Presentation on theme: "THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II"— Presentation transcript:
1THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashes a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb.
2Learning Objectives: The War in the Pacific 1. Identify key turning points in the war in the Pacific.2. Describe the Allied offensive against the Japanese.3. Explain both the development of the atomic bomb and debates about its use.4. Describe the challenges faced by the Allies in building a just and lasting peace.
3The War in the Pacific The Allies Stem the Japanese Tide 3SECTIONThe War in the PacificThe Allies Stem the Japanese TideJapanese AdvancesIn first 6 months after Pearl Harbor, Japan conquers empireGen. Douglas MacArthur leads Allied forces in PhilippinesMarch 1942 U.S., Filipino troops trapped on Bataan PeninsulaFDR orders MacArthur to leave; thousands of troops remainDoolittle’s RaidApril 1942, Lt. Col. James Doolittle leads raid on TokyoContinued . . .NEXT
4SECTION 3: THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC The Americans did not celebrate long, as Japan was busy conquering an empire that dwarfed Hitler’s Third ReichJapan had conquered much of southeast Asia including the Dutch East Indies, Guam, and most of China
5Chapter 17 Section 2 Section 3 MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS A – In what ways were the American victory at Midway and the Japanese triumph at Pearl Harbor alike?Both were surprise naval attacks that resulted in substantial destruction of the Japanese fleet.
6Battle of the Coral Sea The Battle of Midway 3 SECTIONcontinued The Allies Stem the Japanese TideBattle of the Coral SeaMay 1942, U.S., Australian soldiers stop Japanese drive to AustraliaFor first time since Pearl Harbor, Japanese invasion turned backThe Battle of MidwayAdmiral Chester Nimitz commands U.S. naval forces in PacificAllies break Japanese code, win Battle of Midway, stop Japan againAllies advance island by island to JapanNEXT
7BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEAThe main Allied forces in the Pacific were Americans and AustraliansIn May 1942 they succeeded in stopping the Japanese drive toward Australia in the five-day Battle of the Coral Sea
9B – Why was the Battle of Leyte Gulf so crucial to the Allies? The Battle was a disaster for the Japan. From then on, the Imperial Navy played only a minor role in the defense of Japan.
10THE BATTLE OF MIDWAYJapan’s next thrust was toward Midway Island – a strategic Island northwest of HawaiiAdmiral Chester Nimitz, the Commander of American Naval forces in the Pacific, moved to defend the IslandThe Americans won a decisive victory as their planes destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and 250 planes
11The Allies Go on the Offensive 3SECTIONThe Allies Go on the OffensiveThe Allied OffensiveAllied offensive begins August 1942 in GuadalcanalOctober 1944, Allies converge on Leyte Island in Philippines- return of MacArthurThe Japanese DefenseJapan uses kamikaze attack—pilots crash bomb-laden planes into shipsBattle of Leyte Gulf is a disaster for Japan- Imperial Navy severely damaged; plays minor role afterContinued . . .NEXT
12The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the war – soon the Allies were island hopping toward Japan
13KAMIKAZE PILOTS ATTACK ALLIES The Americans continued leapfrogging across the Pacific toward JapanJapanese countered by employing a new tactic – Kamikaze (divine wind) attacksPilots in small bomb-laden planes would crash into Allied shipsIn the Battle for the Philippines, 424 Kamikaze pilots sank 16 ships and damaged 80 more
14The War in the Pacific The War in the Pacific Date and Place Leaders InvolvedWhat happened?Bataan;(Douglas) MacArthur;the Allies held out for four months against invading Japanese forces before abandoning the peninsula.Midway;(Chester W.) Nimitz;Americans turned back a Japanese invasion force headed for Hawaii.Guadalcanal:MacArthur;Americans dealt Japan its first defeat on land.Leyte Gulf:Americans retook the Philippines and dealt a devastating blow to the Japanese navy.
15Iwo Jima The Battle for Okinawa 3 SECTIONcontinued The Allies Go on the OffensiveIwo JimaIwo Jima critical as base from which planes can reach Japan6,000 marines die taking island; of 20,700 Japanese, 200 surviveThe Battle for OkinawaApril 1945 U.S. Marines invade OkinawaApril–June: 7,600 U.S. troops, 110,000 Japanese dieAllies fear invasion of Japan may mean 1.5 million Allied casualtiesNEXT
16IWO JIMAGeneral MacArthur and the Allies next turned to the Island of Iwo JimaThe island was critical to the Allies as a base for an attack on JapanIt was called the most heavily defended spot on earthAllied and Japanese forces suffered heavy casualtiesAmerican soldiers plant the flag on the Island of Iwo Jima after their victory
17THE BATTLE FOR OKINAWA In April 1945, U.S. marines invaded Okinawa The Japanese unleashed 1,900 Kamikaze attacks sinking 30 ships and killing 5,000 seamenOkinawa cost the Americans 7,600 marines and the Japanese 110,000 soldiers
18INVADE JAPAN?After Okinawa, MacArthur predicted that a Normandy type amphibious invasion of Japan would result in 1,500,000 Allied deathsPresident Truman saw only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan . . .OkinawaThe loss of life at Iwo Jima and Okinawa convinced Allied leaders that an invasion of Japan was not the best idea
20C – Why was Okinawa a significant island in the war in the Pacific? It was the last island that stood between the Allies and a final assault on Japan.The battle itself was a foretaste of what the Allies imagined the final invasion of Japan would be.
