hiroshima, major military center, destroyed by bomb 3 days later, bomb dropped on city of Nagasaki September 2, 1945 Japan surrenders

23 ATOMIC BOMB DEVELOPED Japan had a huge army that would defend every inch of the Japanese mainland So Truman decided to use a powerful new weapon developed by scientists working on the Manhattan Project – the Atomic Bomb

24 U.S. DROPS TWO ATOMIC BOMBS ON JAPAN Truman warned Japan in late July 1945 that without a immediate Japanese surrender, it faced “prompt and utter destruction” On August 6 (Hiroshima) and August 9 (Nagasaki) a B-29 bomber dropped Atomic Bombs on Japan The plane and crew that dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan

25 August 6, 1945 HIROSHIMA

26 August 9, 1945 NAGASAKI

27 JAPAN SURRENDERS At the White House, President Harry Truman announces the Japanese surrender, August 14, 1945 Japan surrendered days after the second atomic bomb was dropped General MacArthur said, “Today the guns are silent. The skies no longer rain death...the entire world is quietly at peace.”

28 The War in the Pacific The Science War Date and PlaceLeaders InvolvedWhat happened? Los Alamos; (J. Robert) Oppenheimer; the first atomic bomb was built, successfully completing Manhattan Project. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Truman;first atomic bombs were dropped.

29 NEXT 3 SECTION The Yalta Conference February 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in Yalta - discuss post-war world FDR, Churchill concession: temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe; will fight Japan FDR gets support for conference to establish United Nations Rebuilding Begins Human Costs of the War WW II most destructive war in human history Continued...

30 THE YALTA CONFERENCE In February 1945, as the Allies pushed toward victory in Europe, an ailing FDR met with Churchill and Stalin at the Black Sea resort of Yalta in the USSR A series of compromises were worked out concerning postwar Europe (L to R) Churchill, FDR and Stalin at Yalta

31 YALTA AGREEMENTS 1) They agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupied zones after the war 2) Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe 3) Stalin agreed to help the U.S. in the war against Japan and to join the United Nations

32 E – What decisions did Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin make at the Yalta Conference? –They agreed to a temporary division of Germany into four zones; –Stalin promised that the Soviet occupied Eastern European countries would have free elections; –Stalin agreed to defeat Japan; –Stalin agreed to establish the United Nations.

33 NEXT 3 SECTION The Nuremberg War Trials Nuremberg trials — 24 Nazi leaders tried, sentenced - charged with crimes against humanity, against the peace, war crimes Establish principle that people responsible for own actions in war continued Rebuilding Begins The Occupation of Japan MacArthur commands U.S. occupation forces in Japan Over 1,100 Japanese tried, sentenced MacArthur reshapes Japan’s economy, government

34 D – Why was Roosevelt anxious to make concessions to Stalin concerning the fate of Postwar Germany? –FDR wanted Soviet help in the war against Japan; –He also wanted soviet cooperation in establishing the United Nations.

35 NUREMBERG WAR TRIALS The discovery of Hitler’s death camps led the Allies to put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against the peace, and war crimes The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany “I was only following orders” was not an acceptable defense as 12 of the 24 were sentenced to death and the others to life in prison Herman Goering, Hitler's right-hand man and chief architect of the German war effort, testifies at his trial. He was found guilty of war crimes but avoided execution by swallowing potassium cyanide.

36 THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN Japan was occupied by U.S. forces under the command of General MacArthur During the seven- year occupation, MacArthur reshaped Japan’s economy by introducing free-market practices that led to a remarkable economic recovery Additionally, he introduced a liberal constitution that to this day is called the MacArthur Constitution

37 The War in the Pacific Planning and Rebuilding for Peace Date and PlaceLeaders InvolvedWhat happened? Yalta:Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill; at the Yalta Conference, Allied leaders made important decisions about the postwar world. San Francisco:N/AUnited Nations (UN) established Nuremberg:Jackson;at the Nuremberg trials, Nazi leaders were tried for wartime crimes


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