21The War in the Pacific The War in the Pacific Date and Place Leaders InvolvedWhat happened?Iwo Jima:MacArthur;.in a fierce battle, the Allies took the island from JapanOkinawa:MacArthur;the Allies took the island from Japan.Tokyo Bay;Hirohito, MacArthur;Japan formally surrendered.
22The Atomic Bomb Ends the War 3SECTIONThe Atomic Bomb Ends the WarThe Manhattan Project• J. Robert Oppenheimer is research director of Manhattan Project• July 1945, atomic bomb tested in New Mexico desert• President Truman orders military to drop 2 atomic bombs on JapanHiroshima and NagasakiAugust 6, Hiroshima, major military center, destroyed by bomb3 days later, bomb dropped on city of NagasakiSeptember 2, 1945 Japan surrendersNEXT
23ATOMIC BOMB DEVELOPEDJapan had a huge army that would defend every inch of the Japanese mainlandSo Truman decided to use a powerful new weapon developed by scientists working on the Manhattan Project – the Atomic Bomb
24U.S. DROPS TWO ATOMIC BOMBS ON JAPAN Truman warned Japan in late July that without a immediate Japanese surrender, it faced “prompt and utter destruction”On August 6 (Hiroshima) and August 9 (Nagasaki) a B-29 bomber dropped Atomic Bombs on JapanThe plane and crew that dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan
27JAPAN SURRENDERSJapan surrendered days after the second atomic bomb was droppedGeneral MacArthur said, “Today the guns are silent. The skies no longer rain death . . .the entire world is quietly at peace.”At the White House, President Harry Truman announces the Japanese surrender, August 14, 1945
28The War in the Pacific The Science War Date and Place Leaders Involved What happened?Los Alamos;(J. Robert) Oppenheimer;the first atomic bomb was built, successfully completing Manhattan Project.Hiroshima and Nagasaki:Truman;first atomic bombs were dropped.
29Rebuilding Begins The Yalta Conference Human Costs of the War 3 SECTIONRebuilding BeginsThe Yalta ConferenceFebruary 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in Yalta- discuss post-war worldFDR, Churchill concession: temporarily divide Germany into 4 partsStalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe; will fight JapanFDR gets support for conference to establish United NationsHuman Costs of the WarWW II most destructive war in human historyContinued . . .NEXT
30(L to R) Churchill, FDR and Stalin at Yalta In February 1945, as the Allies pushed toward victory in Europe, an ailing FDR met with Churchill and Stalin at the Black Sea resort of Yalta in the USSRA series of compromises were worked out concerning postwar EuropeTHE YALTA CONFERENCE(L to R) Churchill, FDR and Stalin at Yalta
31YALTA AGREEMENTS1) They agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupied zones after the war2) Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe3) Stalin agreed to help the U.S. in the war against Japan and to join the United Nations
32E – What decisions did Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin make at the Yalta Conference? They agreed to a temporary division of Germany into four zones;Stalin promised that the Soviet occupied Eastern European countries would have free elections;Stalin agreed to defeat Japan;Stalin agreed to establish the United Nations.
33The Nuremberg War Trials 3SECTIONcontinued Rebuilding BeginsThe Nuremberg War Trials• Nuremberg trials—24 Nazi leaders tried, sentenced- charged with crimes against humanity, against the peace, war crimesEstablish principle that people responsible for own actions in warThe Occupation of JapanMacArthur commands U.S. occupation forces in JapanOver 1,100 Japanese tried, sentencedMacArthur reshapes Japan’s economy, governmentNEXT
34D – Why was Roosevelt anxious to make concessions to Stalin concerning the fate of Postwar Germany? FDR wanted Soviet help in the war against Japan;He also wanted soviet cooperation in establishing the United Nations.
35NUREMBERG WAR TRIALSHerman Goering, Hitler's right-hand man and chief architect of the German war effort, testifies at his trial. He was found guilty of war crimes but avoided execution by swallowing potassium cyanide.The discovery of Hitler’s death camps led the Allies to put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against the peace, and war crimesThe trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany“I was only following orders” was not an acceptable defense as 12 of the 24 were sentenced to death and the others to life in prison
36THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN Japan was occupied by U.S. forces under the command of General MacArthurDuring the seven- year occupation, MacArthur reshaped Japan’s economy by introducing free-market practices that led to a remarkable economic recoveryAdditionally, he introduced a liberal constitution that to this day is called the MacArthur Constitution
37Planning and Rebuilding for Peace The War in the PacificPlanning and Rebuilding for PeaceDate and PlaceLeaders InvolvedWhat happened?Yalta:Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill;at the Yalta Conference, Allied leaders made important decisions about the postwar world.San Francisco:N/AUnited Nations (UN) establishedNuremberg:Jackson;at the Nuremberg trials, Nazi leaders were tried for wartime crimes